Questions tagged [cosmic-rays]

Cosmic rays are highly energetic, charged particles (protons, alphas, electrons, etc, with energies ranging from $\sim10^9\text{ eV}$ to at least $10^{20}\text{ eV}$) from various galactic and extragalactic sources, that often interact with our atmosphere. Consider adding other tags to specify the origin you're interested in (i.e., solar or galactic).

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
0
votes
1answer
53 views

What can make nuclear radiation dosimeter increase $\rm 0.2μSv/h$ suddenly? [closed]

I got one nuclear radiation dosimeter, with national official verification certificate (legal effect). dosimeter specifics: Detector: Energy compensated GM counter tube Detectable species: Beta Gamma ...
3
votes
1answer
56 views

Measure cosmic ray pions and protons below surface of the Earth?

In my particle physics lecture, the prof asserted that apparently cosmic ray muons can still be measured 1km below the surface of the earth (e.g. in a mine). This led me to ask the following two ...
0
votes
0answers
21 views

Zenith angle dependence of muon flux from cosmic rays

I've been trying to understand this paper about zenith angle dependence of muon flux. In particular I want to understand where the equation $I(\theta)\approx I(0) \cos^2\theta$ comes from. The paper ...
1
vote
1answer
69 views

What is the acceleration rate of a neutrino? [closed]

I understand that photons do not have acceleration because they are massless. But what about neutrinos, which have been proven to have mass due to oscillation? Let's assume a typical Solar neutrino ...
1
vote
1answer
48 views

Did Victor Hess discover cosmic rays directly, or muons with his gold-leaf electroscope?

Most histories just mention cosmic rays themselves, but I also read that cosmic rays themselves rarely make it far into Earth's atmosphere, and it is usually muons, (or tauons or electrons) detected ...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

How to check the particle rate of $1\ m^{-2}.s^{-1}$ at an energy of $10^{12}\ TeV$ from the “Swordy plot”? [duplicate]

On this web page, we see the so-called "swordy plot" https://www.quantamagazine.org/ultrahigh-energy-cosmic-rays-traced-to-hotspot-20150514/ At an energy of $10^{12}\ eV=1\ TeV$, we read ...
2
votes
0answers
75 views

What is the current status or resolution of Greisen–Zatsepin–Kuzmin (GZK) cosmic-ray paradox?

The Greisen–Zatsepin–Kuzmin limit (GZK limit) is a theoretical upper limit on the energy of cosmic ray protons traveling from other galaxies through the intergalactic medium to our galaxy. A number of ...
1
vote
0answers
14 views

What happens to extra-galactic rays when they arrive at the solar system?

Quazars send baryons from other galaxies towards us which are deflected from by the local magnetosphere. The early solar system probably picked up many millions of extragalactic cosmic rays for every ...
1
vote
2answers
137 views

How do you convert between different units of particle flux?

Charts of particle flux tend to show the flux rate in units of particles per metre squared per second per steradian per MeV. I don't understand what the "per MeV" is referring to. How do I ...
1
vote
0answers
14 views

What happens when chemical elements are struck by cosmic rays?

When struck by cosmic rays, chemical elements in soils and rocks emit uniquely identifiable signatures of energy in the form of gamma rays. These data can help scientists look for geologically ...
1
vote
1answer
61 views

Radiation and windows for building of a great project in a low Earth orbit: reference request or exercise as a ficticious need to build it

I know about the existence of certain windows for which it is more suitable to launch a probe for the exploration of a cellestial body in our Solar System (see the Wikipedia Launch window). I wondered ...
1
vote
4answers
77 views

Could A Stray Radioactive Particle Collide With an Atom in a Human, Causing a Cascade?

I'm not thinking of even particles from a nuclear power-plant or man-made event. If a high-velocity highly-interacting particle made it through all the natural protections that keep life in a non-...
2
votes
1answer
154 views

Why is the GZK cutoff at such high energies?

Why is theGZK cutoff at such high energies? The threshold energy for Compton scattering is 0.511 MeV. But the inverse Compton scattering has a very high energy threshold. For example in ...
1
vote
1answer
110 views

The net charge of Earth

Shouldn't the earth have an over all small positive net charge? Cosmic rays in the form of light or high energy particles can ionize atoms, when that happens the electron and the positive ion recoils ...
0
votes
0answers
22 views

How much higher is muon flux at Earth's poles?

https://futurism.com/make-a-cosmic-ray-detector-at-home-and-test-relativity-2 This article states that the Earth's magnetic field funnels incoming muons towards the magnetic poles. Quantitatively, ...
0
votes
0answers
47 views

Why don't we see/feel charged particles, penetrating our brains/retina?

