Questions tagged [charge-conjugation]

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17
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3answers
7k views

If electrons were positive and protons were negative, would life be different? [duplicate]

This was a question on a worksheet during my first week in a class on Electromagnetism. The answer is essentially: No. Life would be no different if electrons were positively charged and protons ...
17
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2answers
6k views

Can bosons have anti-particles?

Can bosons have anti-particles? In the past, I would have answered this question with a yes, primarily because I can imagine writing down a QFT for complex scalars that has a $U(1)$ symmetry that ...
13
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1answer
482 views

What feature of QFT requires the C in the CPT theorem?

Classical tensor field theories have a PT theorem, so what changes in a QFT to require charge conjugation to be a part of the theorem? Charge conjugation seems a bit unrelated to space-time, but is an ...
12
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2answers
665 views

What are the assumptions that $C$, $P$, and $T$ must satisfy?

I am not asking for a proof of the $CPT$ theorem. I am asking how the $CPT$ theorem can even be defined. As matrices in $O(1,3)$, $T$ and $P$ are just $$ T = \begin{pmatrix} -1 & 0 & 0 & ...
9
votes
1answer
996 views

Physically, what is a pseudoreal representation?

There are three kinds of representations: real, complex, and pseudoreal. A complex representation is not equivalent to its conjugate, and a real one is, which is pretty straightforward. A pseudoreal ...
8
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2answers
677 views

Can we treat $\psi^{c}$ as a field independent from $\psi$?

When we derive the Dirac equation from the Lagrangian, $$ \mathcal{L}=\overline{\psi}i\gamma^{\mu}\partial_{\mu}\psi-m\overline{\psi}\psi, $$ we assume $\psi$ and $\overline{\psi}=\psi^{*^{T}}\gamma^{...
7
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1answer
694 views

Shouldn't Charge Conjugation be known as “positive/negative frequency symmetry”?

I know that charge conjugation exchanges the creation (or annihilation) operators of the particles with those of the anti-particles and therefore merits the name charge conjugation. However, if ...
7
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1answer
3k views

Antiparticles, charge conjugation and chirality

(Why/how) are antiparticles and charge-conjugates different things? I am trying to understand the effect of discrete symmetries on spinor fields (neutrinos in particular). In the article, Dirac, ...
7
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0answers
1k views

Charge conjugation and chirality

while I was reading about charge conjugation I found some (apparently) contradictory facts. For example Itzykson & Zuber says (page 153) "Up to a phase, $\cal C$ interchanges particles and ...
6
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1answer
406 views

Is $CP$ instead of $C$ responsible for changing a particle to its antiparticle?

The charge conjugation operator $C$ reverses the charge of a state. But it may or may not convert a particle to its antiparticle. For example, consider a neutrino which is charge-neutral and left-...
6
votes
1answer
930 views

C-parity violation evidence

I know about the CP-violation experiments from the 60's and the P-violation from the 50's. But, is there a similar experiment which displays (perhaps historically in the same way as the experiements ...
6
votes
1answer
638 views

How is $J^{PC}$ value experimentally determined for new types of particles?

How is $J^{PC}$ value experimentally determined for new types of particles? For example, this paper says ... Angular correlations in B+→X(3872)K+ decays, with X(3872)→ρ0J/ψ, ρ0→π+π− and J/ψ→μ+μ−, >...
6
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2answers
3k views

Charge-conjugation of Weyl spinors

I am having trouble reconciling two facts I am aware of: the fact that the charge conjugate of a spinor tranforms in the same representation as the original spinor, and the fact that (in certain, ...
6
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2answers
4k views

How to construct the charge conjugation matrix for any given spacetime dimension?

Generally, Gamma matrices could be constructed based on the Clifford algebra. \begin{equation} \gamma^{i}\gamma^{j}+\gamma^{j}\gamma^{i}=2h^{ij}, \end{equation} My question is how to generally ...
6
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2answers
988 views

C, T, P transformation mistakes in ``Peskin&Schroeder's QFT''?

I suppose the right way to do C (charge), T (time reversal), P(parity) transformation on the state $\hat{O}| v \rangle$ with operators $\hat{O}$ is that: $$ C(\hat{O}| v \rangle)=(C\hat{O}C^{-1})(C| ...
6
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1answer
5k views

Proof of Furry's theorem

i was wondering if anyone could give an explicit calculation or show a link that shows the proof to Furry's theorem. showing how the vacuum expectation value of any odd number of electromagnetic ...
5
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2answers
751 views

What is the definition of the charge conjugation?

I seem to have troubles finding definitions of the charge conjugation operator that are independant of the theory considered. Weinberg defined it as the operator mapping particle types to ...
5
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1answer
2k views

Derivation of a gamma matrices identity

While studying Srednicki's book on quantum field theory, I encountered a particular identity that is of interest to me (equation 36.40): $$\mathcal{C}^{-1}\gamma^\mu\mathcal{C}=-(\gamma^\mu)^T$$ where ...
5
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1answer
323 views

Can real scalar fields break charge conjugation symmetry?

