Questions tagged [binding-energy]

Please use binding energy in the context of the atomic scale and/or atomic systems. This can be used in nuclear reactions.

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Stability in Nuclear Shell Model

As far as I understand , a particular sub-shell is filled with either protons or neutrons, $2*(2l+1)$ number of them, and never both together since protons and neutrons fill up levels separately in ...
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780 views

From where does the binding energy come from always to bind the nucleus?

Inside the nucleus there would always be the repulsive forces. The binding energy puts the nucleus binded but the energy eventually gets exhausted, but the repulsive forces are ever lasting. To bind ...
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Binding energy per nucleon error

I am given that the mass deficit of 114-Cd is -90.01 MeV, and asked to calculate the binding energy, which should simply be 90.01 MeV then, due to the use of natural units (i.e. where $c=1$). I'm then ...
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Why plutonium and uranium are especially susceptible to do fission?

Why plutonium and uranium are especially susceptible to do fission? Are there any other elements that can also be subject to fission?
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202 views

Why must nuclei contain both protons and neutrons? [duplicate]

In most atomic nuclei there are both protons and neutrons. Having a poor understanding of the strong interaction, it puzzles me why a nucleus must consist of both. Namely, why can there not be ...
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814 views

Why do products of nuclear decay have a lower mass than the original nucleus, when the sum of the mass of its nucleons is larger? [duplicate]

I've just started covering the topic of binding energy in Year 13 at school (final year before University). The definition we've been given of binding energy is that it is the work done when ...
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2answers
313 views

Gravitational binding energy of 2D circle [closed]

I'm interested in calculating the gravitational binding energy for an object modelled by 2D circle for a small collision simulator. In the simulation, I'm using a 2D equivalents of 3D properties (e.g ...
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1k views

Peaks in binding energy per nucleon

Looking at the the binding energy per nucleon chart: I observe peaks for N=4,8,12,16,20,24 while I expected to observe peaks for 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, and 126 because I have heard that in ...
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69 views

Why is the isotope of lead-206 stable against alpha decay?

The mass of Lead-206 is larger than that of Mercury-202 + Helium-4. Why is then Lead-206 stable against alpha decay? I have heard that the beta-decay can stabilize a nucleus against alpha decay, and ...
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23 views

Binding energy of a molecular ion?

The protons in the $\text{H}_2^{+}$ molecular ion are $0.106 \, \mathrm{nm}$ apart, and the binding energy of $\text{H}_2^{+}$ is $2.65\,\mathrm{eV} .$ What negative charge must be placed halfway ...
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Isn't it entropy (disorderliness) that every atom in the universe is not of iron Fe?

The concept of mass defect and binding energy Iron has most mass defect and the greatest binding energy. It has the most stable nuclei. Nuclei with higher atomic number than iron undergo fission ...
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Why Don't All Heavy Elements Decay into $^{62}\rm Ni$?

I read the question If we assume that protons don't decay, then will all matter ultimately decay into Iron-56 or into nickel-62?, but I have a different question concerning the decay that has ...
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How does binding energy change as more fermions interact?

The subject is few-body quantum mechanics. Given a system of $N$ identical fermions (spin 1/2) interacting through pairwise potentials $V_{ij}$, how does the binding energy change between $N$ and $N+1$...
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197 views

Why bound states in QFT have higher mass than single particle states?

In standard textbooks in QFT while discussing e.g. the Kallen-Lehmann formula (see e.g. Section 7.1 in the Peskin-Schroeder book) it is always assumed that bound states of two or more particles have ...
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49 views

Why is there a mass defect in nuclear fusion? [duplicate]

So I'm currently trying to wrap my head around nuclear fusion, but there is something that keeps bugging me: I've read in many places that when two hydrogen atoms combine, the resulting helium atom ...
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364 views

Binding energy of a galaxy?

I'm a novice in physics and new to the forms, so please forgive me if this is a dumb question or if this is in the wrong section to be posted, but how would one find the gravitational binding energy ...
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Why do the masses of decay products affect the branching ratio?

