Questions tagged [cosmology]

The study of the large-scale structure, history, and future of the universe. Cosmology is about asking and answering questions about the "big picture" - the extent, origin, and fate of everything we know.

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73 views

Motion without matter

Suppose you have a vacuum spacetime with non zero cosmological constant then you can show that two test particles will move toward each other or apart depending on whether it is negative or positive (...
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79 views

Evidence of possible tidal effects close to a gravitational wave emitting system

Currently we are attempting to detect gravitational wave emissions using the LIGO gravitational wave detection system (and similiar systems), by attempting to detect very weak gravitational waves ...
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280 views

Scale factor negative

Can the scale factor in a robertson-walker metric with k=0 (flat universe, with only matter, no cosmological constant or quintessence) depend on a polynomial function? For example: $a(t)=-t^3+4t^2-t+...
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127 views

Connection between the energy scale when inflation starts, ends, the inflaton mass and the reheating temperature?

Let's assume inflation starts at some energy scale $E_s$ and ends at $E_e$. Is there anything general (I know there are many inflation models) one can say about the inflaton mass and the reheating ...
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102 views

Singular isothermal density distribution

Does anyone know where the Singular isothermal density distribution $$ \rho(r)=\frac{\sigma_{V}^{2}}{2\pi\,G\,r^{2}} $$ or how it was derived. Are there any good references on how this equation was ...
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53 views

Any applications of kinetic physics on cosmological scales?

On galaxy cluster scales, one is usually forced to use approximate theories such as hydrodynamics or magnetohydrodynamics for modelling cosmological phenomena. I wanted to ask if kinetic theory is ...
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93 views

Meaning of $R(t)$ in FLRW metric

In the FLRW metric what is the meaning of $R(t)$ from a geometric point of view? And from a physical point of view? $$ds^2 = dt^2 - R^2(t) \left( \frac{d\bar r ^2}{1-\kappa \bar r^2} + \bar r ^2 d \...
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188 views

Implications of dark matter imprints on Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation?

Looking at this link, CMB Anisotropy, I have two questions regarding the possible creation and properties of dark matter: If dark matter has left it's imprint on the CMB, that to me, would imply ...
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982 views

Luminosity distance as a function of redshift

We know that the luminosity distance is: $d_L = a_0 R (1+z)$ with $z$ the redshift. How can we mathematically make explicit the dependence of $d_L$ from the redshift? I guess we need to make it ...
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1answer
104 views

Is our locally measured time actually conformal time?

The FRW metric at the origin $r=0$, with $c=1$, is given by: $$ds^2=-dt^2+a(t)^2dr^2$$ Now one can change variables so that near the origin the FRW metric is approximated by the Minkowski metric ...
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127 views

Linear Perturbation theory in General Relativity, what to do with products of derivatives?

I'm trying to do a problem in which I am given the Einstein tensor for the following metric: $$ ds^2 = -e^{2\Phi}(d{x^0})^2 + e^{2\Psi}\delta_{ij}dx^idx^j, $$ And then asked to find the Einstein ...
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136 views

Assuming the universe is finite, at some point, CMB should go away, right?

I'm not talking about gradual red-shifting, that happens slowly anyway, but with a universe of finite size, we should actually see Cosmic Background Radiation turn off in a sense, first at a point, ...
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104 views

Light speed after the Big Bang

We know that immediately after the Big Bang space was opaque to light. As space expanded, light could travel. However I would think that as space expanded at some de sites the light would be much ...
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38 views

Variable parameters in cosmology

Mainstream theories in cosmology assume that parameters like the speed of light $c$, and the gravitational constant $G$ are time-independent. Is there any evidence suggesting that this assumption is ...
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69 views

Graviational Lensing Data

Can anyone provide me with (or point me to) real life gravitational lensing data that I can plug in to the first equation on this page (the standard lensing equation): http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/...
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60 views

Covariant Fluid Flow approach

I am doing Cosmological perturbation. Currently reading a paper by Bruni et al. In that it is mentioned that they are using covariant fluid flow approach to cosmology. Can any body give me a rough ...
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88 views

