Questions tagged [binding-energy]

Please use binding energy in the context of the atomic scale and/or atomic systems. This can be used in nuclear reactions.

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Where does Binding Energy get taken out when using conservation of momentum on inelastic collisions?

I'm sorry for this, as I know there are already many questions on here concerning inelastic collisions already, but I believe this one is actually slightly different. Although this has indeed the best ...
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Probability of an M-L electron transition in tungsten - characteristic x-rays

I am preparing a simple lesson on characteristic X-rays for tungsten, where the main energies produced are from $L \to K$ (about $58 \;\text{keV}$) and $M \to K$ (about $68 \;\text{keV}$) transitions. ...
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28 views

Kinetic energy required for alpha particle to 'stick' to nucleus of a silver atom

I am relatively new to nuclear physics and have just picked it up as a hobby. I found this question online and require some help. "An alpha particle is incident on a silver nucleus, what is the ...
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Differences between chemical bonds

Is there, from a physical point of view, an actual difference between the bonds used in chemistry: Covalent bond, Ionic bond, and Metal bond?
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Why free neutrons are usually produced in a Nuclear Fission?

The production of neutrons is a feature of fission reaction. Usually 2-3 free neutrons are produced in the fission. Why is that so?
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What is the meaning of negative energy?

In Bohr's model I studied that energy of an electron in the $nth$ shell is given by: $$E_{n}=-13.6 × \frac{Z^2}{n^2} eV.$$ Clearly, the energy of the electron comes out to be negative. But what is the ...
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Conjugate nuclei

I'm trying to find an explanation for the difference in binding energies between conjugate nuclei being governed by the Coulomb interaction. I was looking at the semi-empirical mass formula and trying ...
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Why is the number of isotopes of an element bounded?

Is there a known reason why any given element has finitely many isotopes? Here I mean both stable and unstable isotopes. If we know this, do we have a reason why, for a given element, are the isotopes ...
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Why does the binding energy per nucleon rise as the nucleon number rises, then go down again, with nuclei heavier than iron? [duplicate]

As the strong nuclear force is a short range force, and as it is way stronger than Coulomb force, Lumen Learning answered my question as follows: “for low-mass nuclei, the nuclear attraction dominates ...
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Binding energy per nucleon of the nucleus [closed]

I'm trying to calculate the binding energy in MeV per nucleon of the nucleus for Sulphur-34. However, I am told that my calculation is wrong and that the mass of the electrons do not have to be taken ...
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Is nuclear force always attractive?

I read in my high school physics's textbook that nuclear force holds the nucleus. Is the nuclear force another name for the strong force? If it holds the nucleus it should be attractive. Am I right?
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Proton to neutron mass ratio while free versus when bound inside the nucleus?

Is the proton to neutron mass ratio different while they are free versus when they are bound inside a nucleus?
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Is electric potential energy responsible for energy release in nuclear fission and nuclear potential energy in fusion? What if elec. force not exist?

It was my doubt and I thought it may be electric potential energy which is responsible for energy release in nuclear fission and by bombarding neutron we only provide energy to nucleons to cross ...
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$Q$ number equal to 0

What would $Q$ number equal to zero tell us about how the reaction occurs since $Q<0$ means energy needs to be supplied and $Q>0$ meaning the reaction occurs spontaneously. E.g. does $Q=0$ mean ...
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Why higher the binding energy per nucleon, more stable the nucleus is.?

Binding energy per nucleon is a measure of how stable the nucleaus is. is this true.? I looked at few answers on this site but there is no clear agreement on it.
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Effect of electrical potential energy in the binding energy of an nucleus?

The binding energy of a nucleus with $Z$ protons and $N=A-Z$ neutrons is given by $$B=(Zm_p+Nm_n-m_{nucleus})c^2$$ In the above equation we subtract the rest mass of nucleus from the rest mass of ...
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Proving that gravitational binding energy is proportional to $\frac{GM^2}{R}$

In the book "The Physics Of Stars" it is written that the gravitational binding energy stored in a sphere of radius $R$ and total mass $M$ is equal to $$-f\frac{GM^2}{R}$$ Where $f$ is some ...
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What is the difference between binding energy and nuclear binding energy?

