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Questions tagged [cosmic-rays]

Cosmic rays are highly energetic, charged particles (protons, alphas, electrons, etc, with energies ranging from $\sim10^9\text{ eV}$ to at least $10^{20}\text{ eV}$) from various galactic and extragalactic sources, that often interact with our atmosphere. Consider adding other tags to specify the origin you're interested in (i.e., solar or galactic).

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What affects the propagation of secondary cosmic rays?

Primary cosmic rays produce, upon entering the Earth's atmosphere, a whole load of secondary particles. These primary particles are necessarily stable particles such as protons, electrons, and ...
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Can the spectrum of cosmic ray nucle (carbon,oxygen,boron) explain their source or origin? If possible how? [duplicate]

Can the spectrum of cosmic ray nuclei explain their origin? If possible how can you achieve that using the curve of flux against kinetic energy
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What are the physical explanations one can derive from determining the spectrum of cosmic ray nuclei of carbon, oxygen and boron

What are the physical explanations one can derive from determining the spectrum of cosmic Ray nuclei of carbon, oxygen and boron.
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Do space-borne cosmic ray experiments publish all-particle spectra?

I was trying to gather data to produce my own cosmic ray (CR) spectrum plot. I have relied on this very useful French database collecting past space-based CR measurements. If I try to insert the ...
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Does an atom or proton (cosmic ray) get stretched when traveling through expanding space?

I have read this question: Why does space expansion not expand matter? I do understand that matter inside galaxies will not get stretched because inside galaxies, gravity dominates over dark energy. ...
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Galactic or Extra-galactic Cosmic Rays?

If we want to show whether or not a specific Cosmic Ray particle is confined to our galaxy we must use the Larmor radius (relativistic version), $$r = \gamma \, \frac{ m c}{q B}$$ Considering a $10^...
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What exactly is delta-14C and why are there periodic plateaus in the delta-14C curve?

I downloaded the IntCal13, IntCal09, and IntCal04 datasets (parent site), and when I plotted the last 24k years was surprised to see a plateau or even reversal appear every ~5300 years. Apparently we ...
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What is the difference between an interaction and a decay in particle physics?

While studying secondary cosmic rays, I have encountered sentences like: Charged pions and kaons can either initiate further interactions or decay. or Because of the low area density at large ...
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Why are neutrino flavors equal to 1:1:1 after a long travel?

Neutrinos produced in the interaction of very high energy cosmic rays with the CMB are produced in the proportion $\nu_\mu:\nu_e:\nu_\tau=2:1:0$ because of the decays produced after the cosmic ray ...
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A good reference on cosmic ray?

I am looking for a good reference on cosmic ray, both galactic and solar. Does anyone have any suggestion? I'm looking for a reference that covers the production and propagation of cosmic rays in a ...
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What are SEP events in this article?

I am studying this paper; at page 5 it says: The occurrence of SEP events with fluences larger than the saturation limit was estimated to be less tha n one per year for the period the LPF ...
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1answer
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What is the product of a proton interacting with the CMB?

Assuming the CMB is at 2.7 K, if a proton interacts with it, what would be the particles resulting of this collision? I read that at the GZK cut-off (~$10^{21}$ eV), there is photo-pion production, ...
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Where do ultrahigh-energy particles come from? [duplicate]

The most energetic particles that strike us from space, which include neutrinos as well as gamma-ray photons and various other bits of subatomic shrapnel, i.e the cosmic rays are sometimes so ...
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236 views

What is cosmic ray albedo neutron decay (CRAND)?

I need a small description of what is cosmic ray albedo neutron decay (CRAND), where it comes from and what effects they have?
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1answer
211 views

TV snow and Big Bang

How come the white and black snow we see sometimes on TV is a result of the Big Bang? (the cosmic radiation) I meant the random dot pixel pattern of static in TVs, when there is no signal.
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Cloud Chamber not showing [closed]

I am trying to build a thermoelectric cloud chamber, it’s not showing any trails with a alpha source or cosmic rays. The only thing I see is alcohol vapour (small white dots). Using 99% isopropyl ...
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Cosmic ray shielding for electronics on Earth

There are plenty of topics discussing cosmic ray shielding, but they all put emphasis on spacecraft shielding, where things like radiation and mass are a big problem. So I decided to ask a question ...
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Higgs boson in space!