Consider a particle $P$ of mass $100m$ (where $m$ is some unit). It can decay into either of two particle-antiparticle pairs: $P\to P_1\bar{P}_1$ with branching ratio $BR_1$, where $P_1$ has mass $...
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How to explain binding energy of electron in Geant4 particle transport code?

The question is related to binding energy of electrons in oxygen atom. First I will put the question and later explain how did I came across it. ========= The question =============== In the Geant4....
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Why is it inappropriate to calculate free energy change from end points alone?

In molecular dynamics, free energy changes are estimated using a variety of protocols to establish a path between the starting and ending states. The classic example is umbrella sampling in which a ...
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3answers
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Does energy conservation not hold in fission and fusion processes?

I have read that during fission and fusion processes, there is some kind of equilibrium between the single nucleus and the disintegration products, so they are constantly being converted into each ...
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352 views

Is it possible for man to break Earth into 2 parts? [closed]

Many countries have extreme devastating nuclear weapons. Also they have weapons in very large numbers. I want to ask that Is it possible for man to break earth into 2 parts with the help ...
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862 views

Why isn't the ground state energy $-13.6 eV$ of electron in hydrogen atom also the rest energy $0.5 MeV$ of electron?

Why isn't the ground state energy $-13.6 eV$ of electron in hydrogen atom also the rest energy $0.5 MeV$ of electron?
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If a nucleus is radioactive, will another nucleus with lesser binding energy be necessarily radioactive?

Consider two nuclei A and B. Let the binding energy of A is less than the binding energy of B (i.e., A is unstable compared to B) and B is known to be radioactive. Does it mean that A also has to be ...
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Accurate Equation for Earth's Gravitational Binding Energy

This is a relatively important question for anyone who can answer it. I am trying to find the equation that accurately solves for Earth's Gravitational Binding Energy. The information below is from ...
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Binding energy of Helium and repulsion of protons

I've just done an exercise of computing the binding energy of Helium 4, which is around 27,43 MeV. Obviously the binding energy "compensates" for the repulsion between the protons due to their charges....
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128 views

Do we know what causes the release of energy in nuclear fission?

I was trying to put together all the things I've read in the last couple of days and I realized that based on my current knowledge of the standard model and the way nuclear fission works, I'm not able ...
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69 views

Binding Energy and Energy Mass Equivalence

Consider a neutral atom. An external force acts on one of its valence electron so that it brings this valence electron to infinity away from the rest of the atom. The electron's kinetic energy does ...
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75 views

How fast do nuclei need to be traveling when colliding for them to break apart? [closed]

I don't mean fission or fusion reactions with uranium or such. I mean gold or lead or even hydrogen collisions, such as in these particle colliders or outer space, wherein the nuclei seem to touch, ...
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113 views

Is there an example of a situation where you need a continuous spectrum?

If you had a hydrogen atom you could say that you want to be able to ionize them. But if you then add the potential due to the earth, e.g. $$V=\frac{-Gm_eM_\oplus}{\sqrt{(x_e-x_\oplus)^2+(y_e-y_\oplus)...
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49 views

Binding energy, fission and fusion

My high school physics book doesn't elaborate the idea of binding energy and how it's related to fission and fusion adequately in a way that made me have wrong thoughts about these ideas. What i ...
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101 views

What is more massive, Proton, standard Hydrogen?

If you consider the classical states of hydrogen, one in which the electron is rotating at an orbital distance of $r$ and then take $\lim_{r\to\infty}$ one obtains that the $r_\infty$ state has more ...
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5answers
175 views

Why mass of nucleus decreases after binding of it's components (protons and neutrons)? [duplicate]

Nucleus mass should be equal to sum of mass of protons and neutrons, but after binding of these particles, its mass is reduced. Why? Due to reduced mass of protons or neurons? Then what's the purpose ...
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1answer
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What is the difference between atomic mass and mass number?