So in my book there is a chapter summary that says “nuclear binding energy is the amount of energy that is released when nucleons (protons and neutrons) bind together” and the first time it was ...
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mass defect - total mass loss of one pellet

I have a task where there is a uranium pellet (mass=10g) with 3.5% U-235 and 96.5% U-238. Now I should calculate how much mass the pellet loses. I shall only consider the decay of U-235 and consider ...
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How do you measure the mass of the electron very precisely?

This week I showed my high school students that if you add the mass of a proton and the mass of an electron the result is higher than the mass of a hydrogen atom, because of the binding energy being ...
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Why does splitting a nucleus release energy but breaking molecular bonds requires energy?

The title pretty much says it all. Why is it that energy is required to break molecular bonds but energy is released when the bonds within the atomic nuclei are broken.
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Can you expect to see Island of Stability nuclei in matter flung off of neutron stars?

Apparently, merging neutron stars fling off baryon-rich matter that condenses into heavy elements, and this has been observed electromagnetically. It's not clear to me from the above sources whether ...
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Calculating energy release in MeV

I have the following questions, and would really appreciate you help towards finding the solution. If .190 amu is converted into energy for every nucleus of U-235 undergoing fission, then calculate ...
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Nuclear Binding Energy Graph

I know it is a silly question to ask, but I am confused with the following concept. Can anyone please clear it? As we know, the binding energy of H-1 is zero, so the fusion process would start from ...
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211 views

Nuclear Binding Energy Curve

As we know, anything to the left of Iron-56 in Binding Energy curve can be created by nuclear fusion reaction. The same with the fission products to the right side of Iron-56. But in case of this ...
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Do the experimentally obtained XPS Binding energies come from different shells? or all from the same shell ($1s$ $K$-shell)?

In experimentally obtained XPS atomic Binding Energy data like on NIST; is the ionization energy always for $1s$ electron, or it differs among elements? I checked the experimental data, and other ...
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Photodisintegration of deuterium

The photodisintegration reaction is given by $$\gamma\ + d\rightarrow n \ + \ p$$ I'm trying to find out the minimum energy of gamma photon $E_\gamma$ so that the reaction can occur. Writing the ...
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Hydrogen atom: Estimation of binding energy from each force

I've been asked to give an estimation on the binding energy related to each fundamental force (gravitational, electromagnetic, weak and strong) for the Hydrogen atom (you know, the one with a single ...
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Binding Energy and Stability in Nuclear fission

I've read that particles in nuclear fission disintegrates into two particles with higher binding energy, and in this process energy is released. Now I am just trying to understand this by common sense,...
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What would happen if the attractive force at work in the nucleus had been equal in magnitude to the repulsive electrostatic force between the protons?

I am just starting with radioactivity and I came upon this statement: "Since the nucleus is stable, this means that there is some attractive force at work in the nucleus and that its magnitude ...
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Stable number of neutrons for a given nucleus with $Z$ protons [closed]

I have been trying to derive an expression for the stable number of neutrons using the semi-empirical mass formula. I tried to derive it by dividing the Ma by total number of nucleons and then ...
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Why is the mass defect of nuclei used while calculating the $Q$ value of decay reactions?

i just came across two questions today the first one goes like: Here the answer is calculated with (mass defect of nuclei)*C^2,why do we use the mass of nuclei to calculate Q value in this case  but ...
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What is the relationship between binding energy, energy released, and mass defect? [duplicate]

Im learning about fission/fusion and cant get mass defect, binding energy, and energy released to fit together in my head. The three are all equal in magnitude if I understand it correctly? When, for ...
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Positive binding energy shenanigans

In Introductory Nuclear Physics by Kenneth S. Krane, section 3.3 p.65 is presented the following formula for the binding energy of a nucleon: $$B=\left\{Zm_p+Nm_n-\left[m\left(^{A}X\right)-Zm_e\right]\...
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Mass energy equivalence, binding energy and chemical reactions

I recently was nuclear physics there I learned that the the actual mass of a nucleus is less than what we expect it to be (simply adding the masses of the nucleons). It is due to the release of ...
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How can we get the binding energy equivalent mass due to mass defect via Deuteron's kinetic energy?

