Questions tagged [carrier-particles]

Use for force carrier particles, quanta of characteristic quantum fields, usually gauge fields, such as the quanta of electromagnetic fields (photons), of the electroweak interactions (EW bosons), and of the strong interactions (gluons); elastic forces on on a lattice (phonons); nuclear forces (pions); gravity forces (gravitons), etc. May include conjectural particles from GUTS (like their proton-decay-inducing gauge bosons).

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Why do we take the quantization of forces so seriously even though the particles mediating the forces are not even real particles as per our theories?

Recently I came across this question on this site, where the answer written by @AndrewSteane says (paraphrased for convenience) The electromagnetic interactions between two particles can be ...
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Gravitational non-scattering [closed]

When gravitation is modelled after real life, there is no such thing as a gravitational shadow. Does this mean that gravitons travel through matter without being scattered?
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What is the physical nature of a “force”?

This has application to E-M as well as gravity, but let me use the gravitational example as I think it's a bit more conceptually easy to grasp. Say we have two 1kg weights placed on the ground a metre ...
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How are gravitons compatible with general relativity?

I have been reading about how gravity has 2 equivalents descriptions: General Relativity. Explained by the graviton. How are these two things compatible? How can it be that gravity is explained ...
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Gravitons and general relativity

First I want to say that I am a layperson, so I want intuitive answers. So all the 3 fundamental forces in nature has a carrier particle except gravity. So we have hypothesized the existence of ...
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Can you have quantum gravity without gravitons? [duplicate]

I was thinking about whether quantum gravity needs gravitons. One can do a sum over histories of curved spaces perhaps without having to have gravitons. But the term "quantization" implies ...
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How do bosons cause two particles to attract, why doesn't the exchange always result in repulsion?

If forces are mediated by the exchange of bosons, and bosons travel out from their "parent" fermion, wouldn't they be carrying momentum which pushes anything that absorbs them away from the &...
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Deriving approximate wave function of virtual photons in a simplified model of momentum transfer [duplicate]

In the virtual particles FAQ here https://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/physics/Quantum/virtual_particles.html, under "How can they be responsible for attractive forces?" I didn't follow this step: ...
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Why is the carrier diffusion neglected as a consequence of a greater penetration depth of the photoexcitation light?

"Since the diffusion lengths are considerably smaller than the penetration depth of the photoexcitation light (...), we can neglect carrier diffusion from our considerations" - THz article ...
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Number of intrinsic charge carriers in semiconductors

On one hand, my book calls both electrons and holes intrinsic charge carriers of a semiconductor, and on the other, it states the relation x = y = n, where x, y and n stand for the number of electrons,...
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Question about Weinberg-Witten theorem

From Weinberg-Witten theorem, people say that the graviton (which has spin 2) can not be composite. But it seems that graviton can still be composite particle by combining spin-3/2 particles. Is ...
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Why must there always exist a real particle with the same mass of the virtual particle of a certain force field?

I've tried to ask this question before, but I've never quite got a satisfying answer so I'm going to simplify my question. As I understand it, virtual particles are just 'internal legs of a Feynman ...
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Can a composite boson like the pion be an exchange particle for the strong nuclear force?

Hi I have been trying to understand the standard model of particle physics and I don't understand why my textbooks says that the fundamental bosons are the exchange particles of the four fundamental ...
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How the idea of force-carrying particles acts in real-world?

The idea of "force-carrying particles" is insane to me. Because if I hold two magnets near each other, probably zillionths of photons are constantly being exchanged bwteen them. In extreme ...
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Do the strong and weak nuclear forces also travel at the speed of light?

Among the four fundamental forces, it is now pretty well-known that the electromagnetic and gravitational ones travel at the speed of light. How about the other two (strong and weak nuclear forces)? ...
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Why are we searching for graviton? [duplicate]

I am computer scientist and not a physicist, but I really like physics One question popped into my mind recently about gravity. General theory of relativity describes gravity not as a force but as a ...
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Probability of breaking a covalent bond through collisions

I was watching a lecture and at some point they say that for a covalent bond of 1.1 eV and for particles with 0.026 eV mean energy, the number of particles requiered to break the bond is 42, that is 1....
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How to calculate (or do we observe) range of exchange particles in QFT?

In this question Can hydrogen atom exchange induce attractional forces between $e^-e^-$? one answer showed the range of exchange particle but not how to calculate. how do we calculate/know what are ...
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Should gravitational waves quantize similar to photons?

A single photon's energy is given by $E=hf$. This is also generalized to massive particles as $\lambda = \frac{h}{p}$ or $E = \sqrt{m_0^2c^4 + (hc/\lambda)^2}$ (they're equivalent for photons). Having ...
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Why is “Gravity as a result of space-time curvature” not accepted as a fact? [duplicate]

Now that gravitational waves are confirmed. Not to mention the other numerous experimental verifications. Why do we still need an elusive graviton? Isn't there not enough evidence that the space-time ...
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Force carrier particle exchanges and attraction

How can two particles be drawn together by exchanging other (force carrier) particles. Both reactive components of exchange and absorption logically seem to support repulsion. How are these particle ...
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Why do we think the graviton is not the photon?

Why couldn't the photon be the graviton? How sure are we that the photon could not fill the role of gravitons?
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Is the mass defect in Einstein's $E=mc^2$ the mass of the force-carrying particles within the nucleus?

Basically, what the title says. Is the difference in mass between the sum of the masses of individual nucleons and the nucleus itself the mass of all the force carrying particles I.e. $W$ and $Z$ ...
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How to measure gauge boson?

note that it's taught that in standard model particles that mediated weak interaction force are gauge bosons: vector particles, spin 1, take one charge. I'm wondering how to prove these properties in ...
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What exactly does the weak force do?