Topological implications of symbolic represenation of the relativity

I have seen in the online Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy in the entry on Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics that Niels Bohr had argued that the theory of relativity is not a literal ...
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147 views

Center of mass & Big Bang Theory

I have read in my text books about the Big Bang theory and quote "the entire matter in the universe was once concentrated in a single very dense and hot fire ball; it exploded some 20 billion years ...
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50 views

How much would the orbit of the earth change if we launched all 'garbage' into outer space

I know it's not economically feasible, but is there a simple equation telling you the ellipse earth would follow if you theoretically launch all of the landfills, i.e. garbage, beyond our orbit, thus ...
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270 views

Eddington-LeMaitre model

I'm trying to solve Friedmann equations for $k=1 $ & $p=0$ (matter). These are equations: $$3(\dot{R}^2 +1)/R^2 -λ =8πGε$$ $$(2R\ddot{R}+\dot{R}^2 +1)/R^2 -λ=0$$ If we use $(\dot{R}^2 +1) /R^2$ ...
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104 views

Is it reasonable to assume that de Sitter temperature will stop growing when it reaches equilibrium with the temperature of CMB?

Is it reasonable to assume that de Sitter temperature will stop growing when it reaches equilibrium with the temperature of CMB? Currently the de Sitter temperature (the temperature of the Universe's ...
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167 views

What were the dimensions of the universe during Planck epoch?

Wikipedia says: It is believed that, due to the extraordinarily small scale of the universe at the time, quantum effects of gravity dominated physical interactions. But I wonder whether there ...
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151 views

Hubble's law for the Kasner solution

I'm puzzled with the following question: find an analog of the Hubble's law for the Kasner solution. Kasner metric is a solution to the vacuum Einstein equations $$ds^2=dt^2-\sum_{i=1}^3a^2_i(t)(dx^i)...
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61 views

Differential equation for speed relate to the homogeneous cosmological background in FLRW metric

How to derive DE for the speed (which relate to the homogeneous cosmological background) of the observer which moves with constant proper acceleration in spatially flat FLRW universe?
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36 views

Redshift Dependence in the Spatial Orientation of SDSS Galaxies having Redshift 0.19 to 0.20

Does redshift depend on the spatial orientation of SDSS galaxies with redshift in the range 0.19 to 0.20 ?
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132 views

What's the timescale until the Medium Crunch?

The future of the universe seems to be: clusters of galaxies drift apart due to space expansion until they all pass out of each other's cosmic event horizon. Gravitationally bound clusters overcome ...
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49 views

How does the CMB constrain the baryon asymmetry?

The CMB contains information about baryon acoustic oscillations in which baryons (I assume protons and electrons) and photons form a plasma exhibiting sound waves. How is information about the baryon ...
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2answers
57 views

Origin of electromagnetic radiation in the universe

I don't know if the total electromagnetic radiation in the universe is finite or not. But either way: what is the origin of the electromagnetic radiation in the universe? Can we say that all of it ...
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3answers
101 views

For how much longer will we able to see the light from the first stars?

Maybe I am all wrong, but if the first light from the stars was emitted around 13 billions years ago, it means it has been travelling this entire time through the expanding universe while being ...
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1answer
283 views

Distance and luminosity distance

In my cosmology lecture notes I read that a way to measure distances in cosmology is to use standard candles and the comparison between "absolute luminosity" of the candle and the apparent luminosity. ...
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1answer
535 views

Does the Casimir effect give the correct value for Dark Energy?

My understanding is that the Casimir Effect is caused by vacuum energy. Quantum mechanics (QED) predicts vacuum energy, but gets the value grossly wrong, by a factor of $10^{120}$. On the other hand, ...
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3answers
74 views

Thermal time hypothesis vs. cosmological time

How can Rovelli's thermal time hypothesis be consistent with the apparent existence of a privileged time in the sense of cosmology?
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1answer
874 views

What is the difference between a low vs. high entropy plasma just after and before a singularity occurs?

Although it appears that the universe is not closed (since it is accelerating) I have been reading different websites on how the universe would look like if it was closed and the big crunch did occur. ...
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2k views

Is antigravity (i.e. repulsive gravity) the source of accelerating expansion (dark energy)?

