Questions tagged [binding-energy]

Please use binding energy in the context of the atomic scale and/or atomic systems. This can be used in nuclear reactions.

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665 views

What is the theoretical efficiency of fusion?

What is the theoretical limit of the amount of energy that can be extracted from a fusion reaction? I am not talking about the practical efficiency of a reactor, but rather what fraction of the mass-...
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239 views

Can daughter nuclei from fission be lighter than Fe-56?

In a typical nuclear fission reaction, a heavy nucleus decays into daughter nuclei which are lighter and have higher binding energy per nucleon. For example: ...
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2answers
82 views

What exactly is binding energy?

I've been reading on radioactivity but along the way I got confused, if binding energy is the amount of energy used in holding the nucleus together then why is binding energy also the amount of energy ...
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1answer
76 views

Why is the isotope of lead-206 stable against alpha decay?

The mass of Lead-206 is larger than that of Mercury-202 + Helium-4. Why is then Lead-206 stable against alpha decay? I have heard that the beta-decay can stabilize a nucleus against alpha decay, and ...
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1answer
23 views

Binding energy of a molecular ion?

The protons in the $\text{H}_2^{+}$ molecular ion are $0.106 \, \mathrm{nm}$ apart, and the binding energy of $\text{H}_2^{+}$ is $2.65\,\mathrm{eV} .$ What negative charge must be placed halfway ...
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35 views

Isn't it entropy (disorderliness) that every atom in the universe is not of iron Fe?

The concept of mass defect and binding energy Iron has most mass defect and the greatest binding energy. It has the most stable nuclei. Nuclei with higher atomic number than iron undergo fission ...
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1answer
129 views

Why Don't All Heavy Elements Decay into $^{62}\rm Ni$?

I read the question If we assume that protons don't decay, then will all matter ultimately decay into Iron-56 or into nickel-62?, but I have a different question concerning the decay that has ...
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29 views

How does binding energy change as more fermions interact?

The subject is few-body quantum mechanics. Given a system of $N$ identical fermions (spin 1/2) interacting through pairwise potentials $V_{ij}$, how does the binding energy change between $N$ and $N+1$...
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1answer
202 views

Why bound states in QFT have higher mass than single particle states?

In standard textbooks in QFT while discussing e.g. the Kallen-Lehmann formula (see e.g. Section 7.1 in the Peskin-Schroeder book) it is always assumed that bound states of two or more particles have ...
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366 views

Binding energy of a galaxy?

I'm a novice in physics and new to the forms, so please forgive me if this is a dumb question or if this is in the wrong section to be posted, but how would one find the gravitational binding energy ...
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79 views

Why do the masses of decay products affect the branching ratio?

Consider a particle $P$ of mass $100m$ (where $m$ is some unit). It can decay into either of two particle-antiparticle pairs: $P\to P_1\bar{P}_1$ with branching ratio $BR_1$, where $P_1$ has mass $...
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How to explain binding energy of electron in Geant4 particle transport code?

The question is related to binding energy of electrons in oxygen atom. First I will put the question and later explain how did I came across it. ========= The question =============== In the Geant4....
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75 views

Why is it inappropriate to calculate free energy change from end points alone?

In molecular dynamics, free energy changes are estimated using a variety of protocols to establish a path between the starting and ending states. The classic example is umbrella sampling in which a ...
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24 views

Determining the binding energy in the L-shell in copper

Im having trouble grasping the following problem: Calculate the binding energy in the L-shell for copper, if the binding energy for the K-shell is $ \ 1,439*10^{-15} J\ $. I know that you find the ...
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33 views

Released energy during fusion reaction

Click to view the video at required time According to the video in the link above the binding energy for deuterium is about 2 MeV and the binding energy for tritium is about 8 MeV so the total for ...
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1answer
56 views

Reaction energy $Q$

Really simple question, but I'm confused with it because of contradictions between sources (absence of clarity online vs lecture notes (says nuclear) and practise questions provided (uses atomic) ) ...
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30 views

Bare Critical Masses of $^{241}$Am, $^{242m}$Am, $^{238}$Pu and $^{242}$Pu

$^{238}$Pu has 144 neutrons, and it has 2.8$\times$10$^{3}$ g$^{-1}$.s$^{-1}$ spontaneous fission neutrons and bare critical mass in 10 kg. $^{242}$Pu has 148 neutrons, and it has 1.7$\times$10$^{3}$ ...
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3answers
94 views

Relativistic mass of components gives system rest mass?

To put it briefly, in the classic thought experiment of a massless box with mirrored insides containing photons, does the relativistic mass of the photons imbue the box with rest mass? I take it that'...
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43 views

Can I use this example for binding energy

From what I understand, no particles are converted to energy during a nuclear reaction. Could I use the following analogy?: 4 billiard balls are rolled into a bowling ball one at a time. Each ...
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507 views

Alpha decay condition using semi-empirical mass formula

I have to find a equation of Z as a function of A, where Z denotes the atomic number and A denotes the mass number of an atom, for odd-even nucleii which can barely undergo alpha decay (by themselves) ...
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1answer
785 views

Binding energy converted to kinetic energy/mass loss

My particular question is regarding nuclear fission, but applies to other nuclear processes as well. I understand that in nuclear fission, the two fragment nuclei have a higher binding energy per ...
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49 views

What is Binding energy/the energy required to for a nucleus to form a result of?

