# Questions tagged [bosons]

Bosons are integer-spin particles that obey Bose-Einstein statistics. Two bosons can occupy the same quantum state.

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### Confusion about spin in 1 dimension

If spin should not be defined for particles in 1 dimension since we can't do rotations in 1d, like it happens for the orbital angular momentum, then why can we talk about fermions in a 1 dimensional ...
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### Mermin-Wagner theorem and SSB in 2D: is there sound in low dimensional solids

The Mermin-Wagner theorem states that there cannot be any spontaneous symmetry breaking happening in systems with short range interactions below dimension 3. Moreover, we know that Goldstone boson, ...
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### Why do we only consider commutators and anticommutators in QFT?

While studying canonical quantization in QFT, I observed that we quantize fields either by a commutation or an anticommutation relation \begin{equation} [\phi(x), \phi(y)]_\pm := \phi(x) \phi(y) \pm \...
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### WZW primary fields / correlations in terms of current algebra?

Cross-posted from a Mathoverflow thread! Answer there for a bounty ;) Given the $\mathfrak{u}_N$ algebra with generators $L^a$ and commutation relations $[L^a,L^b] = \sum_c f^{a,b}_{c} L^c$ , the ...
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### Is it possible to construct theory where fermions are force carriers?

Supersymmetry is a model based on symmetry between bosons and fermions. Bosons carry force and they are described by potentials. Fermions are matter particle and they are described by wavefunctions. ...
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### What mathematics indicate that the vacuum of the universe is metastable?

As I understand it, the meta stability of the universe's vacuum depends on the electroweak force, which depends on the mass of the top quark and the Higgs boson. But I don't understand this fully. Can ...
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### Can the Keldysh occupation function have a zero for bosons or a pole for fermions?

In the Keldysh framework for nonequilibrium dynamics of quantum systems we learn that there are essentially two Green's functions that characterize a system: the retarded Green's function $G^R(\omega)$...
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### Changes due to Chargeless Bosons

Do chargeless bosons (i.e. Z boson and photon) change any properties in particles they interact with besides energy, momentum, and angular momentum/spin?
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### Diffuse boundary condition for fermigas/bosongas

I'm doing math, usually working only in the classical framework, but my background in quantum physics is close to zero so please forgive me if the question does not make sense. I was looking into ...
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### How to couple the Higgs field with $SU(3)$ (and/or $SU(2)$) Yang-Mills theory in numerical simulations?

I'm trying to couple the Higgs field to numerical simulations of pure gauge theory with heatbath and overrelaxation update of link variables. I don't know how to insert the Higgs field into the ...
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### Why is $W$ boson decay into more than 2 particles not possible?

I am studying hadronic decay of the $W^-$ boson. I am aware that the decay into quarks from different generations is not possible and that charge as well as the total angular momentum have to be ...
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### What forces might the bosonic superpartners of the fermions of the SM mediate?

If the models of the universe that posit the existence of fermionic superpartners to the bosons, and bosonic superpartners to the fermions are correct, then what forces would be mediated by the ...
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### Which particles do $W$ bosons interact with to gain mass?

Which particles interact with $W$ bosons to give them mass? I am aware that Higgs particles alone are not responsible for the mass of other particles. In non-mathematical terms which particles give ... 1 vote
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### Why is the degeneracy factor for Bose Einstein distribution set to 1 automatically?

In https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/schwartz/files/12-bec.pdf, the article says "With Bose-Einstein statistics, we determined that using the grand canonical ensemble the expected number of ...
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### Can a neutrino emit a $W^+$ boson?

In the reaction $\nu_e + p \rightarrow e^-+ \Delta^{++}$, a Feynman diagram would be: So my question is, could a neutrino emit that $W^+$ boson (knowing that the boson's mass is much higher than the ...