Questions tagged [carrier-particles]

Use for force carrier particles, quanta of characteristic quantum fields, usually gauge fields, such as the quanta of electromagnetic fields (photons), of the electroweak interactions (EW bosons), and of the strong interactions (gluons); elastic forces on on a lattice (phonons); nuclear forces (pions); gravity forces (gravitons), etc. May include conjectural particles from GUTS (like their proton-decay-inducing gauge bosons).

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How is it possible for a graviton to drag time frames and dilate time? [duplicate]

I understand how a gauge boson can create a field that looks like gravity, but how can a force carrying particle explain the draggin of time frames or the dilation of time? That is, if a graviton ...
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Models of confinement based on negative mass carriers

In the old Yukawa model of nuclear forces, it was proposed that short-range interactions were mediated by exchanges using massive force carriers (originally, mesons were proposed for this). If one ...
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How do fields work?

By fields, I am referring to gravitational, electric... Basically, how can two things interact at a distance? I know that we have mathematical descriptions of the phenomenon, but, physically speaking, ...
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1answer
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How do you explain stretched metrics in the graviton picture?

Say you had a metric of flat space in a coordinate system where we multiplied the $x$-coordinate by 10: $$g^{\mu\nu}(x,y,z,t) = \begin{bmatrix} 10 & 0 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 & 0 & 0 ...
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Can elementary particles be nicely classified into “force transmitters” and “force emitters”?

This well-received answer begins with First of all, you can't compare photons with electrons. They are different types of particles (spin 1 vs spin1/2; force transmitter vs force emitter). I'd ...
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Why do forces have to be mediated by bosons? (Or do they?) [duplicate]

In another question, I was asking about the interaction between photons and electrons. It was suggested that in compton scattering there is no particle to "mediate" the force. The tree-level diagrams ...
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What determines if a photon is displayed as light or not?

A photon is the particle of light. But a photon is also a force carrier and plays a role in many other situations. What I don’t understand is what determines if it shows up as light or not? Is it just ...
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Quantum mechanical explanation of electrostatic force [duplicate]

Feynman diagram explains repulsion of electrons by means of photon exchange. Similarly can we explain repulsion of protons and attractions between protons and electrons?
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Force-carrying particles for electrostatic force [duplicate]

As I understand, Nuclear Fusion occurs when the nuclear forces overcome the electrostatic forces that act repulsively. But, what are these electrostatic forces? Are there force-carrying particles just ...
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Are there wavelengths associated with the weak field and strong field bosons?

Are there wavelengths associated with the weak field and strong field bosons? Anyone care to share their take on this?
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1answer
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Was X17 predicted before it was observed?

Articles, with very little detail, have made their rounds about an X17 boson (16.7 MeV) being observed in tests of decaying beryllium-8 and perhaps once in a test with helium. Most of the ...
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Why should the X17 be a force carrier?

A preprint has been recently published on arXiv about another experimental evidence of the existence of the X17 particle, a 17 MeV boson that would be a potential force carrier. Now, I don't have a ...
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1answer
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The concept of force carrying photons

Are the force carrying photons really something physical? Do they really occur during electromagnetic interactions? Does this mean that in different mediums where the speed of light differ, the ...
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Existence of the Graviton [duplicate]

The PDG http://pdg.lbl.gov/2019/html/authors_2018.html lists the Graviton as an observable particle (measurements). Is this an accepted fact? All other information says it is just hypothetical i.e. ...
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Gravitons from linearized gravity

Linearizing gravity as follows: $$ g_{\mu\nu}=\eta_{\mu\nu}+h_{\mu\nu} $$ Up to this point, everything is a 4x4 matrice. How does one eventually recover a spin-2 particle which, according to https:/...
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1answer
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How is the electromagnetic/gravitational force transmitted? [duplicate]

So I was thinking about how a positive and a negative charge (or positive/positive, negative/negative) interact. I have read previously about how photons carry the electromagnetic force. However, how ...
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1answer
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Are force carrying particles always virtual particles?

Of course we have real (i.e. non-virtual) photons, but when photons play the role of "force carrier" are they virtual? Same thing for gluons. Real gluons have been detected, but when playing the role ...
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Graviton and spacetime

General Relativity and the concept of curved spacetime replacing the "force" of gravitation is really beautiful, and I thought one could probably find similar descriptions of other forces like ...
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If gravity turns out to be mediated by exchange particles, would that imply a problem with gravitational fields around a black hole?

In general relativity, gravity is a distortion of spacetime due to mass. Its effects travel (if that's the right word) at the speed of light. In the SM all 3 other known interactions are mediated by ...
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Can gravity be quantized in a way that doesn't require a particle? [duplicate]

I understand what gravitons are and why they are theorized to exist, but is there any way to quantize gravity without a boson? In other words, possibly geometrically with no particle at all? For ...
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How is the relative force of the fundamental forces measured?

My physics textbook includes the following table: My question is about the fourth row, where it compares the relative strengths of the fundamental interactions. How are these determined? Is the ratio ...
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1answer
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Are there anti virtual particles (mediator bosons)?

I have read these questions: Can bosons have anti-particles? Is there a possibility for discovery of anti-graviton, i.e. the graviton antiparticle? Antiparticle for Higgs boson? According to ...
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Are GWs made of gravitons (are gravitons the quanta of GWs) or not?

I have read this question: What is the difference between gravitons and gravitational waves? I have read this on wikipedia: However, if gravitons are the quanta of gravitational waves, then ...
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1answer
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Force Particles?

Since Einstein has shown that gravitational force is created by the warping of Space-Time, why are physicists looking for the "graviton" particle? Since gravitational force is created by a warping of ...
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Does theoretical physics suggest that gravity is the exchange of gravitons or deformation/bending of spacetime?

