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Questions tagged [carrier-particles]

Use for force carrier particles, quanta of characteristic quantum fields, usually gauge fields, such as the quanta of electromagnetic fields (photons), of the electroweak interactions (EW bosons), and of the strong interactions (gluons); elastic forces on on a lattice (phonons); nuclear forces (pions); gravity forces (gravitons), etc. May include conjectural particles from GUTS (like their proton-decay-inducing gauge bosons).

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160 views

semiconductors extrinsic and intrinsic carriers concentrations equations

I understand why $n \cdot p = n_i^2$ holds for intrinsic semiconductors, but why is that the equation also holds true in the case of an extrinsic semiconductor? Here, $n$ is the charge density of the ...
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1answer
60 views

The concept of force carrying photons

Are the force carrying photons really something physical? Do they really occur during electromagnetic interactions? Does this mean that in different mediums where the speed of light differ, the ...
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1answer
570 views

Which particles emit and absorb gravitons?

I understand that the EM mediator is the photon and is absorbed and emitted by electrons. I understand that the strong force mediator is the gluon and is absorbed and emitted by quarks. Both electrons ...
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26 views

Existence of the Graviton [duplicate]

The PDG http://pdg.lbl.gov/2019/html/authors_2018.html lists the Graviton as an observable particle (measurements). Is this an accepted fact? All other information says it is just hypothetical i.e. ...
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Gravitons from linearized gravity

Linearizing gravity as follows: $$ g_{\mu\nu}=\eta_{\mu\nu}+h_{\mu\nu} $$ Up to this point, everything is a 4x4 matrice. How does one eventually recover a spin-2 particle which, according to https:/...
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6answers
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How exactly does gravity work?

The electromagnetic force and strong and weak forces require particles like photons and gluons. But in case of gravity there is no such particle found. Every mass bearing object creates a ...
3
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1answer
133 views

Force via “exchange particles” or “via field”

More or less I have come across two concepts to explain non contact forces: FIELD CONCEPT: modification of space by the source which in turn produces force on the other (That is in my classroom ...
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1answer
50 views

How is the electromagnetic/gravitational force transmitted? [duplicate]

So I was thinking about how a positive and a negative charge (or positive/positive, negative/negative) interact. I have read previously about how photons carry the electromagnetic force. However, how ...
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1answer
159 views

Photon as a mediator of electric field

How can a photon (which has momentum) from one electrically charged particle to an oppositely charged particle cause these particles to be pulled toward each other - or how can a magnetic field cause ...
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3answers
532 views

What is a graviton?

We know that a graviton is a hypothetical particle that carries gravitational energy. I have no definite knowledge in string theory, being a student; taking classical gravity into consideration or ...
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1answer
99 views

Are force carrying particles always virtual particles?

Of course we have real (i.e. non-virtual) photons, but when photons play the role of "force carrier" are they virtual? Same thing for gluons. Real gluons have been detected, but when playing the role ...
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0answers
49 views

Can gravity be quantized in a way that doesn't require a particle? [duplicate]

I understand what gravitons are and why they are theorized to exist, but is there any way to quantize gravity without a boson? In other words, possibly geometrically with no particle at all? For ...
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2answers
99 views

Graviton and spacetime

General Relativity and the concept of curved spacetime replacing the "force" of gravitation is really beautiful, and I thought one could probably find similar descriptions of other forces like ...
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If gravity turns out to be mediated by exchange particles, would that imply a problem with gravitational fields around a black hole?

In general relativity, gravity is a distortion of spacetime due to mass. Its effects travel (if that's the right word) at the speed of light. In the SM all 3 other known interactions are mediated by ...
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4answers
2k views

What are “Force Carriers”?

The concept of "force carriers" is hard for me to understand. I can understand "energy carriers". I can understand mass x acceleration but I can't see how this applies. Does anyone have a ...
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1answer
61 views

Are there anti virtual particles (mediator bosons)?

