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Questions tagged [cosmic-rays]

Cosmic rays are highly energetic, charged particles (protons, alphas, electrons, etc, with energies ranging from $\sim10^9\text{ eV}$ to at least $10^{20}\text{ eV}$) from various galactic and extragalactic sources, that often interact with our atmosphere. Consider adding other tags to specify the origin you're interested in (i.e., solar or galactic).

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GZK Limit in the Far Future and interaction with Vacuum energy?

The GZK limit stops high energy protons from propagating long distances because of the interaction with the CMB. But as the universe ages the CMB will become more red shifted. Will this mean the the ...
EraserDriver's user avatar
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Energy Loss of protons travelling through gas

I wanted to calculated the energy loss of protons traveling through a gas medium such as helium and hydrogen.At energy range of about 10 Gev there should be two effects:1.Coulumb interaction,2....
Pshyco's user avatar
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Changing element and isotope ratio ratio in material in space

Suppose we have a satellite orbiting Earth with a component made of 6061 aluminium alloy. Would cosmic radiation cause the element and isotope ratio of the component to change in a clearly measurable ...
Lars Lau Raket's user avatar
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Notation of small $n$ in the production of muons in cosmic rays

I came across this page in the "Cosmic rays and particle physics" by Gaisser. I cannot find any explanation to the notation of $n$ (eqn. 6.8 and forward). Intuitively it should be something ...
sasssu's user avatar
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3 answers
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Is it possible to perceive a subatomic particle decay event with the naked eye? [closed]

The image above is to help illustrate what I observed, although in this image the line is grey, while what I saw was a bright white line. This question arises from an experience i had about two years ...
Tyler Sellman's user avatar
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Is there a way to simulate particle stopping stochastically, from a known $dE/dx$ curve?

I want to make a simulation of the stopping of Muons in liquid water that, instead of considering they lost exactly the amount of energy predicted by the $dE/dx$ curve at each iteration, sorts an ...
user2934303's user avatar
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1 answer
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Amaterasu particle's secondary particles travel faster than the speed of light?

From this article in The Guardian When ultra-high-energy cosmic rays hit Earth’s atmosphere, they initiate a cascade of secondary particles and electromagnetic radiation in what is known as an ...
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Can kink oscillations in supernovae magnetic fields accelerate cosmic ray protons beyond the GZK limit?

Kink oscillations in coronal magnetic loops may be heating the ions in the sun's corona up to 10 million K and beyond. Could such oscillations in supernova impart enough extra energy to protons to ...
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Solid state X-ray detector response to environmental background & cosmic radiation

I would like to know what exactly is the "ticking" sound produced when using solid state Unfors Survey detector, i.e., when it is connected to its Xi Base unit and turned "ON" in ...
Roadschollar50's user avatar
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Could two rotating binary neutron stars create massive cosmic rays if their magnetic fields overlapped and acted on a volume of gas?

The so-called GZK cosmic rays sometimes have an energy equivalent to a baseball moving at 30 m/s. The source of these rays has yet to be determined. Could 2 rotating neutron stars orbiting one ...
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Origin of correlated multi-muon events underground

The flux of muons underground (above ~10 km water equivalent) are primarily produced in the atmosphere by cosmic rays. There is an abundance of literature detailing the flux, spectrum, and angular ...
thegreatemu's user avatar
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Could the observed GZK limit exceeding cosmic rays be due to hawking radiation?

In this question here, it was asked whether a black hole could emit protons with energies exceeding the GZK limit via Hawking radiation, the answer given was yes. So I ask, what proportion if observed ...
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How localised in space versus momentum are particles from the Sun?

In quantum mechanics, unbound states will tend to spread out in space over time according to the Shrodinger equation. So it seems to me there is a degree of freedom for "wild" particles (i.e....
gxmw's user avatar
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What’s the most energetic particles that can theoretically reach the earth?

In recent years several ultra high energy cosmic ray events are observed on Earth. These particles carry energies way beyond even the most powerful particle accelerators we can realistically build. ...
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Quantitatively, how much would radiation levels increase without the geomagnetic field?

Many, many popular science articles claim that if the Earth didn't have a magnetic field, then the much higher concentration of cosmic rays that reached the surface would cause health damage to humans....
tparker's user avatar
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Could a Relativistic Rocket convert the heat of Doppler shifted Cosmic Background Radiation into usable energy? [closed]

This page on mathdept.ucr.edu about relativistic rockets states: As you approach the speed of light you will be heading into an increasingly energetic and intense bombardment of cosmic rays and other ...
Ben Warner's user avatar
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Impact of distance from galactic centre on the value of energy in the cosmic ray spectrum where knee is observed?

