# Questions tagged [carrier-particles]

Use for force carrier particles, quanta of characteristic quantum fields, usually gauge fields, such as the quanta of electromagnetic fields (photons), of the electroweak interactions (EW bosons), and of the strong interactions (gluons); elastic forces on on a lattice (phonons); nuclear forces (pions); gravity forces (gravitons), etc. May include conjectural particles from GUTS (like their proton-decay-inducing gauge bosons).

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### How does general relativity eliminate the Newtonian action at a distance? By the mediation of which “carriers”?

I found in Wikipedia the following statement From a Newtonian perspective, action at a distance can be regarded as: "a phenomenon in which a change in intrinsic properties of one system induces a ...
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### Why the mobilities of holes and electrons are not identical in an intrinsic material?

In an intrinsic material, the lifetime $\tau$ of electrons and holes is the same, so in the equation for mobility, $$\mu = \frac{e\tau}{m^*}$$ the only difference between mobility of electrons an ...
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### Does carrier concentration at thermal equilibrium depend on doping concentration?

I came across a general equation at thermal equilibrium for carrier concentration that seems to be independent of doping concentration: n_0= 2\left( \frac{2\pi m_n^* k_BT}{h^2} \right)^{3\over 2} \...
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### Force-carrying particles instead of forces

Are there physical theories in which notions of particle are used without the concept of force? I know about gauge bosons, see: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Force_carrier and http://en.wikipedia.org/...
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### Deriving the Coulomb force equation from the idea of photon exchange?

Since Newton's law of gravitation can be gotten out of Einstein's field equatons as an approximation, I was wondering whether the same applies for the electromagnetic force being the exchange of ...
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### Is there some special case where a fermion can mediate a force?

Looking at the comments of this questions Does the gravitino contribute to the gravitational interaction? and even considering that the answers here in this other question Why are all force particles ...
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### Why the minority carrier lifetime is different for electrons and holes?

The lifetime of minority carriers ($\tau_\text{n}$ for electrons, $\tau_\text{p}$ for holes) represents the average time before recombination. But since an electrons must have a hole for recombination ...
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### Is the Higgs Boson a Force Carrier? [duplicate]

I am told there are four fundamental forces, and each of these forces has a boson that acts as its carrier. Reading this http://www.fnal.gov/pub/science/inquiring/questions/higgs_boson.html I find ...
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### Particles Associated With Gravitational Waves

I've been reading about linearized GR and the study of gravitational waves, and an odd thought popped into my head. According to wave-particle duality (admittedly, usually used in quantum mechanics!), ...
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### Why are interactions always mediated via bosons (as opposed to fermions)? [duplicate]

Weak, Strong and electromagnetic force are mediated via bosons. I've come across the Walecka-model where the exchange particles are $\sigma$ and $\omega$ mesons; bosons again. why are interactions ...
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### Electromagnetic Field VS Photons [duplicate]

I am currently studying electrodynamics with all the fields and the like. Now, as I understand it, in a more modern viewpoint there is a duality between electromagnetic fields and photons, with ...
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### What is a graviton?

We know that a graviton is a hypothetical particle that carries gravitational energy. I have no definite knowledge in string theory, being a student; taking classical gravity into consideration or ...
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### How exactly does gravity work?

The electromagnetic force and strong and weak forces require particles like photons and gluons. But in case of gravity there is no such particle found. Every mass bearing object creates a ...
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### Why quantising gravity necessarily give us gravitons?

Gravitons are supposed to be the quanta of gravitational field My question is, if we do not know how to quantize gravity yet, how do we know that quantizing it in principle should give us gravitons, ...
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### Range Of An Interaction

Why is the Compton wavelength $\lambda_c=\frac{\hbar}{mc}$ used as a sensible measure for the range of an interaction, where $m$ is the mass of the corresponding mediator?
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### Why is more intrinsic carriers bad for high temperature semiconductors?

I'm taking a solid state course, and is currently on the subject of dielectrics. In one of the sections, concerning "Impurities in Dielectrics" the books says: "Impurities can also be used to make ...
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### Understanding forces in QFT [closed]

I recently came to know that any type of force is exerted by a particle on another with the help of gauge bosons/virtual particles which are in reality a mathematical aide and do not have actual ...
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### Virtual photons as force mediators in QED - really?

If the photon is the force vector for EM interactions, e.g. electrons, how does each electron 'know' where the other one is so that it can send it a photon? I've thought about this for a while. I ...
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### Why are all force particles bosons?

All of the force-particles in the standard model are bosons, now my question is pretty short, namely: Why are all force particles bosons? This can't be a coincidence.
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### How do gravitons impact on general relativity?

As I'm reading about GR a lot lately, I was wondering: how do gravitons (if they exist ofc) impact the general relativity? Since in GR, when we look at particles moving in space-time, we are only ...
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### How do forces work

Is there a mechanistic-type explanation for how forces work? For example, two electrons repel each other. How does that happen? Other than saying that there are force fields that exert forces, how ...
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### Why is gravity such a unique force?

My knowledge on this particular field of physics is very sketchy, but I frequently hear of a theoretical "graviton", the quantum of the gravitational field. So I guess most physicists' assumption is ...
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### Why is there a search for an exchange particle for gravity?

If I understand correctly, according to Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, mass results in a distortion in space-time. In turn, the motion of the mass is affected by the distortion. A result of ...
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### Why can't photons have a mass?

Why can't photons have a mass? Could you explain this to me in a short and mathematical way?
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### Are W & Z bosons virtual or not?

W and Z bosons are observed/discovered. But as force carrying bosons they should be virtual particles, unobservable? And also they require to have mass, but if they are virtual they may be off-shell, ...
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### Is the force carrier of the magnetism in a common household magnet a photon?

As I have understood it, the Standard Model includes particles that carry the different forces, e.g. the electromagnetic (EM) force, the gravitational (G) force. When talking about EM fields such as ...
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### What is injection level (semiconductor physics)?

I am currently reading journal articles about semiconductor physics in solar cells. What is injection level? I'll try to start off with what I understand. Photons hitting the silicon cause its ...