Given the fact that the Higgs-like boson has an invariant mass of about 125GeV, could we detect Higgses from Outer Space as we detect photons, neutrinos, protons or cosmic rays? As the Space is the ...
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Can cosmic rays show interference?

I read that interference in seen in waves with similar frequency, so if interference is possible for cosmic rays then wouldn't we need another cosmic ray to see this effect? If interference is ...
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Why can't we see particle tracks in clouds or dense fog? [duplicate]

We can see the tracks of charged particles in a cloud chamber. According to Wikipedia "A cloud chamber consists of a sealed environment containing a supersaturated vapor of water or alcohol". Also, in ...
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How come I never see cosmic rays in steam like they appear in a cloud chamber?

I just put like half a cup of water in a mason jar and put that in the microwave and accidentally left it in there for to long and it got boiling hot, then when I took it out and let it cool of course ...
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Calculation of energy required to deflect a beam of alpha particles at relativistic speeds

How should I get about calculating the energy of a Electromagnetic field required to deflect a beam of charged particles travelling at relativistic speed (Like a beam of cosmic rays)? The energy of ...
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1answer
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Why are there more trapped protons during solar minima?

Reading about trapped protons and eletrons in van Allen belts, I get the understanding that the number of trapped electrons increase during a solar maximum (which I find logical because we have more ...
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Is the CMB present in an artificial shielded vacuum?

I see the wiki page of cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation says it is "present in all space"; I wonder, if I build a vacuum box with sufficient shielding, say a box with thick metal walls, and ...
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Measuring energy of muons with a calorimeter

As far as I know, the energy of muons can't be measured with the normal calorimeters that they measure the energy of other particles such as electrons, and it's due to its mass, it doesn't radiate, so ...
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Supersymmetry particles from cosmic rays

The positron was first discovered in cosmic ray debris. Some cosmic ray protons have millions of times the energy that the LHC can achieve. If supersymmetry particles exist, could they be created ...
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Why do cosmic rays slow down when passing through the CMB?

When cosmic rays pass through space, they slow down. But why? The energy of the photons that hit these particles couldn't just be transferred to it, making it go even faster? In other words: Why ...
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Knee in cosmic ray spectrum

I was going through a research paper explaining the possible reasons for origin of knee in the cosmic ray spectrum. I came across this statement "nuclei-initiated showers have smaller fluctuations in ...
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Cosmic Ray Detection | Florescent Light Bulbs

Main: Can cosmic rays be detected through florescent bulbs? Can you push an AC current through a florescent lightbulb tube and measure the current draw and voltage spikes to detect cosmic rays? Is ...
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Did Wilson use his cloud chamber to study cosmic rays?

I notice that Wilson invented his could chamber in 1911 and Hess discovered cosmic rays in 1912. So, did Wilson use his chamber to study cosmic rays or did Hess do so? Today, it is easy to detect ...
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1answer
104 views

Radon or cosmic ray?

My student constructed a cloud chamber to detect the background radiation. It is very simple and efficient. But the question is, is the radiation mostly from the Radon gas or the cosmic ray? See ...
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1answer
160 views

Random directions of the trajectories in a cloud chamber

It is easy to construct a home-made cloud chamber. In observation, one finds that the directions of the trajectories are quite random. Does this mean that all the particles detected are secondary ...
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1answer
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Why are neutrons preferred for measuring cosmic flux (Forbush decreases)?

I see (I asked this question, today read Wikipedia's article on 'neutron monitor', and other stuff, they're always neutrons) that neutrons are the favourite secondary cosmic ray when studying Forbush ...
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1answer
200 views

Which material makes best radiator in Cherenkov detector?

