Questions tagged [cosmic-rays]

Cosmic rays are highly energetic, charged particles (protons, alphas, electrons, etc, with energies ranging from $\sim10^9\text{ eV}$ to at least $10^{20}\text{ eV}$) from various galactic and extragalactic sources, that often interact with our atmosphere. Consider adding other tags to specify the origin you're interested in (i.e., solar or galactic).

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What happens when chemical elements are struck by cosmic rays?

When struck by cosmic rays, chemical elements in soils and rocks emit uniquely identifiable signatures of energy in the form of gamma rays. These data can help scientists look for geologically ...
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Radiation and windows for building of a great project in a low Earth orbit: reference request or exercise as a ficticious need to build it

I know about the existence of certain windows for which it is more suitable to launch a probe for the exploration of a cellestial body in our Solar System (see the Wikipedia Launch window). I wondered ...
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Could A Stray Radioactive Particle Collide With an Atom in a Human, Causing a Cascade?

I'm not thinking of even particles from a nuclear power-plant or man-made event. If a high-velocity highly-interacting particle made it through all the natural protections that keep life in a non-...
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Large Electromagnetic Lens to Focus Cosmic Rays

Is it feasible to build an electromagnetic lens (such as but not limited to a toroidal wound solenoid) of large area (perhaps as large as the ring at the supercollider at CERN) to focus and intensify ...
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Why is the GZK cutoff at such high energies?

Why is theGZK cutoff at such high energies? The threshold energy for Compton scattering is 0.511 MeV. But the inverse Compton scattering has a very high energy threshold. For example in ...
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The net charge of Earth

Shouldn't the earth have an over all small positive net charge? Cosmic rays in the form of light or high energy particles can ionize atoms, when that happens the electron and the positive ion recoils ...
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How much higher is muon flux at Earth's poles?

https://futurism.com/make-a-cosmic-ray-detector-at-home-and-test-relativity-2 This article states that the Earth's magnetic field funnels incoming muons towards the magnetic poles. Quantitatively, ...
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Why don't we see/feel charged particles, penetrating our brains/retina?

If we see tracks in bubble or Wilson chamber, it means that particles are everywhere and can leave tracks in gases and liquids. They can also penetrate concrete of the building levels in the lab. So ...
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Energy distribution of incoming muons from cosmic rays

I believe there has been research done which provides data on the kinetic energies of muons which result from incoming cosmic rays. I'm looking for a graph of counts (vertical axis) vs. kinetic energy ...
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Shouldn't cosmic rays slow down Earth's movement around the Sun?

Maybe a dumb question. Are cosmic rays slowing down earth's (or any planets) movement around the sun? To me it sounds like an analogy of moving a mass through air and being slowed down by the impact ...
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Why the geomagnetic field become stronger when solar wind is stronger?

The following description is from the webpage of Niels Bohr Institue's Former Centre for Ice and Climate The Earth reacts to the solar wind by increasing the strength of the shielding magnetic ...
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What affects the propagation of secondary cosmic rays?

Primary cosmic rays produce, upon entering the Earth's atmosphere, a whole load of secondary particles. These primary particles are necessarily stable particles such as protons, electrons, and ...
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Do space-borne cosmic ray experiments publish all-particle spectra?

I was trying to gather data to produce my own cosmic ray (CR) spectrum plot. I have relied on this very useful French database collecting past space-based CR measurements. If I try to insert the ...
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Does an atom or proton (cosmic ray) get stretched when traveling through expanding space?

I have read this question: Why does space expansion not expand matter? I do understand that matter inside galaxies will not get stretched because inside galaxies, gravity dominates over dark energy. ...
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Galactic or Extra-galactic Cosmic Rays?

If we want to show whether or not a specific Cosmic Ray particle is confined to our galaxy we must use the Larmor radius (relativistic version), $$r = \gamma \, \frac{ m c}{q B}$$ Considering a $10^...
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What exactly is delta-14C and why are there periodic plateaus in the delta-14C curve?

