Questions tagged [binding-energy]

Please use binding energy in the context of the atomic scale and/or atomic systems. This can be used in nuclear reactions.

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What is more massive, Proton, standard Hydrogen?

If you consider the classical states of hydrogen, one in which the electron is rotating at an orbital distance of $r$ and then take $\lim_{r\to\infty}$ one obtains that the $r_\infty$ state has more ...
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What is the binding energy between conduction band and valence band of metals and insulators?

As far as my understanding of solid state physics goes, I can't see a clear connection between binding energy and band gap. But our teacher asked us the question as an assignment but i really can't ...
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Accurate Equation for Earth's Gravitational Binding Energy

This is a relatively important question for anyone who can answer it. I am trying to find the equation that accurately solves for Earth's Gravitational Binding Energy. The information below is from ...
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Binding Energy and Energy Mass Equivalence

Consider a neutral atom. An external force acts on one of its valence electron so that it brings this valence electron to infinity away from the rest of the atom. The electron's kinetic energy does ...
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Relationship between binding energy of atoms in a solid and compressibility defined by bulk modulus

Consider an atom which has η nearest neighbours. The equilibrium binding energy $L_0$ of $N$ atoms is: $$ L_0 = \frac{Nηϵ}{2} $$ The bulk modulus $K$ of a solid of volume $V$ compressed under pressure ...
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Why bound states in QFT have higher mass than single particle states?

In standard textbooks in QFT while discussing e.g. the Kallen-Lehmann formula (see e.g. Section 7.1 in the Peskin-Schroeder book) it is always assumed that bound states of two or more particles have ...
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How fast do nuclei need to be traveling when colliding for them to break apart? [closed]

I don't mean fission or fusion reactions with uranium or such. I mean gold or lead or even hydrogen collisions, such as in these particle colliders or outer space, wherein the nuclei seem to touch, ...
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Binding energy of the nucleus

In a reaction U235+1n->141 Ba +92Kr +(3) 1n+200MeV, the energy released (200Mev) is of one atom or of 6.023*10^23 atoms?
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Why is the kinetic energy of an electron in a hydrogen atom at $n=2$ level, the negative of its total energy?

My textbook [1] says in order to determine the De Broglie wavelength of an $e^-$ in a hydrogen atom at energy level $n=2$, we can determine its kinetic energy first by finding its total energy from $E=...
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A question about Helium spectrum

I'm starting to read about two-electron atoms from physics of atoms and molecules by Bransden. Analyzing Helium spectrum I noticed that the energy of $He^+(1s)+e^-$ is greater than the energy of He, ...
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How exactly does nuclear reactor work in generating energy, when the energy created from fission transformed into binding energy?

I asked this question because I'm a bit confused about the concept of binding energy. From my understanding, in a nuclear reactor, Uranium-235 atoms are bombarded with neutrons so that fission ...
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113 views

Why are higher magic numbers not accurately predicted if nuclear potential is assumed to be a central potential?

Nuclei with magic numbers have a higher stability that those without. If we think of the nuclear potential as a central potential though these magic numbers aren't predicted accurately. Why is this so?...
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What is the relationship between binding energy / mass number as a function of mass number?

Specifically, in this figure, which shows the binding energy per nucleon of β-stable nuclei, what is the main contribution to the increasing value of B/A at low values of A? And what is the main cause ...
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When you see the atomic mass number for an element, does it take into account the atomic mass defect?

Sometimes I read that the official atomic mass number for an element on the periodic table only includes natural isotope ratios, other times I read that atomic mass defect, number of electrons, etc. ...
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Relativistic mass of components gives system rest mass?

To put it briefly, in the classic thought experiment of a massless box with mirrored insides containing photons, does the relativistic mass of the photons imbue the box with rest mass? I take it that'...
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Does the strong force increase or decrease with aligned spins?

The deuterium exists only with the proton and neutron of aligned spin, which suggests that the residual strong force is greated with aligned spins, i.e. the binding energy is greater if the spins are ...
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How does Pauli exclusion principle cause the coupling term in Weizsäcker formula?

Consider the pairing term in Weizsäcker formula. Here it is claimed that: Due to the Pauli exclusion principle the nucleus would have a lower energy if the number of protons with spin up were ...
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Why mass of nucleus decreases after binding of it's components (protons and neutrons)? [duplicate]

Nucleus mass should be equal to sum of mass of protons and neutrons, but after binding of these particles, its mass is reduced. Why? Due to reduced mass of protons or neurons? Then what's the purpose ...
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If a nucleus is radioactive, will another nucleus with lesser binding energy be necessarily radioactive?

Consider two nuclei A and B. Let the binding energy of A is less than the binding energy of B (i.e., A is unstable compared to B) and B is known to be radioactive. Does it mean that A also has to be ...
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How is energy actually extracted from fission?

Every source I can find right now just says something like 'energy/ heat is released by nuclear fission' but I can't find a description of the specific mechanism. I know that the energy 'conversion' ...
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Why do heavy unstable nuclei emit nuclei with high BE?

'Heavy unstable nuclei are likely to emit helium because it has a high binding energy'. Why is this? If a nucleus has a high binding energy than I thought that meant it has a lower mass than its ...
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381 views

Binding energy of the daughter nucleus

In radioactivity, the total binding energy of parent nucleus must be greater than the daughter nucleus. In alpha decay, uranium has greater binding energy because it is large but in beta plus decay (...
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Are free electrons truly free?

As this diagram shows, energy levels get closer together as they get higher. Is a free electron then truly free? Or is it in such a high (bound) state of energy that the transitions become nearly (but ...
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Why is energy emitted when nucleons come together?