I have read these questions: Can bosons have anti-particles? Is there a possibility for discovery of anti-graviton, i.e. the graviton antiparticle? Antiparticle for Higgs boson? According to ...
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2answers
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Are GWs made of gravitons (are gravitons the quanta of GWs) or not?

I have read this question: What is the difference between gravitons and gravitational waves? I have read this on wikipedia: However, if gravitons are the quanta of gravitational waves, then ...
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1answer
91 views

Force Particles?

Since Einstein has shown that gravitational force is created by the warping of Space-Time, why are physicists looking for the "graviton" particle? Since gravitational force is created by a warping of ...
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3answers
3k views

Does theoretical physics suggest that gravity is the exchange of gravitons or deformation/bending of spacetime?

Throughout my life, I have always been taught that gravity is a simple force, however now I struggle to see that being strictly true. Hence I wanted to ask what modern theoretical physics suggests ...
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2answers
71 views

Layperson can not get his head around Force Carriers

I read all I can but, this is vexing me. It realtes to Quantum-Mechanics, and I believe Quantum Field Theory, and maybe even Quantum Chromodynamics. Before the Higgs the Model was 16 instead of 17 we ...
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2answers
82 views

Photons, light and electricity

Light is ultimately composed of photons. Photons are also force carriers of the electrical force. When an electric motor is turning it is photons which are turning it. What is the relation between ...
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1answer
126 views

Mobility of electrons and holes

According to experimental results it has been found that in Silicon holes are one-third as mobile as electrons. But if doping is considerably low such that phonon scattering is dominant over impurity ...
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2answers
250 views

How does the exchange of pions result in the strong force?

I understand that the residual strong force is a result of an exchange of pions. But I fail to understand how this exchange results in a force that holds nuclei together! May this query please be ...
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2answers
176 views

What is the fundamental explanation for the existence of Electrostatic force?

To explain my question in a better way I will first talk about gravitation! Gravity is not a force and the effects of gravity are ascribed to spacetime curvature My comments: Gravity was explained ...
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0answers
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Does the existence of graviton contradict gravity being spacetime curvature? [duplicate]

Is gravity a property-curvature of space-time it's self as descriped in GR? Or the notion of 'graviton' is necessary in order to embed the 'classical GR theory' to the quantum's mechanics 'world' ...
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1answer
2k views

Could we have already discovered the graviton and not noticed?

Just a random, baseless question I'm throwing out there; but how do we know that we haven't discovered the graviton? How do we know we haven't just labeled it as something else? i.e. how do we know ...
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2answers
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Interaction of charges [duplicate]

As it is known in Physics, two point-size charges (say two electrons) interact with each other through em forces. How this is happening? do they exchange photons? And if so, then do they exchange ...
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3answers
254 views

How does general relativity eliminate the Newtonian action at a distance? By the mediation of which “carriers”?

I found in Wikipedia the following statement From a Newtonian perspective, action at a distance can be regarded as: "a phenomenon in which a change in intrinsic properties of one system induces a ...
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1answer
67 views

What does it mean for a graviton to have mass?

On wikipedia we can read: Astronomical observations of the kinematics of galaxies, especially the galaxy rotation problem and modified Newtonian dynamics, might point toward gravitons having non-...
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1answer
98 views

How do “gravitons” work? [closed]

I believe that there are no "gravitons". A mass warps SpaceTime. Anything moving past the mass has it's direction changed by that warping not by the mass. "Freeze" SpaceTime & remove the mass &...
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0answers
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How can black holes have charge and gravitate? [duplicate]

I seem to misunderstand the whole concept of calibration bosons. Let`s imagine a charged black hole. It does not let out anything that travels at any speed less than or equal to the speed of light, ...
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0answers
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Quantum Field interaction transferred via “exchanging fermions” [duplicate]

In Standard Model every fundamental interaction is described by means of exchanging gluons of particular kind. It is very natural as gluons has spin with values given by inteegers, and can share the ...
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1answer
70 views

Why there is a distance dependence in Coulomb's law if photons can travel to infinity?