If we see tracks in bubble or Wilson chamber, it means that particles are everywhere and can leave tracks in gases and liquids. They can also penetrate concrete of the building levels in the lab. So ...
0
votes
0answers
33 views

Energy distribution of incoming muons from cosmic rays

I believe there has been research done which provides data on the kinetic energies of muons which result from incoming cosmic rays. I'm looking for a graph of counts (vertical axis) vs. kinetic energy ...
1
vote
1answer
126 views

Shouldn't cosmic rays slow down Earth's movement around the Sun?

Maybe a dumb question. Are cosmic rays slowing down earth's (or any planets) movement around the sun? To me it sounds like an analogy of moving a mass through air and being slowed down by the impact ...
5
votes
1answer
126 views

Why the geomagnetic field become stronger when solar wind is stronger?

The following description is from the webpage of Niels Bohr Institue's Former Centre for Ice and Climate The Earth reacts to the solar wind by increasing the strength of the shielding magnetic ...
1
vote
2answers
145 views

What affects the propagation of secondary cosmic rays?

Primary cosmic rays produce, upon entering the Earth's atmosphere, a whole load of secondary particles. These primary particles are necessarily stable particles such as protons, electrons, and ...
0
votes
0answers
47 views

Do space-borne cosmic ray experiments publish all-particle spectra?

I was trying to gather data to produce my own cosmic ray (CR) spectrum plot. I have relied on this very useful French database collecting past space-based CR measurements. If I try to insert the ...
4
votes
2answers
140 views

Does an atom or proton (cosmic ray) get stretched when traveling through expanding space?

I have read this question: Why does space expansion not expand matter? I do understand that matter inside galaxies will not get stretched because inside galaxies, gravity dominates over dark energy. ...
1
vote
0answers
42 views

Galactic or Extra-galactic Cosmic Rays?

If we want to show whether or not a specific Cosmic Ray particle is confined to our galaxy we must use the Larmor radius (relativistic version), $$r = \gamma \, \frac{ m c}{q B}$$ Considering a $10^...
4
votes
1answer
602 views

What exactly is delta-14C and why are there periodic plateaus in the delta-14C curve?

I downloaded the IntCal13, IntCal09, and IntCal04 datasets (parent site), and when I plotted the last 24k years was surprised to see a plateau or even reversal appear every ~5300 years. Apparently we ...
1
vote
2answers
176 views

What is the difference between an interaction and a decay in particle physics?

While studying secondary cosmic rays, I have encountered sentences like: Charged pions and kaons can either initiate further interactions or decay. or Because of the low area density at large ...
4
votes
1answer
76 views

Why are neutrino flavors equal to 1:1:1 after a long travel?

Neutrinos produced in the interaction of very high energy cosmic rays with the CMB are produced in the proportion $\nu_\mu:\nu_e:\nu_\tau=2:1:0$ because of the decays produced after the cosmic ray ...
4
votes
2answers
175 views

A good reference on cosmic ray?

I am looking for a good reference on cosmic ray, both galactic and solar. Does anyone have any suggestion? I'm looking for a reference that covers the production and propagation of cosmic rays in a ...
0
votes
1answer
29 views

What are SEP events in this article?

I am studying this paper; at page 5 it says: The occurrence of SEP events with fluences larger than the saturation limit was estimated to be less tha n one per year for the period the LPF ...
1
vote
1answer
198 views

What is the product of a proton interacting with the CMB?

Assuming the CMB is at 2.7 K, if a proton interacts with it, what would be the particles resulting of this collision? I read that at the GZK cut-off (~$10^{21}$ eV), there is photo-pion production, ...
1
vote
1answer
128 views

Where do ultrahigh-energy particles come from? [duplicate]

The most energetic particles that strike us from space, which include neutrinos as well as gamma-ray photons and various other bits of subatomic shrapnel, i.e the cosmic rays are sometimes so ...
1
vote
1answer
514 views

What is the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) cutoff and why does it happen?

I was just wondering, what is the GZK cutoff point and why does it happen? Some say it is some sort of 'lattice' in the universe; https://www.google.ie/amp/s/io9.gizmodo.com/5950543/physicists-say-...
1
vote
1answer
377 views

What is cosmic ray albedo neutron decay (CRAND)?

