Questions tagged [carrier-particles]

Use for force carrier particles, quanta of characteristic quantum fields, usually gauge fields, such as the quanta of electromagnetic fields (photons), of the electroweak interactions (EW bosons), and of the strong interactions (gluons); elastic forces on on a lattice (phonons); nuclear forces (pions); gravity forces (gravitons), etc. May include conjectural particles from GUTS (like their proton-decay-inducing gauge bosons).

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58
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6answers
44k views

How exactly does gravity work?

The electromagnetic force and strong and weak forces require particles like photons and gluons. But in case of gravity there is no such particle found. Every mass bearing object creates a ...
49
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2answers
9k views

Why is gravity such a unique force?

My knowledge on this particular field of physics is very sketchy, but I frequently hear of a theoretical "graviton", the quantum of the gravitational field. So I guess most physicists' assumption is ...
38
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3answers
10k views

Are W & Z bosons virtual or not?

W and Z bosons are observed/discovered. But as force carrying bosons they should be virtual particles, unobservable? And also they require to have mass, but if they are virtual they may be off-shell, ...
33
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5answers
6k views

How are forces “mediated”?

I hope this is the right word to use. To me, these forces seem kind of fanciful (except for General Relativity and Gravity, which have a geometric interpretation). For example, how do two charged ...
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3answers
3k views

Does theoretical physics suggest that gravity is the exchange of gravitons or deformation/bending of spacetime?

Throughout my life, I have always been taught that gravity is a simple force, however now I struggle to see that being strictly true. Hence I wanted to ask what modern theoretical physics suggests ...
25
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3answers
6k views

Nature of gravity: gravitons, curvature of space-time or both?

General relativity tells us that what we perceive as gravity is curvature of space-time. On the other hand (as I understand it) gravity can be understood as a force between objects which are ...
20
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3answers
2k views

Why are all force particles bosons?

All of the force-particles in the standard model are bosons, now my question is pretty short, namely: Why are all force particles bosons? This can't be a coincidence.
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6answers
17k views

Why can't photons have a mass?

Why can't photons have a mass? Could you explain this to me in a short and mathematical way?
14
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4answers
4k views

Why is light's force-mediating role not visible at macroscopic scales? [closed]

I cannot understand how can the force carrier of electromagnetic force be the same particle that makes up light. Electrically charged objects emit photons (by the way, why don't we see them?), and the ...
13
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3answers
526 views

What is a graviton?

We know that a graviton is a hypothetical particle that carries gravitational energy. I have no definite knowledge in string theory, being a student; taking classical gravity into consideration or ...
13
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4answers
2k views

Why is there a search for an exchange particle for gravity?

If I understand correctly, according to Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, mass results in a distortion in space-time. In turn, the motion of the mass is affected by the distortion. A result of ...
10
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2answers
3k views

Is the force carrier of the magnetism in a common household magnet a photon?

As I have understood it, the Standard Model includes particles that carry the different forces, e.g. the electromagnetic (EM) force, the gravitational (G) force. When talking about EM fields such as ...
9
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4answers
364 views

Is there some special case where a fermion can mediate a force?

Looking at the comments of this questions Does the gravitino contribute to the gravitational interaction? and even considering that the answers here in this other question Why are all force particles ...
8
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1answer
870 views

Why quantising gravity necessarily give us gravitons?

Gravitons are supposed to be the quanta of gravitational field My question is, if we do not know how to quantize gravity yet, how do we know that quantizing it in principle should give us gravitons, ...
7
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4answers
417 views

Why don't we call the fermions in the standard model force carriers?

Maybe this is a chicken-and-egg problem, but couldn't we call all the bosons fundamental and treat the fermions as force carriers between them? EDIT: After all we never see the asymptotic states of ...
7
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2answers
6k views

Higgs-Boson/Graviton [duplicate]

The Higgs boson gives particles mass. And the graviton is the theoretical force-carrier of gravity. Gravity depends on mass. So if the Higgs Boson gives things mass, it therefore gives them gravity. ...
7
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1answer
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A way to derive the Yukawa potential without cheating?

