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Questions tagged [carrier-particles]

Use for force carrier particles, quanta of characteristic quantum fields, usually gauge fields, such as the quanta of electromagnetic fields (photons), of the electroweak interactions (EW bosons), and of the strong interactions (gluons); elastic forces on on a lattice (phonons); nuclear forces (pions); gravity forces (gravitons), etc. May include conjectural particles from GUTS (like their proton-decay-inducing gauge bosons).

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Are force carrying particles always virtual particles?

Of course we have real (i.e. non-virtual) photons, but when photons play the role of "force carrier" are they virtual? Same thing for gluons. Real gluons have been detected, but when playing the role ...
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Graviton and spacetime

General Relativity and the concept of curved spacetime replacing the "force" of gravitation is really beautiful, and I thought one could probably find similar descriptions of other forces like ...
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If gravity turns out to be mediated by exchange particles, would that imply a problem with gravitational fields around a black hole?

In general relativity, gravity is a distortion of spacetime due to mass. Its effects travel (if that's the right word) at the speed of light. In the SM all 3 other known interactions are mediated by ...
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Can gravity be quantized in a way that doesn't require a particle? [duplicate]

I understand what gravitons are and why they are theorized to exist, but is there any way to quantize gravity without a boson? In other words, possibly geometrically with no particle at all? For ...
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Are there anti virtual particles (mediator bosons)?

I have read these questions: Can bosons have anti-particles? Is there a possibility for discovery of anti-graviton, i.e. the graviton antiparticle? Antiparticle for Higgs boson? According to ...
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Are GWs made of gravitons (are gravitons the quanta of GWs) or not?

I have read this question: What is the difference between gravitons and gravitational waves? I have read this on wikipedia: However, if gravitons are the quanta of gravitational waves, then ...
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Force Particles?

Since Einstein has shown that gravitational force is created by the warping of Space-Time, why are physicists looking for the "graviton" particle? Since gravitational force is created by a warping of ...
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Does theoretical physics suggest that gravity is the exchange of gravitons or deformation/bending of spacetime?

Throughout my life, I have always been taught that gravity is a simple force, however now I struggle to see that being strictly true. Hence I wanted to ask what modern theoretical physics suggests ...
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Layperson can not get his head around Force Carriers

I read all I can but, this is vexing me. It realtes to Quantum-Mechanics, and I believe Quantum Field Theory, and maybe even Quantum Chromodynamics. Before the Higgs the Model was 16 instead of 17 we ...
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Photons, light and electricity

Light is ultimately composed of photons. Photons are also force carriers of the electrical force. When an electric motor is turning it is photons which are turning it. What is the relation between ...
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Mobility of electrons and holes

According to experimental results it has been found that in Silicon holes are one-third as mobile as electrons. But if doping is considerably low such that phonon scattering is dominant over impurity ...
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How does the exchange of pions result in the strong force?

I understand that the residual strong force is a result of an exchange of pions. But I fail to understand how this exchange results in a force that holds nuclei together! May this query please be ...
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What is the fundamental explanation for the existence of Electrostatic force?

To explain my question in a better way I will first talk about gravitation! Gravity is not a force and the effects of gravity are ascribed to spacetime curvature My comments: Gravity was explained ...
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Does the existence of graviton contradict gravity being spacetime curvature? [duplicate]

Is gravity a property-curvature of space-time it's self as descriped in GR? Or the notion of 'graviton' is necessary in order to embed the 'classical GR theory' to the quantum's mechanics 'world' ...
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Interaction of charges [duplicate]

As it is known in Physics, two point-size charges (say two electrons) interact with each other through em forces. How this is happening? do they exchange photons? And if so, then do they exchange ...
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What does it mean for a graviton to have mass?

On wikipedia we can read: Astronomical observations of the kinematics of galaxies, especially the galaxy rotation problem and modified Newtonian dynamics, might point toward gravitons having non-...
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How do “gravitons” work? [closed]

I believe that there are no "gravitons". A mass warps SpaceTime. Anything moving past the mass has it's direction changed by that warping not by the mass. "Freeze" SpaceTime & remove the mass &...
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Could we have already discovered the graviton and not noticed?

Just a random, baseless question I'm throwing out there; but how do we know that we haven't discovered the graviton? How do we know we haven't just labeled it as something else? i.e. how do we know ...
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How can black holes have charge and gravitate? [duplicate]

I seem to misunderstand the whole concept of calibration bosons. Let`s imagine a charged black hole. It does not let out anything that travels at any speed less than or equal to the speed of light, ...
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Quantum Field interaction transferred via “exchanging fermions” [duplicate]

In Standard Model every fundamental interaction is described by means of exchanging gluons of particular kind. It is very natural as gluons has spin with values given by inteegers, and can share the ...
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Why there is a distance dependence in Coulomb's law if photons can travel to infinity?

Why there is a distance dependence in coulombs law if photons can travel to infinity? Why there is distance dependence at all?
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Which particles emit and absorb gravitons?

I understand that the EM mediator is the photon and is absorbed and emitted by electrons. I understand that the strong force mediator is the gluon and is absorbed and emitted by quarks. Both electrons ...
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If gravity arises from the curvature of spacetime, why is there a need for gravitons? [duplicate]

If gravity arises from the curvature of space time, why is there a need for gravitons? If someone could explain this to me I would be very thankful. I dont understand why.
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What is the force carrier for neutrons in fission?

Say I have a neutron capture event, leading to a fission reaction in which a few neutrons are expelled. These neutrons inherit a certain momentum from this fission reaction. How do these neutrons ...
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How do charged particles interact with each other?