I need a small description of what is cosmic ray albedo neutron decay (CRAND), where it comes from and what effects they have?
1
vote
1answer
447 views

TV snow and Big Bang

How come the white and black snow we see sometimes on TV is a result of the Big Bang? (the cosmic radiation) I meant the random dot pixel pattern of static in TVs, when there is no signal.
1
vote
0answers
153 views

Cloud Chamber not showing [closed]

I am trying to build a thermoelectric cloud chamber, it’s not showing any trails with a alpha source or cosmic rays. The only thing I see is alcohol vapour (small white dots). Using 99% isopropyl ...
1
vote
2answers
236 views

Cosmic ray shielding for electronics on Earth

There are plenty of topics discussing cosmic ray shielding, but they all put emphasis on spacecraft shielding, where things like radiation and mass are a big problem. So I decided to ask a question ...
0
votes
1answer
65 views

Higgs boson in space!

Given the fact that the Higgs-like boson has an invariant mass of about 125GeV, could we detect Higgses from Outer Space as we detect photons, neutrinos, protons or cosmic rays? As the Space is the ...
-1
votes
1answer
199 views

Can cosmic rays show interference?

I read that interference in seen in waves with similar frequency, so if interference is possible for cosmic rays then wouldn't we need another cosmic ray to see this effect? If interference is ...
0
votes
0answers
38 views

Why can't we see particle tracks in clouds or dense fog? [duplicate]

We can see the tracks of charged particles in a cloud chamber. According to Wikipedia "A cloud chamber consists of a sealed environment containing a supersaturated vapor of water or alcohol". Also, in ...
22
votes
1answer
1k views

How come I never see cosmic rays in steam like they appear in a cloud chamber?

I just put like half a cup of water in a mason jar and put that in the microwave and accidentally left it in there for to long and it got boiling hot, then when I took it out and let it cool of course ...
1
vote
1answer
55 views

Why are there more trapped protons during solar minima?

Reading about trapped protons and eletrons in van Allen belts, I get the understanding that the number of trapped electrons increase during a solar maximum (which I find logical because we have more ...
2
votes
1answer
127 views

Is the CMB present in an artificial shielded vacuum?

I see the wiki page of cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation says it is "present in all space"; I wonder, if I build a vacuum box with sufficient shielding, say a box with thick metal walls, and ...
2
votes
1answer
141 views

Measuring energy of muons with a calorimeter

As far as I know, the energy of muons can't be measured with the normal calorimeters that they measure the energy of other particles such as electrons, and it's due to its mass, it doesn't radiate, so ...
2
votes
3answers
178 views

Supersymmetry particles from cosmic rays

The positron was first discovered in cosmic ray debris. Some cosmic ray protons have millions of times the energy that the LHC can achieve. If supersymmetry particles exist, could they be created ...
10
votes
3answers
2k views

Why do cosmic rays slow down when passing through the CMB?

When cosmic rays pass through space, they slow down. But why? The energy of the photons that hit these particles couldn't just be transferred to it, making it go even faster? In other words: Why ...
0
votes
1answer
65 views

Knee in cosmic ray spectrum

I was going through a research paper explaining the possible reasons for origin of knee in the cosmic ray spectrum. I came across this statement "nuclei-initiated showers have smaller fluctuations in ...
5
votes
1answer
207 views

Cosmic Ray Detection | Florescent Light Bulbs

Main: Can cosmic rays be detected through florescent bulbs? Can you push an AC current through a florescent lightbulb tube and measure the current draw and voltage spikes to detect cosmic rays? Is ...
2
votes
2answers
312 views

Did Wilson use his cloud chamber to study cosmic rays?

I notice that Wilson invented his could chamber in 1911 and Hess discovered cosmic rays in 1912. So, did Wilson use his chamber to study cosmic rays or did Hess do so? Today, it is easy to detect ...
1
vote
1answer
135 views

Radon or cosmic ray?

My student constructed a cloud chamber to detect the background radiation. It is very simple and efficient. But the question is, is the radiation mostly from the Radon gas or the cosmic ray? See ...
3
votes
1answer
178 views

Random directions of the trajectories in a cloud chamber

It is easy to construct a home-made cloud chamber. In observation, one finds that the directions of the trajectories are quite random. Does this mean that all the particles detected are secondary ...
5
votes
1answer
194 views

Why are neutrons preferred for measuring cosmic flux (Forbush decreases)?

I see (I asked this question, today read Wikipedia's article on 'neutron monitor', and other stuff, they're always neutrons) that neutrons are the favourite secondary cosmic ray when studying Forbush ...