# Questions tagged [bosons]

Bosons are integer-spin particles that obey Bose-Einstein statistics. Two bosons can occupy the same quantum state.

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### Why are fermionic atoms less prevalent than bosonic ones?

Many atoms have no stable fermionic isotopes. Those that do typically have more stable bosonic isotopes than fermionic ones. Furthermore, the fermionic isotopes of most atoms are lower in natural ...
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### Where does the Energy for $W$ and $Z$ Boson Emission come from?

I understand that the Weak interaction is mediated by the $W$ and $Z$ bosons, and that their huge masses are the reason for the Weak interaction's short range. However, I cannot find an explanation ...
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### Why Photon gas's Equation of State Diverges?

We know that, for Photon gas, the equation of state is given by $pV=\frac{1}{3}U$; where $p$ is the Pressure, $V$ is the Volume and $U$ is the Internal Energy of the Photon Gas. (see Equation of State ...
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### Why is Equation of State of Photon gas different from the Equation of State of Boson gas?

We know that, for Bosons, the Equation of State is given by $pV=\frac{2}{3}U$; where $p$ is the Pressure, $V$ is the Volume and $U$ is the Internal Energy of the Boson Gas. (see Equation of State of ...
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### Electron density via bosonization/refermionization

I'm currently trying to understand the rigorous construction of bosonization/refermionization via Jan von Delft. In the constructive approach, we consider a system on a finite $L$ circle and thus in ...
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### How to calculate commutator between fermionic terms and bosonic conjugate momenta?

Consider a system which has a three bosonic scalar fields and non-relativistic fermionic part. Let the field operator for the bosonic part be $\phi_k(x)$, $k=1,2,3$, with conjugate momentum $\pi_k(x)$....
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### Why does Quantum Harmonic Oscillator treatment to Blackbody Radiation result in Ultraviolet Catastrophe?

Planck, in his treatment to solve Blackbody Radiation, considered that the Electromagnetic Waves inside the Cavity of the Blackbody are Standing Waves due to Oscillating charges on the wall of the ...
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### Partition function for the indistinguishable particles using symmetrization of states

In the derivation of the partition function for the the N particle ideal gas, the factor of $\frac{1}{N!}$ does not come naturally. We have to go for symmetrized and asymmetrized state. So, to derive ...
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### Planck's assumptions for Treatment of Blackbody Radiation

Planck, in his treatment to solve Blackbody Radiation, considered that the Electromagnetic Waves inside the Cavity of the Blackbodyare Standing Waves due to oscillating charges on the wall of the ...
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### Why are single-electron states occupied at $T=0$ in superconductors?
Some textbooks show a density of states where the single-electron states below the Fermi energy are occupied at $T=0$ (see picture). However, I thought that at $T=0$ all electrons are paired. Hence ...