As we know, charged particles have polarity and like charges repel each other and unlike charges attract each other, and we have Coulomb's law to find that force. But how does it work? Does it work ...
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1answer
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Do masses interact with each other or not?

I want to know whether there is any interaction between masses due to gravity. To illustrate my point suppose two masses are in space. They will get attracted to each other. But is this interaction ...
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What is the relationship between a gravitational wave and a graviton? [duplicate]

Gravitational waves were theorized a century ago and recently discovered, leading to the awarding of the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics. According to Wikipedia: Gravitational waves transport energy as ...
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Force via “exchange particles” or “via field”

More or less I have come across two concepts to explain non contact forces: FIELD CONCEPT: modification of space by the source which in turn produces force on the other (That is in my classroom ...
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How can particles account for the curvature of spacetime?

Classical General Relativity rests on the idea that what we call gravity actually is one property of spacetime itself. The matter distribution determines the metric by means of the Einstein field ...
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A way to derive the Yukawa potential without cheating?

Let's say we have a simple Lagrangian that couples together two real scalar fields with a Yukawa $\phi \psi^2$ coupling. $$\mathcal{L} = \frac{1}{2}(\partial \phi)^2 - \frac{m^2_1}{2} \phi^2 + i\bar{...
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What's the relationship between classical gravitational waves and gravitons? [duplicate]

LIGO have detected gravitational waves, why we are still far away from detecting gravitations? how to understand the statement below? A classical wave may be considered to be a coherent ...
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Why the four gauge bosons that correspond to the $SU(2)\times U(1)$ electroweak force before symmetry breaking are not listed in the Standard Model?

If I correctly understand this, the four gauge bosons that correspond to the electroweak force before symmetry breaking are the W1, W2, W3, and B. How come the W1, W2, W3, and B bosons are not listed ...
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What is the definition of an exchange particle?

After reading through articles, i concluded that a suitable definition is that when 2 particles interact bosons are exchanged between the 2 particles creating a force? What would a good definition be ...
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How does the Earth know when to send a graviton to a newly born particle?

Pardon if this is a silly queston, but I'm reading this for the first time. It says that the force we perceive between two objects is an effect of the exchange of the force carrier particles. Even ...
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What is actually a 'Field' in Physics? How can something affect something at a distance? [duplicate]

Every text just describe fields mathematically and as a 'vector field' in which it is said a particle gives rise to a field because each point in space around it becomes associated with with a force ...
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Why is light's force-mediating role not visible at macroscopic scales? [closed]

I cannot understand how can the force carrier of electromagnetic force be the same particle that makes up light. Electrically charged objects emit photons (by the way, why don't we see them?), and the ...
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Why most of the minority carriers make it across the base as the base width is small?

I am studying about BJT from an online lecture note. I made a question in the image below. The reference in the image is from the two lectures, lecture 18 and lecture 19. Could anyone help me with ...
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Are all field interactions carried out through force-mediating particles?

To my knowledge, all field interactions are carried out through force-mediating particles. For example, electromagnetic interactions are carried out through exchanging photons. However, under the ...
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I'm confused. Is electromagnetism a matter field or a force field… or both? [closed]

The question is based on this video. It says that photons (which are matter based) are formed by exciting the electromagnetic field. Then it says that bosons are based on force fields, which are the ...
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1answer
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Can gravitons travel faster than the speed of light? [duplicate]

It is common knowledge that not even light can escape black holes, but since the black hole is emitting gravitons, and the gravitons travel in the direction away from the black hole, and it is ...
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How can point-like fermions interact with point-like force mediating particles at a point in space?

How is it possible that for example, a point-like fermion interacts with a point photon in one point in space? I mean, how is it possible that two points can "hit" each other?
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Why are gravitons needed to explain gravitational attraction in quantum gravity? [duplicate]

I've read and heard multiple times that gravity can't be explained by the current understandings of quantum physics. Wikipedia's Gravity entry briefly explains the incompatibility between general ...
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What emissions would occur from a wire carrying an alternative current above the IR-radio frequency limit?

A purely theoretical question: if a wire carries an alternating current, it emits electromagnetical emissions in the form of radio photons, but, as far as I know, only radio waves can be produced this ...
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Is virtual particle the same thing as force particle?

Is virtual particle the same thing as force particle? Which of the above categories do photon, graviton and gluon fall into? Virtual particle, force particle, or both?
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How do non-contact forces work?

One question has been bugging me ever since I started learning physics, the textbooks successfully describe the empirical observations but haven't given any reasoning behind it. What I want to ...
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How do force carrying particles “give” force? [duplicate]

So, I am not taking physics in school, but I do have an interest in it, and I was wondering, in the standard model, all of the force carrying particles (photons, Z Bosons, W Bosons, gluons, and (...
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How it is possible to mediate a weak interactions by very heavy particle such as Boson?

When considering a weak decay interaction such as leptons , the weak force is mediate by huge particle such as bosons (W+ or W- ). How it is possible to have a such heavy particle within less massive ...
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Clarification of the concept of Boson Mediator and 'Mediation' in Physics? [closed]

I would like to have a clear concept of Higgs 'mediator' and that 'mediation' speak in physics, what you 'swap' a particle with ...
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Do we mean with 'pure energy' the force-carrying particles? [closed]

I often read, hear and talk about pure energy. What is meant by this? Does pure energy consists of the forces between matter, or the force mediating particles, like the massless photons and gluon? I ...