Is it simply the work required to overcome the electrostatic repulsion of protons, or rather the coloumb barrier potential between nuclei? If so where does the effective of tunneling come in, as ...
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733 views

Asymmetry Term in the Semi-Empirical Mass Formula

Could someone explain to me in simple terms what the asymmetry term means and how it is derived. I don't really want a full fledged mathematical derivation, but more the basic principle and idea ...
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767 views

What is the difference between mass defect and mass deficit?

Is there any difference between the mass defect and the mass deficit? I have read that the mass defect of a nuclide is never negative and have also been told that the mass defect is the same as the ...
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861 views

Mirror nuclei: accounting for the difference in mass between nuclei

I was wondering if anyone here could guide me in the right direction with respect to the following problem: Two nuclei are considered mirror nuclei if interchanging the neutrons and protons turns ...
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2answers
566 views

Why is the kinetic energy of an electron in a hydrogen atom at $n=2$ level, the negative of its total energy?

My textbook [1] says in order to determine the De Broglie wavelength of an $e^-$ in a hydrogen atom at energy level $n=2$, we can determine its kinetic energy first by finding its total energy from $E=...
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1answer
25 views

Calculating binding energy from mass defect

I am trying to wrap my head around the relationship between binding energy and mass defect. I have read that the difference between the binding energies of the products and reactants of a nuclear ...
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1answer
32 views

Why is the actual KE value smaller than what I calculated?

Problem The nuclear equation for the decay of calcium-47 into scandium-47 is given by: The following data are available: Mass of calcium-47 nucleus = 46.95455 u Mass of scandium-47 nucleus = 46....
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1answer
45 views

Fusion Kinetic Energy

In fusion, the mass of the reactants is greater than the mass of the products. Thus, mass is lost in fusion. My thinking was that this mass defect is converted into binding energy that is then used to ...
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33 views

Why does stability come from binding energy and not mass

The mass of a nucleus is given by: $$ Mc^2=n M_n c^2+zM_pc^2-B(z,n) $$ And we were told that nuclei want to maximise the binding energy per nucleon. However, I don't see why they don't want to ...
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2answers
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Why is the energy taken to free neutrons irrelevant to the energy released in a fission reaction?

Our teacher is currently teaching nuclear physics and I am confused on the process of calculating the energy released in a fission reaction. An example given in class is as follows: Uranium-235 + 1n -...
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1answer
51 views

If binding energy (from mass defect) is essentially the strong nuclear force maintaining the nucleus, why is it released?

I am aware that during nuclear fusion for light elements and nuclear fission for heavy elements, the resultant elements have less mass than the original reacting elements (ie the mass defect) because ...
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1answer
74 views

Impact of electronic binding energies on mass

According to relativity, the inertial mass of an object that enters into the force equation to get acceleration is given by the total energy in the center of mass rest frame. $$E=Mc^2=\sum_i (m_i c^...
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1answer
84 views

Why does the binding energy curve ever decrease?

So the way I understand binding energy is that if I have two nucleons and I let the come together, they’ll decrease their potential energy as they move closer and this will speed them up as they’re ...
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1answer
75 views

What is the binding energy between conduction band and valence band of metals and insulators?

As far as my understanding of solid state physics goes, I can't see a clear connection between binding energy and band gap. But our teacher asked us the question as an assignment but i really can't ...
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1answer
112 views

Why are higher magic numbers not accurately predicted if nuclear potential is assumed to be a central potential?

Nuclei with magic numbers have a higher stability that those without. If we think of the nuclear potential as a central potential though these magic numbers aren't predicted accurately. Why is this so?...
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1answer
106 views

Is the change in mass during alpha decay a change in rest mass?

Energy is released in alpha decay as kinetic energy as the sum of the masses of the nuclei formed is less than the mass of the parent nucleus. However as the nuclei formed have kinetic energy their ...
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1answer
87 views

What $E=mc^2$ has to do with nuclear formation?

I am a bit confused that what actually the Einstein's equation meant to describe binding energy wht is that $c^2$ for as when nucleon combine what is the need of speed of light in equation?
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30 views

Difference between Annihilation and Mass defect

I just need to clear something up. As I understand it, the mass defect of a system is the result of a loss of potential energy of a system. So (for example) when a nucleus forms, energy is released, ...
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1answer
106 views

What happens if the bound electron of hydrogen atom gains kinetic energy exceeds binding energy?

Say a hydrogen atom is accelerated so that both the nucleus and the bound electron gains kinetic energy exceeding it's electron binding energy, yes I know an hydrogen atom with 1 proton, 1 neutron and ...
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1answer
51 views

Whether mass defect can be restored its original level?

If two stick two magnets the mass will be less than sum of the individual magnets. They lose certain mass while they stick together. Probably, they release some energy. My question is: when the ...