Questions tagged [chemical-compounds]

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Benzene ground state

I’m currently studying my first course on Quantum Physics. Regarding the topic of Sommerfeld’s quantization rules, I’ve come across a problem where I was asked whether a benzene molecule would require ...
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20 views

Microscopic interpretation of constant voltage from Battery

I don't know if this is the right place to ask(Maybe it's more related to chemistry), but this has been troubling me for some while. Consider you have a chemical cell. Then the reason for the ...
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2answers
63 views

What does the subindex $x$ in $\text{Bi}_{1-x}\text{Sb}_{x}$ mean?

I am currently reworking our condensed matter lecture. We shortly discussed topologic insulaters at the example of $$\text{Bi}_{1-x}\text{Sb}_{x}$$ I am not sure what the $x$ stands for. Normally ...
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30 views

Degrees of freedom of large molecules

I know how to calculate degrees of freedom for small molecules, but how do I calculate degrees of freedom for larger molecules? For example, Benzene.
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2answers
168 views

Why is 99% isopropyl alcohol preferred for a DIY cloud chamber?

Simple cloud chamber construction is described in various places and all seem to use 90% - 99% isopropyl alcohol as a start. What property does this have that makes it an essential component for ...
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0answers
26 views

How to simulate the formation of chemical bonds by calculating electrodynamic forces?

I had the idea recently that if the interactions between atoms could be calculated, that a large enough computer could simulate biological processes. What would I need to know to simulate something ...
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1answer
64 views

Covalent bonding in cuprates

In high temperature cuprate superconductors like YBCO, there are intermediate copper-oxide planes, where $Cu$ and $O$ atoms are arranged alternatively in a square lattice. In this arrangement, the $Cu$...
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1answer
52 views

Increase the surface tension of polypropylene

I'm working on a project and I need to increase the surface energy of polypropylene. I want you to tell me a way in order to increase surface energy of polypropylene?
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1answer
59 views

Increasing the melting point of metal

I need to know how one can increase the melting point of a metals like steel, tungsten or ... about 500 degrees and without destroying its shape?
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1answer
115 views

In chemical compounds, where does the “magic” come from in atomic “magic numbers”?

It is well known that atoms with a full electron shell are more stable, it is one of the first facts taught in a middle school Chemistry course: "An element whose atoms have no electrons outside ...
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1answer
152 views

What is the temperature at which Napalm burns?

I was sitting during a lecture last week in one of my classes, and we were talking about chemical warfare and the history behind it. My teacher had brought up the use of Napalm during Vietnam. After a ...
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2answers
94 views

Why is gaseous carbon dioxide transparent? [closed]

Some carbon-heavy products of combustion, e.g. soot, are black, as is carbon in other forms, e.g. graphite. This seems to suggest that carbon is black. But then how can $\text{CO}$ (carbon monoxide) ...
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50 views

How is aerogel made? [closed]

Aerogel is a promising material capable of a high thermal insulation. What is the production process of aerogel, is it a cheap technology?
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18 views

Bond Nature of a comound [closed]

How can we determine the type of Bond in LiBaPO4? can we find out the nature of bond through charge transfer values of these elements? if yes then how?
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4answers
64 views

Do CFCs get emitted in air from appliances?

Do the refrigerators and air conditioners that use CFC or HCFC cause damage to the environment even when they are working normally. I mean, is there any gas emission under normal conditions when the ...
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1answer
72 views

Carrying 10 liter dewar in elevator advisable? [closed]

I am using liquid nitrogen a lot at university and frequently have to carry a 10 l dewar from the storage container into my lab. On this way I have to walk down 4 stories with the heavy dewar. ...
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2answers
119 views

How to quantify the mixing of two hard-spheres gases?

Suppose that there are two types of hard-spheres gases ($a$ and $b$) in a box. Suppose that their radius is much smaller than the box's characteristic size. These two gases tend to repel each other. ...
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2answers
210 views

What happens to the chlorine in epichlorohydrin when a two-part epoxy is air-cured?

Where does the chlorine go? Does it evaporate as a by-product or does it remain in the epoxy? I'm using a two-part resin and hardener and curing them at room temp. The resin is bisphenol-A-...
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43 views

When we mix water with H$_2$SiF$_6$ and boil them, how much of the H$_2$SiF$_6$ evaporates?

If water evaporates also at temperatures much lower then its boiling point, and so do, I believe, other liquids, how much H$_2$SiF$_6$ (boiling temp. 108 C) is to be found in the steam over boiling ...
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1answer
131 views

Are there other properties besides lower boiling point that make isobutane a better refrigerant than butane?

Asked differently, if -1C is low enough for the application is there any reason not to use butane rather than isobutane as the working fluid in a refrigeration system?
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162 views

What do the planets in our solar system smell like? [closed]

For example, if Jupiter is mostly hydrogen and and helium, but has ammonia clouds, does that mean it smells like a cat's litterbox? Does Mars smell like iron? Asking in order to give kids a more "...
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2answers
258 views

Is there any non-metallic oxide that remains in solid state at room temperature?

Except for metallic and semimetallic oxides, is there any oxide (non-metallic oxide) which remains in the solid state at room temperature?
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1answer
144 views

What is chemical binding energy? [duplicate]

Like in nuclear physics we deal with binding energies, i heard someone saying Chemical binding energy. What is that and how a chemical reaction follows mass energy interconversion based on this ...
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1answer
490 views

Why is liquid fat transparent and solid fat opaque?

While frying some chicken I was wondering why the fat becomes transparent when melting. As far as I know, transparency is caused by the fact that the substance can't absorb photons of visible light (...
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1answer
80 views

Can I ice skate on toluene?