I downloaded the IntCal13, IntCal09, and IntCal04 datasets (parent site), and when I plotted the last 24k years was surprised to see a plateau or even reversal appear every ~5300 years. Apparently we ...
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What is the difference between an interaction and a decay in particle physics?

While studying secondary cosmic rays, I have encountered sentences like: Charged pions and kaons can either initiate further interactions or decay. or Because of the low area density at large ...
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Why are neutrino flavors equal to 1:1:1 after a long travel?

Neutrinos produced in the interaction of very high energy cosmic rays with the CMB are produced in the proportion $\nu_\mu:\nu_e:\nu_\tau=2:1:0$ because of the decays produced after the cosmic ray ...
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A good reference on cosmic ray?

I am looking for a good reference on cosmic ray, both galactic and solar. Does anyone have any suggestion? I'm looking for a reference that covers the production and propagation of cosmic rays in a ...
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What are SEP events in this article?

I am studying this paper; at page 5 it says: The occurrence of SEP events with fluences larger than the saturation limit was estimated to be less tha n one per year for the period the LPF ...
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What is the product of a proton interacting with the CMB?

Assuming the CMB is at 2.7 K, if a proton interacts with it, what would be the particles resulting of this collision? I read that at the GZK cut-off (~$10^{21}$ eV), there is photo-pion production, ...
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Where do ultrahigh-energy particles come from? [duplicate]

The most energetic particles that strike us from space, which include neutrinos as well as gamma-ray photons and various other bits of subatomic shrapnel, i.e the cosmic rays are sometimes so ...
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What is the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) cutoff and why does it happen?

I was just wondering, what is the GZK cutoff point and why does it happen? Some say it is some sort of 'lattice' in the universe; https://www.google.ie/amp/s/io9.gizmodo.com/5950543/physicists-say-...
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What is cosmic ray albedo neutron decay (CRAND)?

I need a small description of what is cosmic ray albedo neutron decay (CRAND), where it comes from and what effects they have?
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TV snow and Big Bang

How come the white and black snow we see sometimes on TV is a result of the Big Bang? (the cosmic radiation) I meant the random dot pixel pattern of static in TVs, when there is no signal.
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Cloud Chamber not showing [closed]

I am trying to build a thermoelectric cloud chamber, it’s not showing any trails with a alpha source or cosmic rays. The only thing I see is alcohol vapour (small white dots). Using 99% isopropyl ...
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Cosmic ray shielding for electronics on Earth

There are plenty of topics discussing cosmic ray shielding, but they all put emphasis on spacecraft shielding, where things like radiation and mass are a big problem. So I decided to ask a question ...
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Higgs boson in space!

Given the fact that the Higgs-like boson has an invariant mass of about 125GeV, could we detect Higgses from Outer Space as we detect photons, neutrinos, protons or cosmic rays? As the Space is the ...
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Can cosmic rays show interference?

I read that interference in seen in waves with similar frequency, so if interference is possible for cosmic rays then wouldn't we need another cosmic ray to see this effect? If interference is ...
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Why can't we see particle tracks in clouds or dense fog? [duplicate]

We can see the tracks of charged particles in a cloud chamber. According to Wikipedia "A cloud chamber consists of a sealed environment containing a supersaturated vapor of water or alcohol". Also, in ...
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How come I never see cosmic rays in steam like they appear in a cloud chamber?

I just put like half a cup of water in a mason jar and put that in the microwave and accidentally left it in there for to long and it got boiling hot, then when I took it out and let it cool of course ...
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Calculation of energy required to deflect a beam of alpha particles at relativistic speeds

How should I get about calculating the energy of a Electromagnetic field required to deflect a beam of charged particles travelling at relativistic speed (Like a beam of cosmic rays)? The energy of ...
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Why are there more trapped protons during solar minima?