This question is based on the recommendation and great explanation by @Kyle_Kanos. Is it known what causes the "knee" in the observed Cosmic Ray spectrum? Accepting the reason for the ...
Gagan's user avatar
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Shock when a supernova explodes

I have been reading that when supernovae explode, they produce (Shockwaves) which act as cosmic accelerators. I do not understand, what is meant with "shock" (partially because I do not ...
Mad's user avatar
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Understanding the graph of cosmic rays flux

This graph is to be found in various Articles, Papers, and websites. I am trying to understand, what the "y axis" represent. Are they refering to electromagnetic Flux ? What is this unit ...
Mad's user avatar
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Confusion in proper length and how to use the formula of contraction of length

Suppose a muon particle (imagine it does not decay) is moving towards earth with velocity $v=0.998c$ from point M. Distance between earth and point M is 10km. Now, I want find the distance covered by ...
Isteak Ahamed Imon's user avatar
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What exactly is the "Yield Function" of a neutron monitor?

I have been reading papers related to the theoretical computation of a neutron monitor count rate, which is defined as the integral of the "yield function" of the specific neutron monitor ...
Oscar Batalla Cruz's user avatar
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How does the local zenith angle evolve as a function of atmospheric vertical depth?

From Gaisser's Cosmic Rays and Particle Physics (ed. 2016). I know $\theta$ and I have the vertical depths $X_{v}$. I want to solve for $X$ via a simple trigonometric relation. However, theta evolves ...
Fred's user avatar
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1 answer
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How does cosmic rays influence aerosol growth?

I have read about aerosol formation increasing due to ionisation but unable to understand what actually goes into the process? Can someone please explain how cosmic rays help in aerosol formation? ...
25 Simran Tiwari's user avatar
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3 answers
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Cosmic ray GZK limit calculation: subtleties with four-vectors

I'm considering an ultra-relativistic cosmic proton colliding with a CMB photon, creating a neutral pion, as depicted by this equation: $$\tag{1} p + \gamma \rightarrow p + \pi. $$ This process is ...
Cham's user avatar
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Energy and pressure relationship for cosmic rays [closed]

How to prove $E = 3P$ for cosmic rays? In other words $\gamma = \tfrac43$ for cosmic rays. Whereas for $\gamma=\tfrac53$ we have $E = \tfrac32 P$.
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How much energy does a cosmic ray lose before it hits a detector? [closed]

The origin of extremely high energy cosmic rays is still unclear, by my understanding. But say that they are produced by whatever local source does it: how much energy is lost to environmental effects ...
Diffycue's user avatar
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Solar modulation of cosmic rays

Whilst studying cosmic rays (CRs) and the influence of the sun on the intensity of the CRs, I read that solar modulation mainly affects low-energy CR-particles. Could someone maybe explain to me why ...
R3E1W4's user avatar
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Source spectral index

Whilst studying the propagation of cosmic rays (CRs) through our galaxy, I was comparing simulated data to data measured by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer 02. I am studying the proton flux within CRs ...
R3E1W4's user avatar
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1 answer
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On "cosmic flux" units

I've trouble understanding the following graph, taken from Wikipedia: It's supposed to show the cosmic ray flux vs particle energy. I've never seen a "flux" written in these units... Why ${...
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Are there any plans for cosmic ray detectors as part of the new ARTEMIS program?

NASA's new Artemis program involves building several temporary waypoints around and on the moon. One of the side-bonuses for scientists is that this has opened a few new funding avenues for studying ...
honeste_vivere's user avatar
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How are the other components related?

Often, the tensor of diffusion of cosmic rays in the inner heliosphere is given in terms of $k_{\parallel}$ and $k_\perp$, the coefficients of diffusion along and perpendicular to the magnetic field. ...
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What energy range is considered as a "high-energy" or "low energy" cosmic ray?

I have been studying cosmic ray muons lately, and I'm having trouble with making sense of all the eV values. What is the approxamate range (in eV) for "high-energy" and "low energy"...
Stern's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
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What is wrong with my cloud chamber? [closed]

Ive been trying to make a cloud chamber for a few days. I seem to have gotten most of the way there, but cant quite see any tracks, only mist. Im using isopropanol with cooling from salted water ice ...
DFined's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
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Why is interstellar cosmic radiation more energetic than radiation from our sun?

I just watched an interesting minidoc about cosmic radiation. The video, and other resources I've read afterward, explains that the most energetic cosmic radiation comes from supernovae and black ...
Pink Sweetener's user avatar
6 votes
2 answers
232 views

Why is space radiation mainly positively charged? Where are all the electrons?