Let's say we have a simple Lagrangian that couples together two real scalar fields with a Yukawa $\phi \psi^2$ coupling. $$\mathcal{L} = \frac{1}{2}(\partial \phi)^2 - \frac{m^2_1}{2} \phi^2 + i\bar{...
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2answers
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What is injection level (semiconductor physics)?

I am currently reading journal articles about semiconductor physics in solar cells. What is injection level? I'll try to start off with what I understand. Photons hitting the silicon cause its ...
6
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1answer
2k views

Could we have already discovered the graviton and not noticed?

Just a random, baseless question I'm throwing out there; but how do we know that we haven't discovered the graviton? How do we know we haven't just labeled it as something else? i.e. how do we know ...
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1answer
3k views

Is the Higgs Boson a Force Carrier? [duplicate]

I am told there are four fundamental forces, and each of these forces has a boson that acts as its carrier. Reading this http://www.fnal.gov/pub/science/inquiring/questions/higgs_boson.html I find ...
5
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3answers
474 views

Gravity - Force or Result?

I am no Physicist, but I enjoy reading about Physics. However reading about leading theories such as M-Theory and others they speculate about the existence of the Graviton. In my past reading of ...
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4answers
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What carries electric field through space?

A stationary charge "creates" a constant (but not uniform) electric field around it, and a moving charge "creates" a variable electric field around it. What "carries" the information about the ...
5
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3answers
227 views

How is the conservation of momentum satisfied in long-range attraction such as electromagnetism and gravity?

I'm not a physicist, but my understanding is that electromagnetism (including attraction between opposite charges) is mediated by the photon, and gravity is probably (hypothetized to be?) mediated by ...
5
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1answer
669 views

Can gravitons travel faster than the speed of light? [duplicate]

It is common knowledge that not even light can escape black holes, but since the black hole is emitting gravitons, and the gravitons travel in the direction away from the black hole, and it is ...
4
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3answers
882 views

What is actually a 'Field' in Physics? How can something affect something at a distance? [duplicate]

Every text just describe fields mathematically and as a 'vector field' in which it is said a particle gives rise to a field because each point in space around it becomes associated with with a force ...
4
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2answers
434 views

How it is possible to mediate a weak interactions by very heavy particle such as Boson?

When considering a weak decay interaction such as leptons , the weak force is mediate by huge particle such as bosons (W+ or W- ). How it is possible to have a such heavy particle within less massive ...
4
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1answer
536 views

Which particles emit and absorb gravitons?

I understand that the EM mediator is the photon and is absorbed and emitted by electrons. I understand that the strong force mediator is the gluon and is absorbed and emitted by quarks. Both electrons ...
4
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1answer
827 views

What is the relation between interaction range and the mass of gauge bosons?

I have just started to read spontaneous symmetry breaking, where it is mentioned that EM fields are infinite in range, so the gauge boson has to be massless, while for the strong and weak interactions,...
4
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3answers
872 views

What do gravitons do?

Yes, I know gravitons are 'just a theory', but I'm wondering how they theoretically act. Are they raining down on everything with mass to "push" other things towards it? Or do the gravitons form a ...
4
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3answers
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How do forces work

Is there a mechanistic-type explanation for how forces work? For example, two electrons repel each other. How does that happen? Other than saying that there are force fields that exert forces, how ...
4
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1answer
298 views

How can particles account for the curvature of spacetime?

