Questions tagged [born-rule]

The Born rule is a rule in Quantum Mechanics that states that the probability density $\rho$ is $|\psi|^2$ where $\psi$ is the probability amplitude.

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Are classical probability a special case of quantum probabilities? How to show it?

First, let's say I have a classical system involving throwing a fair coin. There are two possible events $\{\text{head},\text{tails}\}$. Their respective probabilities are: $$ P(\text{head})=\frac{1}{...
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What are we measuring in a quantum field when we square the wavefunction?

Suppose we are doing a measurement in a particular quantum field, i.e electron field. Are we looking for the probability of the electron to show up at that spot we are measuring or are we measuring ...
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Is it possible to create a consistent quantum theory such that the probability is the complex norm, instead of the square complex norm?

In quantum physics, the relation $$ \int_{-\infty}^{\infty} (\psi[x,t]^*)(\psi[x,t]) dx=1 \tag{1} $$ is paramount. What would the consequence be of defining the normalization condition as $$ \int_{-\...
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Probability of a quantum particle [duplicate]

Now recently I have started quantum mechanics and I understood the wavefunction but I don't understand why $|Ψ|^2$ gives the probability density of a quantum particle. Is there a reason or perhaps ...
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How do we expand Bayes theorem to account for probability amplitudes?

The Bayes theorem simply states: $$ P(B | A) P(A) = P(A | B) P(B) $$ I wonder if there is something that can be meaningfully said as generalization of this relationship when the probabilities in ...
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What is the probability of measuring $p$ in the momentum space?

I have a wave function $\Psi (x,t)$. According to the Max Born postulate, $\lvert\Psi (x,t)\rvert ^2$ is the probability density. This quantity specifies the probability, per length of the $x$ axis, ...
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Why do we describe probability amplitude rather than probability itself in quantum mechanics?

In the quantum mechanics, the dynamics of quantum system are described in terms of probability amplitude. However, we want to calculate the probability in the end which can be measured. Why don't we ...
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“Probabilities are the ghosts of quantum mechanical amplitudes”

I came across this quote today; [Quantum computers] process information using quantum mechanical amplitudes. And probabilities are sort of the ghosts of amplitudes after they have been degraded to ...
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Zero Solution in infinite square well?

Consider the well: $$V(x) = \begin{cases} \infty&\text{if }x<0 \\ 0&\text{if }x\in\left(0,L\right) \\ \infty&\text{if }x>L. \end{cases}$$ Solving the time independent ...
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What is exactly Max Born rule?

I have thought Max Born rule as one of the axiom of quantum mechanics that says norm square of wavefunction gives the probability density. But I also found written somewhere that the rule says that ...
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What does a Hilbert space state vector represent in Koopman–von Neumann theory?

I understand what a state vector is in quantum mechanics. I also understand that in KvN theory, both the quantum Hilbert space and the classical Hilbert space are the same (see the answer to this ...
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Wave Function is case of Space-Time curvature

I have some questions about wave functions and space-time curvature: For what I have understood, Dirac Equation incorporates special relativity in Schrodinger equation, but still there are no ways to ...
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The origin and current usage of the phrase “transition probability” in Wigner's sense

The definition of transition probability by Wigner is the following The square of the modulus of the unitary scalar product $(\psi,\varphi)$ of two normalized wave functions $\psi$ and $\...
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Quantum probabilities or frequencies? Derivation or a postulate

The Born rule $$p=|\langle\psi|\phi\rangle|^2$$ defines the quantum probability and answers the question what is the probability that the measurement of $\psi$ will produce the outcome $\phi$? This ...
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Reference request for a mathematical motivation for the Born rule

I was reading the popular science book The Hidden Reality by Brian Greene. My question is about a part in the notes at the end of the book. It is chapter 8, note 9. Brian Greene describes a ...
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The justification for the probability of definite energy states in quantum mechanics

In quantum mechanics, if the energy of a system is measured at some $t$ the probability of obtaining the energy eigenvalue $E_i$ is: $$\left| \int_{-\infty} ^{\infty} {\psi_i^* (x)\Psi(x,t)} dx^2 \...
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Do all square integrable functions represent a probability when volume integrated? [closed]

I have just begun with Quantum Physics. My question is: do all square integrable functions represent a probability when volume integrated? Or is it only the wavefunctions under Born's interpretation? ...
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What happens in an infinitely long potential step when $E<V$?