In terms of nuclear fusion, why exactly does the coming-together of nucleons result in a net gain of energy (at least until iron)?
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Control of Nuclear Fission

What is it precisely which prevents current technology in nuclear fission from controlling the size of fission products; in other words, why is it not feasible, presuming that such an approach would ...
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Do all binding energies work like the exchanging force of photons but just in different strengths? [closed]

Do all Binding Energies use the same force but in different strengths?
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Nuclear stability [duplicate]

Why does increasing the number of neutrons in a nucleus make it more unstable? I know that adding more protons increases electrostatic repulsion, therefore the nucleus is more unstable, but as ...
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Unstable nuclei [closed]

I have been given three nuclei, $$\left(i\right)\:^{26}_9F\:,\:\left(ii\right)\:^{63}_{32}Ge,\:\left(iii\right)^{94}_{47}Ag.$$ For each nucleus I have to determine what makes it unstable. For the ...
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Are there bound states from light-light or gravity-gravity scattering in general relativity?

Is the formation of bound states from light-light scattering or from the scattering of gravitational waves possible according to general relativity? If it's possible, are there papers out there about ...
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183 views

How can I determine which element is found from an electron count vs binding energy graph

I am given tables of data that I have made into graphs with electron count vs binding energy. The goal of this assignment is to determine the element of the surface material using data that was ...
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994 views

Why doesn't hydrogen have a neutron?

Why doesn't hydrogen have a neutron?
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Is the change in mass during alpha decay a change in rest mass?

Energy is released in alpha decay as kinetic energy as the sum of the masses of the nuclei formed is less than the mass of the parent nucleus. However as the nuclei formed have kinetic energy their ...
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What is the difference between atomic mass and mass number?

As total number of nucleons in nucleus is equal to mass number. And is also called atomic mass number. I want to know that is there any difference between the two? Because in nuclear reactions mass ...
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Can I use this example for binding energy

From what I understand, no particles are converted to energy during a nuclear reaction. Could I use the following analogy?: 4 billiard balls are rolled into a bowling ball one at a time. Each ...
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What $E=mc^2$ has to do with nuclear formation?

I am a bit confused that what actually the Einstein's equation meant to describe binding energy wht is that $c^2$ for as when nucleon combine what is the need of speed of light in equation?
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Why is Helium 4 so stable?

I've been looking at stuff to do with binding energies and was wondering why Helium 4 is so stable. The fact everything up to carbon is less stable seems a bit odd. Is there a reason for this or ...
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$Q$ value of beta plus decay (positron emission) [closed]

I am unable to understand Q value for positron emission. The general reaction is as follows: $$p \to n + e^+ + \nu$$ $$ ^A_ZX \to ^A_{Z-1}Y+ e^+ + \nu \tag{1a}$$ This reaction $(1a)$ was giving in ...
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Feshbach -Resonance why are hyperfine structures important?

The hyperfine structure of energy levels around the ground state seem to enable Feshbach and be intrinsic to it. Why do we need hyperfine levels? I.e. why is Feshbach specific to ultracold atoms in ...
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Difference between Annihilation and Mass defect

I just need to clear something up. As I understand it, the mass defect of a system is the result of a loss of potential energy of a system. So (for example) when a nucleus forms, energy is released, ...
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87 views

Does the annihilation of antihydrogen with heavier matter resulting in conversion of heavier elements back to hydrogen?

If an antihydrogen atom annihilate with a heavier atom of matter, will the remaining nucleus of the heavier atom be disassembled into individual protons and neutrons? If so, is this considered to be ...
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Highest Binding Energy per Nucleon

According to Wikipedia Isotope of nickel has the highest binding energy per nucleon. But according to a statement in the standard textbook of our country it is said that Fe has the highest binding ...
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Why do different elements have different number of isotopes?

For example: Carbon-12,Carbon-13 and Carbon-14 are three isotopes of the element carbon with mass numbers 12, 13 and 14 respectively. Lithium-6 and Lithium-7 for lithium,etc. My question is that are ...
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Why nuclear fusion deliver energy instead of taking? [duplicate]

In nuclear physics, when you break eg. a nucleus of Uranium, some neutrons are liberated, and the original atom degrades to a lighter element. The energy that was used to keep these subatomic ...
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What is the theoretical efficiency of fusion?

What is the theoretical limit of the amount of energy that can be extracted from a fusion reaction? I am not talking about the practical efficiency of a reactor, but rather what fraction of the mass-...
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Why is there a difference in measured binding energy vs formula for binding energy? [closed]

I have a question about calculating the energy release from a fusion reaction. With parameters I have been supplied the liquid drop model semi-empirical binding energy formula gives the wrong answer. ...
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What happens if the bound electron of hydrogen atom gains kinetic energy exceeds binding energy?

Say a hydrogen atom is accelerated so that both the nucleus and the bound electron gains kinetic energy exceeding it's electron binding energy, yes I know an hydrogen atom with 1 proton, 1 neutron and ...
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605 views

Calculating binding energy of a molecule

To calculate binding energy of an atom we find difference between the mass of whole nucleons that constitute that atom and the experimental mass of the atom from tables. But, to calculate the binding ...
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In physics sometimes we find energy that is negative. What does the negative sign indicate?

Sometimes we see energy that is negative, for example, the energy of an electron in orbit. We know energy is something that can do something. In this view does negative energy mean something opposite ...
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Reversibility of the binding energy of the nucleus

I have been taught that mass defect arises due to loss of mass as energy during nucleus formation. Neutrons and protons have less mass in the nucleus than their theoretical mass. So my question is, ...
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Relation between Strong Forces and Binding Energy

The definition of Strong Force is the force that binds the quarks into the protons and neutrons, and spills over around each proton and neutron and is an attractive one. And Binding Energy is the ...