Why there is a distance dependence in coulombs law if photons can travel to infinity? Why there is distance dependence at all?
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1answer
4k views

Why the minority carrier lifetime is different for electrons and holes?

The lifetime of minority carriers ($\tau_\text{n}$ for electrons, $\tau_\text{p}$ for holes) represents the average time before recombination. But since an electrons must have a hole for recombination ...
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1answer
282 views

What is the relationship between a gravitational wave and a graviton? [duplicate]

Gravitational waves were theorized a century ago and recently discovered, leading to the awarding of the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics. According to Wikipedia: Gravitational waves transport energy as ...
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1answer
88 views

What is the force carrier for neutrons in fission?

Say I have a neutron capture event, leading to a fission reaction in which a few neutrons are expelled. These neutrons inherit a certain momentum from this fission reaction. How do these neutrons ...
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1answer
239 views

If gravity arises from the curvature of spacetime, why is there a need for gravitons? [duplicate]

If gravity arises from the curvature of space time, why is there a need for gravitons? If someone could explain this to me I would be very thankful. I dont understand why.
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1answer
856 views

What is the relation between interaction range and the mass of gauge bosons?

I have just started to read spontaneous symmetry breaking, where it is mentioned that EM fields are infinite in range, so the gauge boson has to be massless, while for the strong and weak interactions,...
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1answer
530 views

How do charged particles interact with each other?

As we know, charged particles have polarity and like charges repel each other and unlike charges attract each other, and we have Coulomb's law to find that force. But how does it work? Does it work ...
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1answer
65 views

Do masses interact with each other or not?

I want to know whether there is any interaction between masses due to gravity. To illustrate my point suppose two masses are in space. They will get attracted to each other. But is this interaction ...
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1answer
562 views

How do non-contact forces work?

One question has been bugging me ever since I started learning physics, the textbooks successfully describe the empirical observations but haven't given any reasoning behind it. What I want to ...
4
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1answer
310 views

How can particles account for the curvature of spacetime?

Classical General Relativity rests on the idea that what we call gravity actually is one property of spacetime itself. The matter distribution determines the metric by means of the Einstein field ...
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1answer
1k views

A way to derive the Yukawa potential without cheating?

Let's say we have a simple Lagrangian that couples together two real scalar fields with a Yukawa $\phi \psi^2$ coupling. $$\mathcal{L} = \frac{1}{2}(\partial \phi)^2 - \frac{m^2_1}{2} \phi^2 + i\bar{...
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1answer
169 views

What's the relationship between classical gravitational waves and gravitons? [duplicate]

LIGO have detected gravitational waves, why we are still far away from detecting gravitations? how to understand the statement below? A classical wave may be considered to be a coherent ...
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2answers
129 views

Can the gravitational force be described just with virtual particles of its own field? [closed]

Similarly to steady electric or magnetic fields for example?
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3answers
10k views

Are W & Z bosons virtual or not?

W and Z bosons are observed/discovered. But as force carrying bosons they should be virtual particles, unobservable? And also they require to have mass, but if they are virtual they may be off-shell, ...
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2answers
206 views

I'm confused. Is electromagnetism a matter field or a force field… or both? [closed]

The question is based on this video. It says that photons (which are matter based) are formed by exciting the electromagnetic field. Then it says that bosons are based on force fields, which are the ...
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1answer
366 views

Why the four gauge bosons that correspond to the $SU(2)\times U(1)$ electroweak force before symmetry breaking are not listed in the Standard Model?

If I correctly understand this, the four gauge bosons that correspond to the electroweak force before symmetry breaking are the W1, W2, W3, and B. How come the W1, W2, W3, and B bosons are not listed ...
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3answers
6k views

What is the definition of an exchange particle?

After reading through articles, i concluded that a suitable definition is that when 2 particles interact bosons are exchanged between the 2 particles creating a force? What would a good definition be ...
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2answers
1k views

How does the Earth know when to send a graviton to a newly born particle?

Pardon if this is a silly queston, but I'm reading this for the first time. It says that the force we perceive between two objects is an effect of the exchange of the force carrier particles. Even ...