I know that the weak force acts on nuclei and causes decay. But what exactly does the weak force do? Or to put it another way, why do we call it a force? Does it push the red particle of the picture ...
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Possibility of the existence of Graviphotons?

I have been attempting to do research on the graviphoton yet I can find almost nothing, and many of the articles I do find are locked behind hefty paywalls. It is an interesting possibility to think ...
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Force carrier $W$-boson

A force between two particles can be described either as the action of a force field generated by one particle on the other, or in terms of the exchange of virtual force carrier particles between them....
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How does electric field not disappear very far from source? [closed]

$q$ sets up an E-field, expanding outward at $c$, 'carried' by photons. The quantity of photons is finite - then, the longer the distance $r$ from $q$, the more 'diluted' the photons are about the ...
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How is it possible for a graviton to drag time frames and dilate time? [duplicate]

I understand how a gauge boson can create a field that looks like gravity, but how can a force carrying particle explain the draggin of time frames or the dilation of time? That is, if a graviton ...
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Models of confinement based on negative mass carriers

In the old Yukawa model of nuclear forces, it was proposed that short-range interactions were mediated by exchanges using massive force carriers (originally, mesons were proposed for this). If one ...
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How do fields work?

By fields, I am referring to gravitational, electric... Basically, how can two things interact at a distance? I know that we have mathematical descriptions of the phenomenon, but, physically speaking, ...
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How do you explain stretched metrics in the graviton picture?

Say you had a metric of flat space in a coordinate system where we multiplied the $x$-coordinate by 10: $$g^{\mu\nu}(x,y,z,t) = \begin{bmatrix} 10 & 0 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 & 0 & 0 ...
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Can elementary particles be nicely classified into “force transmitters” and “force emitters”?

This well-received answer begins with First of all, you can't compare photons with electrons. They are different types of particles (spin 1 vs spin1/2; force transmitter vs force emitter). I'd ...
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Why do forces have to be mediated by bosons? (Or do they?) [duplicate]

In another question, I was asking about the interaction between photons and electrons. It was suggested that in compton scattering there is no particle to "mediate" the force. The tree-level diagrams ...
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What determines if a photon is displayed as light or not?

A photon is the particle of light. But a photon is also a force carrier and plays a role in many other situations. What I don’t understand is what determines if it shows up as light or not? Is it just ...
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Quantum mechanical explanation of electrostatic force [duplicate]

Feynman diagram explains repulsion of electrons by means of photon exchange. Similarly can we explain repulsion of protons and attractions between protons and electrons?
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Force-carrying particles for electrostatic force [duplicate]

As I understand, Nuclear Fusion occurs when the nuclear forces overcome the electrostatic forces that act repulsively. But, what are these electrostatic forces? Are there force-carrying particles just ...
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Are there wavelengths associated with the weak field and strong field bosons?

Are there wavelengths associated with the weak field and strong field bosons? Anyone care to share their take on this?
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Was X17 predicted before it was observed?

Articles, with very little detail, have made their rounds about an X17 boson (16.7 MeV) being observed in tests of decaying beryllium-8 and perhaps once in a test with helium. Most of the ...
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Why should the X17 be a force carrier?

A preprint has been recently published on arXiv about another experimental evidence of the existence of the X17 particle, a 17 MeV boson that would be a potential force carrier. Now, I don't have a ...
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1answer
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Why is the $W$ boson (and none other elementary boson) the only with EM charge?

I have read this question: Working out the charge of a W Boson The role of W bosons in the weak nuclear force and beta decay The W, Z, together with the photon comprise the four gauge bosons of ...
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1answer
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The concept of force carrying photons

Are the force carrying photons really something physical? Do they really occur during electromagnetic interactions? Does this mean that in different mediums where the speed of light differ, the ...
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Existence of the Graviton [duplicate]

The PDG http://pdg.lbl.gov/2019/html/authors_2018.html lists the Graviton as an observable particle (measurements). Is this an accepted fact? All other information says it is just hypothetical i.e. ...
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Gravitons from linearized gravity

Linearizing gravity as follows: $$ g_{\mu\nu}=\eta_{\mu\nu}+h_{\mu\nu} $$ Up to this point, everything is a 4x4 matrice. How does one eventually recover a spin-2 particle which, according to https:/...
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1answer
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How is the electromagnetic/gravitational force transmitted? [duplicate]

So I was thinking about how a positive and a negative charge (or positive/positive, negative/negative) interact. I have read previously about how photons carry the electromagnetic force. However, how ...
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Are force carrying particles always virtual particles?

Of course we have real (i.e. non-virtual) photons, but when photons play the role of "force carrier" are they virtual? Same thing for gluons. Real gluons have been detected, but when playing the role ...
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Graviton and spacetime

General Relativity and the concept of curved spacetime replacing the "force" of gravitation is really beautiful, and I thought one could probably find similar descriptions of other forces like ...
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If gravity turns out to be mediated by exchange particles, would that imply a problem with gravitational fields around a black hole?

In general relativity, gravity is a distortion of spacetime due to mass. Its effects travel (if that's the right word) at the speed of light. In the SM all 3 other known interactions are mediated by ...
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Can gravity be quantized in a way that doesn't require a particle? [duplicate]

I understand what gravitons are and why they are theorized to exist, but is there any way to quantize gravity without a boson? In other words, possibly geometrically with no particle at all? For ...
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3answers
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How is the relative force of the fundamental forces measured?

My physics textbook includes the following table: My question is about the fourth row, where it compares the relative strengths of the fundamental interactions. How are these determined? Is the ratio ...