Reading about trapped protons and eletrons in van Allen belts, I get the understanding that the number of trapped electrons increase during a solar maximum (which I find logical because we have more ...
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Is the CMB present in an artificial shielded vacuum?

I see the wiki page of cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation says it is "present in all space"; I wonder, if I build a vacuum box with sufficient shielding, say a box with thick metal walls, and ...
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Measuring energy of muons with a calorimeter

As far as I know, the energy of muons can't be measured with the normal calorimeters that they measure the energy of other particles such as electrons, and it's due to its mass, it doesn't radiate, so ...
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Supersymmetry particles from cosmic rays

The positron was first discovered in cosmic ray debris. Some cosmic ray protons have millions of times the energy that the LHC can achieve. If supersymmetry particles exist, could they be created ...
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Why do cosmic rays slow down when passing through the CMB?

When cosmic rays pass through space, they slow down. But why? The energy of the photons that hit these particles couldn't just be transferred to it, making it go even faster? In other words: Why ...
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Knee in cosmic ray spectrum

I was going through a research paper explaining the possible reasons for origin of knee in the cosmic ray spectrum. I came across this statement "nuclei-initiated showers have smaller fluctuations in ...
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Cosmic Ray Detection | Florescent Light Bulbs

Main: Can cosmic rays be detected through florescent bulbs? Can you push an AC current through a florescent lightbulb tube and measure the current draw and voltage spikes to detect cosmic rays? Is ...
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Did Wilson use his cloud chamber to study cosmic rays?

I notice that Wilson invented his could chamber in 1911 and Hess discovered cosmic rays in 1912. So, did Wilson use his chamber to study cosmic rays or did Hess do so? Today, it is easy to detect ...
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Radon or cosmic ray?

My student constructed a cloud chamber to detect the background radiation. It is very simple and efficient. But the question is, is the radiation mostly from the Radon gas or the cosmic ray? See ...
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Random directions of the trajectories in a cloud chamber

It is easy to construct a home-made cloud chamber. In observation, one finds that the directions of the trajectories are quite random. Does this mean that all the particles detected are secondary ...
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Why are neutrons preferred for measuring cosmic flux (Forbush decreases)?

I see (I asked this question, today read Wikipedia's article on 'neutron monitor', and other stuff, they're always neutrons) that neutrons are the favourite secondary cosmic ray when studying Forbush ...
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Which material makes best radiator in Cherenkov detector?

What qualities of a radiator are important if I want to build a Cherenkov detector to detect muons? I don't know how to choose the most appropriate. Possibilities would include ice, water, maybe ...
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Global Random Bits from Nature

I would like to get a few random bits per day from nature (from chaotic physics, like rolling dice, or quantum physics, but not from cryptography) which Alice and Bob can measure independently from ...
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How does the 11-year solar cycle alter the cosmic ray flux?

Looking at a flux vs. time graph of secondary cosmic rays (e.g. from a neutron station: www.nmdb.eu/nest/search.php can plot you some. I just tried for example Moscow, from 14 Oct 1951 to today, ...
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Energy of single particles, measured in kelvin?

This page says cosmic photons have an energy of 2.78 kelvin, so how much energy would the particles that show up in a bubble chamber have?
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Supersymmetry particles in cosmic ray showers

Antimatter was first discovered in cosmic ray debris. Why haven't we found the heavy supersymmetry particles in cosmic ray debris?
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Given this graph from Wikipedia concerning the cosmogenic origin of each element, how are Lithium, Beryllium, and Boron formed from cosmic rays? [duplicate]

So I found this article from another answer, and it's math is way above me but the gist is that some elements heavier than Iron can form in a star, but this path is not the primary source of these ...
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Is it possible that cosmic ray particles and neutrinos account for a significant portion of dark matter?

Sounds a bit naive but I read somewhere that neutrinos were thought to account for dark matter to an extent and I think Zwicki came up with the idea before cosmic rays were announced (not sure though)....