# Questions tagged [bosons]

Bosons are integer-spin particles that obey Bose-Einstein statistics. Two bosons can occupy the same quantum state.

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### Transformation of the derivative of the scalar field in Ramond's book about QFT

In the book by Pierre Ramond about quantum field theory, he explores in chapter 1.4 (p.13) the behavior of fields under Poincaré transformations. He starts by explaining that infinitesimal ...
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### Spin state of two distinguishable bosons

I was reading about the $C$-parity of a particle-antiparticle pair. Since charge conjugation has the effect of swapping the particle and antiparticle, the $C$-parity can be found from the symmetry of ...
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### Are bosons matter?

The title explains the question. Are bosons matter? As I have seen, there are three answers to this question: No, only fermions are matter. Yes, but only those with mass. Yes, all bosons are matter. ...
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### Calculating density of states given energy levels and degeneracy

In my statistical mechanics class, my professors did a problem in which he calculated the density of states, however I am having trouble justifying his approach. I did the problem beforehand in an ...
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### Why bosons have integer spin and fermions have half-integer ones?

Due the fact that the fermions are the "block particles" and the bosons are the "carriers" I just came out with the question that, why the "block particle" have half-integer spin and the "carriers" ...
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### Pauli Exclusion Principle and Quantum States [closed]

We know that two identical fermions cannot be in the same state together because of the Pauli exclusion principle. My questions are: Can two bosons (for example, photons) be arbitrarily close ...
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### Finding states of a system of 2 identical bosons (including spin)

I'm trying to find the ground state and first excited state for 2 identical bosons in an infinite square well. I know that both states are degenerate and the spatial and spin parts of the wave ...
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### Eigenvalues of the exchange operator determined by the particle type (boson or fermion) in a two particle system

While dealing with a two particle system in QM (the particles are identical), the net wave function of the system would be simply the product of the wavefunctions of the individual particles in the ...
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### Probability of finding a particle in a two/three particle system

Let us consider a system of 2 identical particles, 1 and 2. Let, $ψ_a(1)$ is the amplitude of finding particle 1 at state $a$, and $ψ_a(2)$ is the amplitude of finding particle 2 at state $a$. Let N.F ...
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### Distribution of photons emitted by atoms

I am currently revising quantum gases, and a small but confusing thought experiment has been bugging me for a while. I understand the bookwork stuff on photons and how a photon gas in a blackbody ...
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### Can we ever “measure” a quantum field at a given point?

In quantum field theory, all particles are "excitations" of their corresponding fields. Is it possible to somehow "measure" the "value" of such quantum fields at any point in the space (like what is ...
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### Are composite bosons superradiant scattering candidates?

Massive bosons can experience superradiant scattering in an ergosphere. This can in principle be used as a power source. However, elementary massive bosons ($H^0,\,W^\pm,\,Z^0$) are short-lived. Are ...
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### Why do composite bosons form a BEC?

I found this question here but it does not fully answer my question. The answer there was that "composite bosons can occupy the same state when the state is spatially delocalized on a scale larger ...
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### Bosonic commutation relations for force carriers?

Why are force carriers bosons? The easiest answer that I can give myself is that the gauge field $A_\mu$ is introduced like this: $$\partial_\mu \rightarrow D_\mu = \partial_\mu+ieA_\mu,$$ so it ...
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### What is the criteria of trapped ideal gas to form Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC)?

If we have ideal gas of bosons in a trapped harmonic potential, is the only necessary thing for BEC is a temperature less than the transition temperature? Or is there any other things we should keep ...
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### What are soft theorems in context of scalr fields

What are soft theorems ? I tried reading Weinberg’s paper but couldn’t understand it, are there any resources on this ? I am very interested in the case of scalars.
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### Wave function of a system of two identical fermions

In N. Zettili's 'Quantum Mechanics Concepts and Applications' [chapter 8, solved problem 8.3], we have to find wave function and ground state energy of a system having two identical fermions and in ...