I thought about that can I ice skate on toluene? We can ice skate on ice but can we do it on ice? Please help me it would be helpful for me
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1answer
2k views

Why does Sugar form a crystal structure?

I always wondered about the question why Sugar dissolves like salt, without being ionic. Now my question is: How does sugar forms a crystal if it is a covalent compound? Are there very strong IMF's?...
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1answer
132 views

Bubble Formation in Froth Flotation process

I've recently attended a lecture on the metallurgical process of froth flotation. To make us understand froth, my teacher gave us the example of soap bubbles. But in actual practice, the flotation ...
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0answers
37 views

Smallest Aperture for $HCl$ to pass through [duplicate]

What is the smallest aperture that hydrochloric acid could pass through, such that the acid's surface tension wouldn't be stopping it from flowing through? Also, how would I work that out? I'm testing ...
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1answer
95 views

Pressurizing with nitrogen vs vacuum? [closed]

pressurizing with vacuum causes volatilization of liquid.
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1answer
39 views

Equivalent in wood/coal/methane of one litre of petrol

I want to create a visual comparison between different sources of energy. I would like to show how much wood, coal, methane, water+level difference, etc. could potentially generate the same energy of ...
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1answer
404 views

Phase diagram mixture nitrogen oxygen

Consider a phase diagram of Oxygen Nitrogen. Now my question is : if a take a box containing air (80 % N2 - 20 % O2) at standard pressure and I start cooling it from room temperature to -196°C (BP of ...
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1answer
131 views

Which Liquids freeze when combined? [closed]

Are there any liquids (or liquid and solution) that when combined react to where they will freeze?
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1answer
603 views

Why soap bubbles are made of soap?

Why are soap bubbles made of soap? What I know is to have stability in bubble, waterproofing agents should me mixed, but soaps are water wetting agents, and water wetting agents will decrease angle ...
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0answers
42 views

strengths of the 3D printed part [closed]

If the material is manufactured by 3D printing (laser sintering) then what will be change in its mechanical properties than the properties by conventional one? What would be appropriate failure ...
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1answer
48 views

Ion combination energies

This is somewhat out of my comfort zone, and therefore I may not be using the correct terminology. Basically, there are some promoters of a certain woo, that claim solar wind H+ can combine with O-. ...
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2answers
136 views

Electrically non-conductive molten salts

I'm researching an idea for molten salt as a coolant. The information that I lack is the conductivity of molten salts. The basic question is "what are the best insulating molten salts?" Comparisons ...
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1answer
304 views

How can I convert mass percentage to atomic percentage?

How can I convert mass percentage to atomic percentage? I have EDX (energy dispersive X-ray) analysis for a thin film, the results are in ms% (mass percentage), how can I convert mass percentage to ...
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1answer
58 views

Can you Split $\rm CO_2$ using Microwave Heat?

I'm a layman, so maybe I didn't put the right searches in google to find the answer, but - If you microwave $\rm CO_2$ (Carbon Dioxide) to a sufficient temperature then can you split it to $\rm C$ ...
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1answer
193 views

What is the physics of the Borax method?

One can add borax to a gold sand then heat it up until it melts and then just let it cool to grab the pure gold. This is just strange. How is borax lower the melting point of something it only touches ...
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1answer
268 views

Is the bond order in a resonance situation an average or can half bonds exist?

When drawing the lewis dot structure for $NO_2^-$ There is one double bond and one single bond so the molecule exhibits resonance and has bond order of 1.5. Does this mean the molecule shares 0.5 ...
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2answers
333 views

Why exactly does molten NaCl explode, when it is poured into water?

Why does molten sodium chloride explode, when it is poured into water? $\mathrm{NaCl}$ has high melting point, $1074\,\rm K$ ($801\,\rm^\circ C$). $\mathrm{NaCl}$ has molar mass $58.44\,\rm g/mol$, ...
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2answers
87 views

What causes anything to smell?

We all know that we can see anything because of Light Absorption and all. We can hear things because of caused vibrations. But what makes an object smell? I read somewhere about the presence of ...
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1answer
29 views

C60 Macro Ojects

What would happen if you could make a ball or hollowed geometric shaped say the size of a basketball made out of C60.. due to its superconductivity could it have exotic or anti- effects on gravity and ...
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1answer
91 views

Why do bonds with positive and negative charges not collapse?

I previously believed that the reason positive and negative charges don't constantly attract until they collapse is due to a repulsive strong force at small distances. However, in a textbook by Tipler,...
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1answer
986 views

How is work function related to oxidation?

Low work function metals, such as Li and K, oxidize in ambient conditions, whereas high work function metals such as Au do not oxidize. In chemistry there's activation energy and reaction rate ...
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2answers
548 views

Is it possible to mix a luminescent drink? [closed]

Is it possible to create a drink that glows? In other words, is it possible to create a non-poisonous drink that fluoresces? Are there known compounds suitable for that? If not, then what about a ...
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1answer
3k views

A “bump” in the cooling curve of naphthalene? [closed]

While doing an experiment, I noticed a slight bump in the cooling curve. I have searched for it on the internet and all of the articles say that it is something related to super-cooling. The graph's ...
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107 views

Effects of light wavelength on the Hamiltonian of the FMO complex

Recently, I have been interested in the energy transfer within the FMO complex. I was wondering, how could the wavelength of the light that excites the complex affect the energy transfer efficiency. ...
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152 views

Alternative to Naphthalene Sublimation

I work in a wind tunnel that uses Naphthalene for flow visualization. Specifically we use it to see the location of transition from laminar to turbulent flow. We mix it with acetone and spray it on ...
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1answer
4k views

Does plasma has any chemical formula?

As far as I understand, plasma is another stage of matter like solid, liquid or gas. All of these have chemical formulas, however does plasma has chemical formula as well? If it doesn't, what's made ...