# Questions tagged [bosons]

Bosons are integer-spin particles that obey Bose-Einstein statistics. Two bosons can occupy the same quantum state.

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### Elementary Particle of Magnetic Field

If gravity - a field force - has an elementary particle, the graviton, why don't other field forces like magnetic fields have their elementary particles? I mean, why isn't there a magneton? Or, what ...
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### commutation relations for many-body permanents

I'm interested in understanding the many-body generalization of the canonical commutation relations. I.e. commutators of the form $$[a^\dagger_I, a_J]$$ where $I,J$ are multi-indices with the ...
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### Why bosons have integer spin and fermions have half-integer ones?

Due the fact that the fermions are the "block particles" and the bosons are the "carriers" I just came out with the question that, why the "block particle" have half-integer spin and the "carriers" ...
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### How to relate the number of bosons (fermions) with the number of vertices and external (internal) bosons (fermion) lines?

I am following the QCD book: "QCD: Renormalisation for the Practitioner" by P. Pascual, R. Tarrach. In chapter 3, page 64, equation III.13 they relate the following quantities: Let us consider a ...
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### Showing phase change for fermions

When discussing identical particles books often use that the states are eigenstates of the permutation operator: $P_{ij}|\psi\rangle = \lambda |\psi\rangle$ for bosons this is easy to see if I use ...
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### Capturing superfluid condensation with exact diagonalization

Doing exact diagonalization on bosonic systems is tricky, because the possibility of multiple occupancy means that even the single-site Hilbert space is infinite-dimensional. It's my understanding ...
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### Can fermions composing a boson ignore Pauli's principle?

After a discussion with a fellow student, we came above this problem asked as question in the title. A similar question was answered here. But it doesn't answer the question for us. In a BEC, many, ...