In the case of a potential step when $E<V$, the transmission coefficient of the particle is zero. However, there is also an exponentially decaying wavefunction of the particle in that classically ...
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A simple explanation of the Born rule (v.2)? [duplicate]

Please post further comments or answers to A simple explanation of the Born rule? The probability that an initial quantum state $|\psi_i\rangle$ evolves to become the final quantum state $|\psi_f\...
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A simple explanation of the Born rule?

The probability that an initial quantum state $|\psi_i\rangle$ becomes the final quantum state $|\psi_f\rangle$ is given by \begin{eqnarray} P(i \rightarrow f) &=& |\langle\psi_f|\psi_i\...
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What made Born interpret $|\psi|^2$ as a probability density?

What was Born reasoning when he introduced the rule that $|\psi|^2$ could be interpreted as a probability density?
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QM probability density function without Born's rule, invariant to wave-function phase

The QM probability density as a function of the wave function is given by Born's rule as a postulate. This leads to the probability density being invariant to the phase of the wave function. Suppose ...
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Probabilities in Quantum Mechanics: Measurement Outcomes or More?

In all treatments of quantum mechanics, the probabilistic nature of the theory enters via the Born rule for the statistical properties of the measurement outcomes of some observable. In short, this ...
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What is difference in Dirac Notation for probability and Probability Density in Quantum Mechanics? [closed]

The Dirac Notation for wave function $$\langle\psi|\psi\rangle= \int_{-\infty}^\infty \psi^{*}\psi \,dx $$ $$\text{Probability} = \int_{-\infty}^\infty \psi^{*}\psi \,dx $$ But most often it is ...
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Understanding wave function graph

I found this graph from the internet that interprets the graphical representation of wave function.I completely understand the wave function that is depicted by blue line but i really am confused ...
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How much can a wave function tell us?

We can not predict the future by getting the velocity and position of particles since it’s not possible to get both of these together due to the uncertainty principle. But, according to Hawking’s book ...
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Question about a point in Srednicki's QFT book

On page 6, Sredniciki says (taking into account the erratum), that the "simplest possibility is for Alice and Bob to agree on the value of the wave function at a particular space-time point". This ...
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Bohr's Correspondence Principle and the Born Rule

Bohr's correspondence principle and the Born rule are related right? The correspondence principle states that the behavior of systems described by the theory of quantum mechanics reproduces classical ...
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In the pilot-wave theory, is the quantum potential moving electrons randomly inside atoms?

As we know, in the pilot-wave theory (Bohmian mechanics), particles are guided on certain trajectories by the wavefunction. Here (In Bohmian mechanics, do electrons move inside an atom?) I asked about ...
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What is Wave Function? [duplicate]

Well, what is the meaning of wave function? What does it represent? In Schrodinger's equation, we find the value of Ψ. But what is Ψ exactly? Max Born only gave an explanation of what $Ψ^2$ (the ...
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Does the electron act as point charge in scattering theory?

We know that an electron behaves like a point charge, and the probability density of its position is given by the Born rule. Now suppose that we shoot an electron toward an atom, so the electron gets ...
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Is the Born rule indeed wrong?

This is a question about the validity of a preprint, arXiv:quant-ph/0509089, which claims that the "Copenhagen Interpretation of QM is incorrect" (same title, authored by Guang-Liang Li and Victor O.K....
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Does the Central Limit Theorem hold for position measurements?