As total number of nucleons in nucleus is equal to mass number. And is also called atomic mass number. I want to know that is there any difference between the two? Because in nuclear reactions mass ...
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3answers
140 views

Binding Energy and Instability

I believe that I am correct in saying that: (1) a nucleus constitutes a preferred configuration for nucleons as compared to a disassembled array of nucleons; and (2) nuclei decay so as to achieve more ...
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1answer
115 views

Is it correct that whenever energy change, mass also change?

Can I simply claim that, according to the mass-energy equation $E=mc^2$, whenever the energy of an physical object (not necessarily a microcosmic one) changes, its mass also change? Okay, I noticed ...
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1answer
50 views

Explanation of binding energy in decays

Everyone knows that the mass of a system is less than the mass of its components, with the equation: $M = \sum_i m_i - BE(M) $ Now, if we consider a general decay, lets say $A \rightarrow \sum_i ...
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709 views

Starting a nuclear reaction

In Chemistry, an amount of energy has to be supplied for a reaction to occur. This energy, known as the "activation energy", breaks up the bonds between molecues in the substance. It is equivalent to ...
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34 views

Binding energy and strong force

If binding energy is responsible for holding nucleons together than what is meaning of strong force?
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59 views

Does the strong force increase or decrease with aligned spins?

The deuterium exists only with the proton and neutron of aligned spin, which suggests that the residual strong force is greated with aligned spins, i.e. the binding energy is greater if the spins are ...
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$Q$ value of beta plus decay (positron emission) [closed]

I am unable to understand Q value for positron emission. The general reaction is as follows: $$p \to n + e^+ + \nu$$ $$ ^A_ZX \to ^A_{Z-1}Y+ e^+ + \nu \tag{1a}$$ This reaction $(1a)$ was giving in ...
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1answer
86 views

Does the annihilation of antihydrogen with heavier matter resulting in conversion of heavier elements back to hydrogen?

If an antihydrogen atom annihilate with a heavier atom of matter, will the remaining nucleus of the heavier atom be disassembled into individual protons and neutrons? If so, is this considered to be ...
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355 views

Why does fusion use mass for energy?

I have the basic idea: for small nuclei the mass of product is less than the mass of the individual pieces, this mass is released as energy via $E=mc^2$. But why do nuclei use the mass for energy? ...
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487 views

When does semi-empirical mass formula break down?

When does the semi-empirical mass formula stop working and what are its limitations? Is it when the difference in $N$ and $Z$ becomes large or when atoms become too big?
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123 views

How do we know which lighter elements fuse to form heavier elements?

Formation of lighter elements is fairly straightforward: He + He + He = C-12. However for each heavier element (heavier than Fe in particular), is there exactly one combination of (two lighter) ...
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1answer
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Why don't the nucleus break apart? [duplicate]

The nucleus of an atom is made up of protons and neutrons. So if there are many protons inside nucleus even though there are neutrons why don't this protons may repel away breaking nucleus apart? The ...
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1answer
155 views

Why do elements on the Binding Energy per Nuclear Molecule after Iron (most stable) even form?

So I was reading about the stability of elements based on Nuclear Binding Energy, and I saw that the 'Iron group' of elements were most tightly bound and hence most stable, and that is why the graph ...
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1answer
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Difference between a hydrogen ion and a proton

I've run into a bit of a problem on this weeks coursework. A proton and an electron initially at rest combine to form hydrogen. Find the wavelength of the emitted photon? So, as far as I can see, ...
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1answer
935 views

Proton mass and Weizsäcker's formula

I'm so confused in the use of nuclear masses and atomic masses. I have two questions. From the book "Outline of Modern Physics" by Ronald, I understand that the semiempirical mass formula (Weizsäcker'...
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1answer
116 views

Why is there a difference in measured binding energy vs formula for binding energy? [closed]

I have a question about calculating the energy release from a fusion reaction. With parameters I have been supplied the liquid drop model semi-empirical binding energy formula gives the wrong answer. ...
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1answer
2k views

Negative or positive binding energy?

I'm working with modern physics atm, and can't seem to wrap my head around the binding energies of some molecules. At first, I thought that a negative binding energy = unstable molecule, and a ...