Throughout my life, I have always been taught that gravity is a simple force, however now I struggle to see that being strictly true. Hence I wanted to ask what modern theoretical physics suggests ...
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Layperson can not get his head around Force Carriers

I read all I can but, this is vexing me. It realtes to Quantum-Mechanics, and I believe Quantum Field Theory, and maybe even Quantum Chromodynamics. Before the Higgs the Model was 16 instead of 17 we ...
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Photons, light and electricity

Light is ultimately composed of photons. Photons are also force carriers of the electrical force. When an electric motor is turning it is photons which are turning it. What is the relation between ...
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1answer
281 views

Mobility of electrons and holes

According to experimental results it has been found that in Silicon holes are one-third as mobile as electrons. But if doping is considerably low such that phonon scattering is dominant over impurity ...
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2answers
320 views

How does the exchange of pions result in the strong force?

I understand that the residual strong force is a result of an exchange of pions. But I fail to understand how this exchange results in a force that holds nuclei together! May this query please be ...
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2answers
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What is the fundamental explanation for the existence of Electrostatic force?

To explain my question in a better way I will first talk about gravitation! Gravity is not a force and the effects of gravity are ascribed to spacetime curvature My comments: Gravity was explained ...
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Does the existence of graviton contradict gravity being spacetime curvature? [duplicate]

Is gravity a property-curvature of space-time it's self as descriped in GR? Or the notion of 'graviton' is necessary in order to embed the 'classical GR theory' to the quantum's mechanics 'world' ...
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Interaction of charges [duplicate]

As it is known in Physics, two point-size charges (say two electrons) interact with each other through em forces. How this is happening? do they exchange photons? And if so, then do they exchange ...
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1answer
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What does it mean for a graviton to have mass?

On wikipedia we can read: Astronomical observations of the kinematics of galaxies, especially the galaxy rotation problem and modified Newtonian dynamics, might point toward gravitons having non-...
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1answer
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How do “gravitons” work? [closed]

I believe that there are no "gravitons". A mass warps SpaceTime. Anything moving past the mass has it's direction changed by that warping not by the mass. "Freeze" SpaceTime & remove the mass &...
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1answer
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Could we have already discovered the graviton and not noticed?

Just a random, baseless question I'm throwing out there; but how do we know that we haven't discovered the graviton? How do we know we haven't just labeled it as something else? i.e. how do we know ...
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How can black holes have charge and gravitate? [duplicate]

I seem to misunderstand the whole concept of calibration bosons. Let`s imagine a charged black hole. It does not let out anything that travels at any speed less than or equal to the speed of light, ...
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Quantum Field interaction transferred via “exchanging fermions” [duplicate]

In Standard Model every fundamental interaction is described by means of exchanging gluons of particular kind. It is very natural as gluons has spin with values given by inteegers, and can share the ...
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1answer
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Why there is a distance dependence in Coulomb's law if photons can travel to infinity?

Why there is a distance dependence in coulombs law if photons can travel to infinity? Why there is distance dependence at all?
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1answer
606 views

Which particles emit and absorb gravitons?

I understand that the EM mediator is the photon and is absorbed and emitted by electrons. I understand that the strong force mediator is the gluon and is absorbed and emitted by quarks. Both electrons ...
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1answer
264 views

If gravity arises from the curvature of spacetime, why is there a need for gravitons? [duplicate]

If gravity arises from the curvature of space time, why is there a need for gravitons? If someone could explain this to me I would be very thankful. I dont understand why.
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1answer
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What is the force carrier for neutrons in fission?

Say I have a neutron capture event, leading to a fission reaction in which a few neutrons are expelled. These neutrons inherit a certain momentum from this fission reaction. How do these neutrons ...
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1answer
620 views

How do charged particles interact with each other?

As we know, charged particles have polarity and like charges repel each other and unlike charges attract each other, and we have Coulomb's law to find that force. But how does it work? Does it work ...
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1answer
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Do masses interact with each other or not?

I want to know whether there is any interaction between masses due to gravity. To illustrate my point suppose two masses are in space. They will get attracted to each other. But is this interaction ...
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1answer
304 views

What is the relationship between a gravitational wave and a graviton? [duplicate]

Gravitational waves were theorized a century ago and recently discovered, leading to the awarding of the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics. According to Wikipedia: Gravitational waves transport energy as ...
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1answer
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Force via “exchange particles” or “via field”

More or less I have come across two concepts to explain non contact forces: FIELD CONCEPT: modification of space by the source which in turn produces force on the other (That is in my classroom ...
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1answer
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How can particles account for the curvature of spacetime?

Classical General Relativity rests on the idea that what we call gravity actually is one property of spacetime itself. The matter distribution determines the metric by means of the Einstein field ...
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1answer
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A way to derive the Yukawa potential without cheating?

Let's say we have a simple Lagrangian that couples together two real scalar fields with a Yukawa $\phi \psi^2$ coupling. $$\mathcal{L} = \frac{1}{2}(\partial \phi)^2 - \frac{m^2_1}{2} \phi^2 + i\bar{...
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1answer
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What's the relationship between classical gravitational waves and gravitons? [duplicate]

LIGO have detected gravitational waves, why we are still far away from detecting gravitations? how to understand the statement below? A classical wave may be considered to be a coherent ...
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2answers
144 views

Can the gravitational force be described just with virtual particles of its own field? [closed]

Similarly to steady electric or magnetic fields for example?
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1answer
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Why the four gauge bosons that correspond to the $SU(2)\times U(1)$ electroweak force before symmetry breaking are not listed in the Standard Model?

If I correctly understand this, the four gauge bosons that correspond to the electroweak force before symmetry breaking are the W1, W2, W3, and B. How come the W1, W2, W3, and B bosons are not listed ...