Is antigravity the source of accelerating expansion(dark energy)? From the observation of 1998, we found that our universe has been continuing accelerating expansion, and the unknown cause for this ...
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35 views

Is there any version of string theory or cosmic inflation that allows the most fundamental laws and constants change between universes?

String Theory and Cosmological Inflation are two theories or models that allow multiple universes to exist. Laws and constants of physics could change between one universe and another one. But the ...
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1answer
62 views

Why physics cannot affect cosmological modes whose wavelength is larger than the horizon?

I started to learn cosmology recently. Confused about this point in a book. The book is Modern Cosmology by Scott Dodelson. I am confused about this in Chapter 6 "The horizon grows as the scale ...
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1answer
46 views

Do cosmic voids have to exist to prevent gravitational collapse of the Universe?

Since a black hole radius is 2 times the mass, it seems like any infinite distribution of matter has to have voids of increasing size as the scale changes in order for the whole Universe not to ...
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1answer
150 views

How much has the universe expanded?

Expansion speed of universe is 68 km/sec, which is 1/4400 times the speed of light. From the big bang 13.7 billion years ago, the universe would have expanded a few hundred million light years at ...
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1answer
97 views

Light branes and swampland/landscape

Following a talk by Cumrum Vafa, I understood that light branes are important as he quoted the formula: $$m\sim \exp(-\alpha M/M_P)$$ and then, he stated that light massive particles AND extended ...
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1answer
75 views

Geometry of Big Bang

As you look at circle cross-sections around a sphere it's obvious that as you move the circles along the z-axis, the circles get bigger and smaller. When you're at the farthest points on the $z$-axis, ...
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2answers
150 views

Shape of the observable universe or Cosmic Horizon

My question is about the shape of the observable universe or Cosmic Horizon. In literature it is described as having a radius, constant. But in an accelerating expanding universe this seems ...
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3answers
61 views

Is the gravitational pull of the early ($10^{10}$ more massive) universe still observable?

During one of the early epochs of the universe it used to be 10^10 times more massive than it is now, just before the matter / antimatter annihilation. So what cosmic gravity is being asserted on the ...
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1answer
56 views

Rates of reaction and the expansion of the universe

In Moore, 2013 the following statement is given about reaction rates and the expansion of the universe (my wording): For a reaction to occur we need a rate corresponding to at least one reaction ...
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1answer
166 views

Finding equation for energy density of matter

I'm trying to get an equation for the energy density of matter of the universe $\rho(t)$, assuming the number of particles is conserved and rest mass energy is much greater than kinetic energy. $\rho(...
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1answer
152 views

Should Einstein's Field Equations be modified when using conformal time?

Let us consider the FRW metric for flat space expressed in terms of conformal time $\eta$ and cartesian spatial co-ordinates $x,y,z$: $$ds^2=a^2(\eta)\{d\eta^2-dx^2-dy^2-dz^2\}.$$ As in the standard ...
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1answer
372 views

Why we do not see beyond the cosmic horizon?

I've read that is because light hasn"t had time to reach us? Would it someday reach us and would we be able to see beyond the horizon?
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187 views

Nomenclature “Material System”

This is just a quick question about nomenclature from General Relativity. Most textbooks refer to "material systems"; 1) Does a material system have to be a system with mass? or can it just be a ...
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2answers
616 views

Most stationary object in the universe

There is an object in the universe for which the Sun appears to be more stationary as it travels through the universe than a star on some other system. There is probably another object for which both ...
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1answer
43 views

In the string theory multiverse, is every universe fated to collapse in a Big Crunch?

This is what I understand of the multiverse of the string landscape: the "laws of physics" reside in a 100-dimensional string landscape, which has ~$10^{500}$ minima. Each of the minima corresponds to ...
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2answers
119 views

Why Does the amount of gravitational potential energy in the universe increase as it expands?

Ok so this is my thought process... please bear with me I understand that as the universe expands, there is supposed formation of matter due to dark energy,and with an increase in mass comes and ...