I've heard that space radiation is mainly, overwhelmingly positively charged. Wikipedia (Cosmic ray - Composition) says ...about 99% are the bare nuclei of well-known atoms (stripped of their ...
Tim Cooper's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
171 views

Measure cosmic ray pions and protons below surface of the Earth?

In my particle physics lecture, the prof asserted that apparently cosmic ray muons can still be measured 1km below the surface of the earth (e.g. in a mine). This led me to ask the following two ...
Philippe Knecht's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
225 views

Is it theoretically possible for a proton to travel fast enough to destroy the Sun by virtue of its relativistic mass?

I realise this is a (slightly) nihilistic question but lock down and all... Is it possible to destroy the solar system by launching a proton at the sun at a speed approaching c (as seen in cern 0....
user106271's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
107 views

What is the acceleration rate of a neutrino? [closed]

I understand that photons do not have acceleration because they are massless. But what about neutrinos, which have been proven to have mass due to oscillation? Let's assume a typical Solar neutrino ...
iyuaeo's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
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Did Victor Hess discover cosmic rays directly, or muons with his gold-leaf electroscope?

Most histories just mention cosmic rays themselves, but I also read that cosmic rays themselves rarely make it far into Earth's atmosphere, and it is usually muons, (or tauons or electrons) detected ...
Kurt Hikes's user avatar
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How to check the particle rate of $1\ m^{-2}.s^{-1}$ at an energy of $10^{12}\ TeV$ from the "Swordy plot"? [duplicate]

On this web page, we see the so-called "swordy plot" https://www.quantamagazine.org/ultrahigh-energy-cosmic-rays-traced-to-hotspot-20150514/ At an energy of $10^{12}\ eV=1\ TeV$, we read ...
Mathieu Krisztian's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
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What is the current status or resolution of Greisen–Zatsepin–Kuzmin (GZK) cosmic-ray paradox?

The Greisen–Zatsepin–Kuzmin limit (GZK limit) is a theoretical upper limit on the energy of cosmic ray protons traveling from other galaxies through the intergalactic medium to our galaxy. A number of ...
ann marie cœur's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
47 views

What happens to extra-galactic rays when they arrive at the solar system?

Quazars send baryons from other galaxies towards us which are deflected from by the local magnetosphere. The early solar system probably picked up many millions of extragalactic cosmic rays for every ...
bandybabboon's user avatar
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3 votes
2 answers
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How do you convert between different units of particle flux?

Charts of particle flux tend to show the flux rate in units of particles per metre squared per second per steradian per MeV. I don't understand what the "per MeV" is referring to. How do I ...
joe_deniable's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
28 views

What happens when chemical elements are struck by cosmic rays?

When struck by cosmic rays, chemical elements in soils and rocks emit uniquely identifiable signatures of energy in the form of gamma rays. These data can help scientists look for geologically ...
DarkLumiere's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
99 views

Radiation and windows for building of a great project in a low Earth orbit: reference request or exercise as a ficticious need to build it

I know about the existence of certain windows for which it is more suitable to launch a probe for the exploration of a cellestial body in our Solar System (see the Wikipedia Launch window). I wondered ...
user250478's user avatar
1 vote
4 answers
90 views

Could A Stray Radioactive Particle Collide With an Atom in a Human, Causing a Cascade?

I'm not thinking of even particles from a nuclear power-plant or man-made event. If a high-velocity highly-interacting particle made it through all the natural protections that keep life in a non-...
Taylor Blackstone's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
458 views

Why is the GZK cutoff at such high energies?

Why is the GZK cutoff at such high energies? The threshold energy for Compton scattering is 0.511 MeV. But the inverse Compton scattering has a very high energy threshold. For example in ...
flammmes's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
209 views

The net charge of Earth

Shouldn't the earth have an over all small positive net charge? Cosmic rays in the form of light or high energy particles can ionize atoms, when that happens the electron and the positive ion recoils ...
Jorgen2108's user avatar
1 vote
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How much higher is muon flux at Earth's poles?

https://futurism.com/make-a-cosmic-ray-detector-at-home-and-test-relativity-2 This article states that the Earth's magnetic field funnels incoming muons towards the magnetic poles. Quantitatively, ...
DJG's user avatar
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Why don't we see/feel charged particles, penetrating our brains/retina?

If we see tracks in bubble or Wilson chamber, it means that particles are everywhere and can leave tracks in gases and liquids. They can also penetrate concrete of the building levels in the lab. So ...
Dims's user avatar
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