Classical General Relativity rests on the idea that what we call gravity actually is one property of spacetime itself. The matter distribution determines the metric by means of the Einstein field ...
4
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1answer
430 views

Electromagnetic Field VS Photons [duplicate]

I am currently studying electrodynamics with all the fields and the like. Now, as I understand it, in a more modern viewpoint there is a duality between electromagnetic fields and photons, with ...
4
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1answer
185 views

Range Of An Interaction

Why is the Compton wavelength $\lambda_c=\frac{\hbar}{mc}$ used as a sensible measure for the range of an interaction, where $m$ is the mass of the corresponding mediator?
4
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0answers
106 views

Why are interactions always mediated via bosons (as opposed to fermions)? [duplicate]

Weak, Strong and electromagnetic force are mediated via bosons. I've come across the Walecka-model where the exchange particles are $\sigma$ and $\omega$ mesons; bosons again. why are interactions ...
3
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1answer
5k views

Deriving Coulomb's law from quantum electrodynamics [duplicate]

Is it possible to derive the Coulomb's law using the principles of quantum electrodynamics? How?
3
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1answer
270 views

Is virtual particle the same thing as force particle?

Is virtual particle the same thing as force particle? Which of the above categories do photon, graviton and gluon fall into? Virtual particle, force particle, or both?
3
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3answers
410 views

Which elementary particles are behind magnetic field, similar as photons behind radio waves?

I see, there are photons behind radio waves. As Wave–particle duality said: the radio waves are waves and at the same time are fluxes of particles called Photons. I'm wondering, what is behind ...
3
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3answers
755 views

Do gravitational waves exist at the quantum level?

Do gravitational waves exist at quantum level produced by electrons or by atoms or by molecules? If yes, which particle produces them and how are they produced? Spacetime exists at a quantum level ...
3
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1answer
537 views

How do non-contact forces work?

One question has been bugging me ever since I started learning physics, the textbooks successfully describe the empirical observations but haven't given any reasoning behind it. What I want to ...
3
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1answer
242 views

How are gravitons supposed to work?

If gravitons are particles, how is it that they can hold us to the ground, or create gravity between two stars millions of miles away from each other?
3
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1answer
4k views

Why the minority carrier lifetime is different for electrons and holes?

The lifetime of minority carriers ($\tau_\text{n}$ for electrons, $\tau_\text{p}$ for holes) represents the average time before recombination. But since an electrons must have a hole for recombination ...
3
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3answers
246 views

How does general relativity eliminate the Newtonian action at a distance? By the mediation of which “carriers”?

I found in Wikipedia the following statement From a Newtonian perspective, action at a distance can be regarded as: "a phenomenon in which a change in intrinsic properties of one system induces a ...
3
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1answer
581 views

Why do massive force carriers result in short range forces

I've been reading the answers to a few questions relating to force carrier particles, and it has been mentioned that massive force carriers always result in short-range forces, while massless carrier ...
2
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2answers
1k views

How does the Earth know when to send a graviton to a newly born particle?

Pardon if this is a silly queston, but I'm reading this for the first time. It says that the force we perceive between two objects is an effect of the exchange of the force carrier particles. Even ...
2
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1answer
197 views

How is the EM force exchanged over long distances?

The Situation Imagine we place two charged objects a very far distance apart, essentially making them point charges. How does the EM force interact between the two point charges if virtual photons ...
2
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2answers
75 views

Photons, light and electricity

Light is ultimately composed of photons. Photons are also force carriers of the electrical force. When an electric motor is turning it is photons which are turning it. What is the relation between ...
2
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2answers
202 views

How does the exchange of pions result in the strong force?

I understand that the residual strong force is a result of an exchange of pions. But I fail to understand how this exchange results in a force that holds nuclei together! May this query please be ...
2
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1answer
318 views

Why is more intrinsic carriers bad for high temperature semiconductors?

I'm taking a solid state course, and is currently on the subject of dielectrics. In one of the sections, concerning "Impurities in Dielectrics" the books says: "Impurities can also be used to make ...
2
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1answer
444 views

Why are gravitons needed to explain gravitational attraction in quantum gravity? [duplicate]

I've read and heard multiple times that gravity can't be explained by the current understandings of quantum physics. Wikipedia's Gravity entry briefly explains the incompatibility between general ...
2
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3answers
93 views

How does one experience single gravitons and/or Planck-force?

Moving sufficiently far away from a light source one would not be able to measure a steady stream of light, but only single photons every now an then. The experience would be a very faint blinking. ...