What qualities of a radiator are important if I want to build a Cherenkov detector to detect muons? I don't know how to choose the most appropriate. Possibilities would include ice, water, maybe ...
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Global Random Bits from Nature

I would like to get a few random bits per day from nature (from chaotic physics, like rolling dice, or quantum physics, but not from cryptography) which Alice and Bob can measure independently from ...
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How does the 11-year solar cycle alter the cosmic ray flux?

Looking at a flux vs. time graph of secondary cosmic rays (e.g. from a neutron station: www.nmdb.eu/nest/search.php can plot you some. I just tried for example Moscow, from 14 Oct 1951 to today, ...
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Energy of single particles, measured in kelvin?

This page says cosmic photons have an energy of 2.78 kelvin, so how much energy would the particles that show up in a bubble chamber have?
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Supersymmetry particles in cosmic ray showers

Antimatter was first discovered in cosmic ray debris. Why haven't we found the heavy supersymmetry particles in cosmic ray debris?
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Given this graph from Wikipedia concerning the cosmogenic origin of each element, how are Lithium, Beryllium, and Boron formed from cosmic rays? [duplicate]

So I found this article from another answer, and it's math is way above me but the gist is that some elements heavier than Iron can form in a star, but this path is not the primary source of these ...
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Is it possible that cosmic ray particles and neutrinos account for a significant portion of dark matter?

Sounds a bit naive but I read somewhere that neutrinos were thought to account for dark matter to an extent and I think Zwicki came up with the idea before cosmic rays were announced (not sure though)....
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How much noise is in the Cosmic Background Radiation, especially from Cosmic Rays

Do we have an estimate of how much noise, if any, say caused by cosmic rays in particular, is present in the CMB datasets and the maps based upon them? Can we extrapolate a figure from the cosmic ray ...
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How much ionizing (carcinogenic) radiation is one exposed to on a commercial flight, what are the sources, and how could exposure be minimized? [closed]

I don't know if this is the best place to ask this question, but I figure a physics-based answer would be the most satisfying. I'd be happy to be convinced I'm being paranoid about protecting an ...
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Why is the distribution of Cosmic Rays isotropic?

We observe that cosmic rays (CRs) are isotropic on the sky, i.e. they come from all directions with no apparent preference. I understand this is related to the deflection of these CRs by the magnetic ...
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Time and frequency extremes

I wonder if there exists a table of which physical events have the shortest time scale (like matter/antimatter annihilation) and which have the longest (like proton decay). The same question applies ...
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260 views

Where do astrophysical neutrinos come from?

What I really do not get about them is collisions of cosmic rays with light produces high energy neutrinoes but cosmic rays have a little energy maybe less than a 5000 electron volt. How do high ...
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264 views

Is there a correlation between Brownian motion and cosmic microwave background radiation?

Is there any correlation between Brownian motion, the phenomenon of osmosis - compared to cosmic microwave background, the Noise we see in analog television? Brownian motion or pedesis (from Greek: ...
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How deep would a moonbase have to be dug for radiation protection?

The atmosphere of the earth protects us from cosmic rays and other kinds of space radiation. On the moon there is little to no atmosphere so anyone on the surface of the moon is directly exposed to ...
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How to compute the speed of a cosmic ray from its energy? [duplicate]

How can you compute the speed of a cosmic ray from its type and measured energy? For example, if a cosmic ray were said to be a proton of 10 GeV, how would you compute the velocity of that cosmic ray?...
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880 views

How strong a magnetic field would be needed to deflect cosmic rays?

How strong a magnetic field would be needed to deflect cosmic rays? For example, lets imagine we wanted to protect the occupants of the International Space Station from cosmic rays. I assume we would ...
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Does the Earth's magnetic field sort cosmic rays by charge?

The Earth is struck by both negative and positively charged particles. As these particles interact with the Earth's magnetic field they become deflected. Do the magnetic poles of the Earth receive ...