When nucleus of Deuteron is constituted through atomic formation, tiny segment of total mass is lost which we can get through Gamma Ray Radiation and via kinetic energy of Deuteron. Binding energy, $...
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Distribution of relative number of fission fragments versus mass number for uranium

For a fission of U-235 the fission fragments have a plot roughly shown below: Is there any basic logic( undergraduate level ) with which we can anticipate this curve? Imho the fission yield curve ...
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Does the strong force explain the binding energies of nuclei?

Does the current theory of the strong force accurately predict the Nuclear Energy Binding Curve? See definition of this curve on Wikipedia.
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Taylor expansion in semi-empirical mass formula derivation

I am trying to understand the derivation of the asymmetry term in the semi-empirical mass formula. I have found a useful derivation on Wikipedia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semi-...
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Gravitational Binding energy of a sphere of 2 uniform densities

So I know that the gravitational binding energy of a sphere of uniform density can be given by: $$U=-\frac{16}{3}G\pi^2\rho^2\int_0^Rr^4dr$$ Which if integrated gives: $$U=-\frac{3GM^2}{5R}$$ As ...
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Stability and Nuclear Binding Energy

I've read that the cause of Nuclear fission and nuclear fusion lies in the fact that Nuclear Binding Energy confers stability to a nucleus. This is why too heavy or too light nuclei resort to these ...
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Some confusing sentences on binding energy

I'll paste the exact lines of my textbook: (I) For nuclei of intermediate mass number 30<A<170 the binding energy per nucleon is almost constant. (II) For light and heavy nuclei the binding ...
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Mass changing form

I want to ask whether mass changes to charge or any other form in beta plus decay or minus decay because in beta plus decay up quark changes to down quark with formation of positron and neutrino, here ...
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Predicting the mass of hydrogen

After spinning around the atomic mass equation for calculating neutron separation energies, I have run into somewhat of a conundrum. It appears that the mass of the simplest of the examples, hydrogen ...
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Why is mass defect calculated by the rest mass (energy)?

I'm a high school student, and I have a question about the mass defect. I learned that when nuclear reaction occurs, the total rest mass (or rest energy) of reactants is greater than that of products, ...
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Nuclide Chart: cross-section for unstable isotopes

Why is there no cross-section for neutron capture on a nuclide chart for unstable isotopes (e.g. beta-plus/minus decaying isotopes). Since there are half-lifes long enough to make measuring those ...
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Can the ratio of gravitational force to Coulomb repulsion force in the nucleus be increased by adding neutrons? How many?

As you know, the ratio of gravitational force to Coulomb repulsion force between two protons is very small. This means that the source of nuclear stability cannot be the force of gravity. Can some ...
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Difference between bound and unbound nuclear states?

What are the differences between bound and unbound nuclear states? What does bound or unbound excited states mean? Please explain in nuclear sense.
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Is mass gained from the fusing of two nuclei with nucleon numbers higher than 56?

I am just confusing myself with binding energy and the binding energy curve. I want to know whether I have interpreted the graph right. So when both nuclei have a nucleon number over 56 and are fused ...
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Why does nuclear fusion not occur with nuclei with a nucleon number higher than 56? Please tell me if I am correct

Please tell me if my assumption is correct. So nuclear fusion does not occur with nuclei (with a nucleon number higher than 56) because the binding energy of the product nucleus is lower than the ...

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