A friend asked me recently if the Central Limit Theorem holds for quantum systems: i.e., if the distribution of measurements (e.g., of position) for any wavefunction would prove approximately normal, ...
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How to understand the kernel as a transition amplitude?

Consider the time evolution operator $U(t_f, t_i)$ that controls the evolution of a wave function according to $|\psi(t_f \rangle = U(t_f, t_i) | \psi(t_i) \rangle$. As I understand it, the Born ...
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How to evaluate the probability when a particle is detected?

Everyone knows the standard probability interpretation of the quantum mechanics. For example, the wave function of some particle at some time $t$ is $\psi (x,t)$. Therefore, if the particle is ...
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Does the wavefunction probabilities have to sum to 1? [duplicate]

In quantum mechanics we are often told that $\int |\psi(x,t)|^2 dx^3 =1$. i.e. the probabilities have to sum to 1. And that this implies the time evolution operator is unitary. But can't we define ...
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Normalisation of quantum states: why?

We all learn that quantum states need to be normalized, as they are associated to probabilities which needs to sum up to one. However, I would like to know whether you have other valid reasons to ...
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Intuitive understanding of a wave function

Looks like wave function is an abstract mathematical object. I was trying to see if there is a simple way to visualize this. Can someone please help with that? I was thinking may be we can think that ...
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Small psi in the time-independent Schrödinger equation

I'm a total beginner in quantum mechanics, and I am learning about time-independent Schrödinger equation. we separate the wave function into two functions $$\Psi(x, t) = \psi(x)\phi(t).$$ Does the ...
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Probability of finding a particle in space [closed]

Given a particle whose wave function is square integrable, what is the probability of finding that particle somewhere in space?
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Can the many worlds interpretation use the Born rule for decoherence? [closed]

If the Many-Worlds Interpretation cannot derive the Born rule does it need mind body dualism to make sense of probabilities? I asked a different question here regarding MWI and circularity. But here'...
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Is there an official list of the postulates of quantum mechanics?

Having been looking at lecture notes, online sources and books, the list of postulates of quantum mechanics seems to vary. For instance, some sources (my lecture notes, for instance) refer to $|\...
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Is the energy of a vibrating string the classical analog to Born's rule?

Consider this Phys.SE question which spells out the energy of a vibrating string as a variant of Hooke's law, and thereby explains why it's proportional to the square of the amplitude (here: the ...
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Two Time Correlation function calculated from Born rule

Update Below I'm having a hard time reconciling two different calculations of the quantum two time correlation function. Consider quantum operator $A$ with eigenvectors $\{|\phi_i\rangle\}$ and ...
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A textbook's reading of the Born Interpretation

A textbook states the following: $P(x, t) \ dx $ is the probability that a measurement of the position of the particle described by $\Psi (x, t)$, at time $ t$, will find it in the region $(x, x +...
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I've read that $\langle a | b\rangle$ is a probability amplitude but $\langle a | a\rangle$ is a probability. Why the inconsistency?

I'm studying elementary quantum mechanics, and I've read that $\langle a \vert b \rangle$ is the probability amplitude of a transition from state $a$ to state $b$. Thus, $|\langle a | b \rangle|^2$ ...
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Does a wave function never reach zero probability density?

$$ψ=e^{iκx}$$ Since the wave function is an exponential equation, is there no point with zero probability density of finding a given particle? Does that justify quantum tunneling?
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Finding amplitude of probability

The mathematical structure of quantum mechanics, follows almost inevitably from the concept of a probability amplitude. For James Binney and David Skinner: "With every value in the spectrum of a ...
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What is the physical basis of Born's interpretations?

Did anyone has any idea how Born came up with the probabilistic interpretation of quantum mechanics. It is by all means very bizarre. And then it leads to the idea of copenhagen interpretation. Also ...
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Probability of finding an energy state of a non-normalisable wave-function

Suppose, say, I have the following wave function It represents the wave function of a free particle. I would want to calculate the probability of finding the particle with energy ħk and energy 2ħk. ...