Is it possible to have a Hermitian term in a Lagrangian that breaks $C$ symmetry and is made up of only real scalar fields? I thought that real scalar fields would always have to be even under $C$ ...
5
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1answer
694 views

Is Charge Conjugation Representation Dependent?

I'm having a problem understanding section 7 of this paper: http://arxiv.org/abs/1006.1718 The author defines the commonly know $\Psi^c$ as $\textit{C}\Psi \textit{C}^{-1}=\eta \hat{\Psi}$ in ...
5
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0answers
189 views

Is $\overline{\psi_{L}^{c}}\psi_{R}^{c}=\overline{\psi_{R}}\psi_{L}$ true for two different spin 1/2 fermions?

In the context of seesaw mechanism or Dirac and Majorana mass terms, one often see the following identity $$ \overline{\psi_{L}^{c}}\psi_{R}^{c}=\overline{\psi_{R}}\psi_{L}. $$ Here, I am using 4 ...
4
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1answer
428 views

Charge Conjugation for $SU(N)$?

For $SU(2)$ the charge conjugation operator $C$ reads explicitly $$ C \Psi = i \sigma_2 \Psi^\star ,$$ where $\sigma_2$ is a Pauli matrix. What is the generalized charge conjugation for $SU(N)$?
4
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2answers
384 views

Is $N_R$ a Majorana field in the Seesaw Lagrangian?

Consider the Lagrangian for the type-I seesaw given by $$-\mathcal{L}=\bar{\nu}_{L}m_DN_{R}+\frac{1}{2}\overline{(N_{R})^c}M_R N_{R}+\text{h.c.}.$$ $\bullet$ In this Lagrangian, what is the nature ...
4
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2answers
549 views

Can a Majorana field $\psi$ be charged under some $U(1)$ with a charge other than zero?

I know Majorana particles have to be electrically neutral because electric charged is conserved. My question, however, is whether at all a Majorana field $\psi$ be charged under any $U(1)$ (other ...
4
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2answers
309 views

How do we know the number of photons in a decay?

How can we determine the exact number of photons produced in a decay or other event? This has puzzled me because photons can have arbitrarily low energy and momentum, so how do we tell if two photons ...
4
votes
1answer
66 views

Confusion with the meanings of fermion fields $\hat{\Psi},\hat{\overline{\Psi}},\hat{\Psi}^C$

If $\hat{\Psi}$ is a field that annihilates an electron and creates a positron, $\hat{\overline{\Psi}}$ is a field that annihilates a positron and creates an electron. This takes all possibilities ...
4
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0answers
158 views

Difference in symmetries of Second quantized and First quantized Hamiltonian [duplicate]

The following is stated in (among others) the articles Topological insulators and superconductors: ten-fold way and dimensional hierarchy - Shinsei Ryu, Andreas Schnyder, Akira Furusaki, Andreas ...
3
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2answers
102 views

Does the $U(1)$ charge of a scalar particle flip under charge conjugation?

Consider a complex scalar particle $\phi$ coupled to an electromagnetic field. The Lagrangian is given by $$ \mathcal{L} =(D_\mu \phi)^* D^\mu \phi - m^2 \phi^2 - \frac{1}{4} F_{\mu \nu} F^{\mu \nu}$$...
3
votes
2answers
4k views

What happens to the Lagrangian of the Dirac theory under charge conjugation?

Consider a charge conjugation operator which acts on the Dirac field($\psi$) as $$\psi_{C} \equiv \mathcal{C}\psi\mathcal{C}^{-1} = C\gamma_{0}^{T}\psi^{*}$$ Just as we can operate the parity operator ...
3
votes
1answer
200 views

What distinguishes the behaviour of particle from its antiparticle: C violation or CP violation?

It is said that a CP violation would mean that the behaviour of the particle is different from the behaviour of antiparticle. Why is C violation not good/enough?
3
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1answer
1k views

How to determine if interaction is allowed?

I'm trying to determine if the reaction $$n\rightarrow p + \pi^-$$ is allowed. First of, this doesn't list this as one of the decay modes of the neutron, so I suspect that it should not be allowed. ...
3
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1answer
92 views

C, P and T transformations of $\phi$ that preserves symmetry

I have a series of exercises regarding C, P and T symmetry but I am not really sure how to start with the problems. If anyone could help me with one of the problems, or show me a few example problems ...
3
votes
2answers
139 views

Does the $U(1)$ vector current flip under charge conjugation?

The conserved $U(1)$ current of the Dirac Lagrangian is given by $j^\mu = \bar{\psi} \gamma^\mu \psi$, where $\bar{\psi} = \psi^\dagger \gamma^0$. As this is interpreted as electric current I would ...
3
votes
1answer
202 views

Why is $|\bar{K}^0\rangle=\mathscr{CP}|K^0\rangle$ and not $|\bar{K}^0\rangle=\mathscr{C}|K^0\rangle$?

If the charge conjugation operator $\mathscr{C}$ changes a particle state into the corresponding anti-particle state then we must write $|\bar{K}^0\rangle=\mathscr{C}|K^0\rangle$. But instead, we ...
3
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1answer
646 views

Charge conjugation in arbitrary basis

Consider the matrix $C = \gamma^{0}\gamma^{2}$. It is easy to prove the relations $$C^{2}=1$$ $$C\gamma^{\mu}C = -(\gamma^{\mu})^{T}$$ in the chiral basis of the gamma matrices. Do the two ...
3
votes
2answers
532 views

Does charge conjugation affect parity?

Notice that these transformations do not alter the chirality of particles. A left-handed neutrino would be taken by charge conjugation into a left-handed antineutrino, which does not interact in the ...
3
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0answers
136 views

Feynman Rules from Lagrangian with charge conjugation matrix

I'm dealing with a doubly charged scalar singlet that interacts only with the right-handed muon as follows, $$\mathcal{L} = \lambda \psi_{R}C\psi_{R} \phi^{++},$$ where $\lambda$ is the coupling, $\...
3
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0answers
255 views

Charge conjugation operator in second quantization

How can we write charge conjugation operator's action in second quantization's formalism? I don't know if I am explaining it correctly or not but I am interested in finding how can we write fermionic ...
3
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0answers
485 views

For fermion, is charge conjugate operator $C$ an anti-unitary operator?

In condensed matter theory, $C$ is called "particle-hole inversion", such that $C^2=-1$, for fermionic state. In high energy physics, just like most of the QFT textbooks, $C$ is introduced from Dirac ...
2
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2answers
494 views

Majorana Flip Relations

In the Supergravity book of Freedman et.al, which uses the signature $(+,-,\dots,-)$, we have defined the charge conjugation matrix for general Clifford Algebra as $(C\Gamma^{(r)})^T = -t_rC \Gamma^{(...
2
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1answer
75 views

In this example, how can we have CP conservation with C violation?

Consider a simple two-body decay process $X\to Y+Z$ where $X$ is a boson, and $Y,Z$ are fermions. If $C$ is violated, $$\Gamma(X\to Y+Z)\neq \bar{\Gamma}(\bar{X}\to\bar{Y}+\bar{Z}).\tag{1}$$ However, ...
2
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1answer
418 views

Charge Conjugation of massive Dirac spinor in 3 dimensions with Euclidean signature

In 2+1 dimensional massive Dirac equation (Minkowski signature), we can define the charge conjugation operator so that the equation can be symmetric under it. However, the charge conjugation does not ...
2
votes
1answer
468 views

Why is the Higgs $CP$ even?

Why was it always assumed that the Higgs boson is a CP even particle? I understand that experimentally, it just is so but I am under the impression that before its discovery people took it to be CP ...
2
votes
2answers
417 views

Invariance of Yang-Mills Lagrangian under charge conjugation

The Yang-Mills Lagrangian gauge invariant under an $SU(N)$ tranformation can be written as $${\cal L} = -\frac{1}{4}F_{\mu\nu}^i F^{i\ \mu\nu} \tag1$$ (Sum over $i$ implicit) This Lagrangian ...
2
votes
2answers
677 views

$SU(2)$ Invariant Lagrangian

Consider two arbitrary scalar multiplets $\Phi$ and $\Psi$ invariant under $SU(2)\times U(1)$. When writing the potential for this model, in addition to usual terms like $\Phi^\dagger \Phi + (\Phi^\...
2
votes
2answers
539 views

How are parity and charge conjugation eigenvalues related to angular momentum?

I have seen many equations where $P$ and $C$ (eigenvalues of parity and charge conjugation, resp.) are related to $J$, $L$, $S$ and $I$ (eigenvalues of total angular momentum, angular momentum, spin, ...
2
votes
1answer
2k views

Charge conjugation operator and gamma matrices

The gamma matrices are defined by their anticommutation relations, which are symmetrical in permutations of $\gamma_1, \gamma_2, \gamma_3$. Given this symmetry, why is the change conjugation operator $...
2
votes
1answer
351 views

Why does the charge conjugation of the spinor transform as a spinor?

I have come across (in QFT Nutshell, A. Zee) how the charge conjugation of the spinor, $\psi_c \equiv \gamma^2 \psi^*$, transform (where $\gamma^2=\sigma^2\otimes i\tau^2$ is the component of the ...
2
votes
1answer
350 views

The Majorana condition and C violation

Is the Majorana condition $$ \psi = \psi^c = C \overline{\psi}^T, $$ general? The point is often made that Majorana particles should be defined by CPT symmetry and not C as generally theories do not ...
2
votes
1answer
865 views

How to treat charge conjugation and time reversal operators for Dirac Field in representation invariant way?

Since manipulations with charge conjugation and time reversal operators involve taking complex conjugate of bispinors, most formulas are not invariant under change of representation of $\gamma$ ...