Questions tagged [binding-energy]

Please use binding energy in the context of the atomic scale and/or atomic systems. This can be used in nuclear reactions.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
4
votes
1answer
3k views

Potential Energy in General Relativity

I often hear about how general relativity is very complicated because of all forms of energy are considered, including gravitation's own gravitational binding energy. I have two questions: In general ...
4
votes
1answer
125 views

Are there bound states from light-light or gravity-gravity scattering in general relativity?

Is the formation of bound states from light-light scattering or from the scattering of gravitational waves possible according to general relativity? If it's possible, are there papers out there about ...
4
votes
1answer
120 views

Highest naturally occuring binding energy of electrons

I was wondering which element has the highest binding energy of an electron. Is it simply the 1s electron of the heaviest stable element? If so, can somebody tell me where I can find a table of ...
4
votes
2answers
2k views

Why is hydrogen or helium used in nuclear fusion?

I am not a Physics student. Just out of own interest, I'm studying about fission and fusion reactions. Where I found in fusion, the scientist are using either hydrogen isotope or helium-3 as fuel (...
4
votes
1answer
1k views

If virtual particles have negative mass why do they contribute positive mass to atoms?

According to Lawrence Krauss, atoms containing in our body consists of merely 10% (if I remember correctly) of our total mass. The rest come from virtual particles popping in and out of existence from ...
4
votes
3answers
663 views

Why don't neutrons in a nucleus decay? [duplicate]

When I asked here why neutrons in nucleus (with protons) don't decay I was told that it would require energy for the neutron to decay, it wouldn't give energy. And since that wasn't really what I ...
4
votes
2answers
542 views

Why is it energetically favourable for molecular bonds to form from a QM point of view?

For example, if you have two hydrogen atoms and an oxygen atom, they are all electrically neutral and don't attract each other. But then if they manage to get "close enough" somehow they snap together ...
4
votes
1answer
203 views

If the energy of an ant is smaller than an elephant, does that mean the ant is more stable than the elephant?

I know that when a system is in its lowest level of energy, it is most stable. However, what if system 1 has lower energy than system 2, does it keep meaning so? Or do we need to examine their binding ...
4
votes
0answers
107 views

How fission and fusion create energy? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: How to explain $E=mc^2$ mass defect in fission/fusion In order for energy to be released, mass has to be "lost", because mass is a form of energy. In my science class, we are ...
3
votes
5answers
5k views

Why do almost all nuclear reactions release energy?

I'm just wondering why almost all nuclear reactions release energy, in a typical way, the mass defect is transformed into energy ? Is there a nuclear reaction that gains mass (resp. energy)? or most ...
3
votes
4answers
4k views

What type of energy released from Nuclear Fission

My physics book mentions that its kinetic energy being released from the splitting of atoms, but it makes more sense for it to be heat energy as the construction of a power plant as shown below is ...
3
votes
3answers
529 views

In physics sometimes we find energy that is negative. What does the negative sign indicate?

Sometimes we see energy that is negative, for example, the energy of an electron in orbit. We know energy is something that can do something. In this view does negative energy mean something opposite ...
3
votes
2answers
5k views

What makes a nucleus unstable?

My question is simply that - what makes a nucleus unstable? What exactly causes a nucleus to start breaking apart in the first place? Is it the Coulomb force between the neighboring protons? I'm just ...
3
votes
3answers
888 views

Why doesn't hydrogen have a neutron?

Why doesn't hydrogen have a neutron?
3
votes
2answers
7k views

binding energy of a nucleus is positive?

I have found from this link http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/nucene/nucbin.html that: Nuclei are made up of protons and neutron, but the mass of a nucleus is always less than the sum of the ...
3
votes
4answers
10k views

Why is the total energy of an orbiting system negative?

Assume it's an circular orbit. Object A orbits around object B. Take object B as frame of reference. .$E=KE_a + GPE$ .$E=\frac 12m_av_a^2 +(-\frac {GM_bm_A}r)$ .$E=\frac 12m_a(GM_br)+(-\frac {...
3
votes
1answer
113 views

Nuclear stability [duplicate]

Why does increasing the number of neutrons in a nucleus make it more unstable? I know that adding more protons increases electrostatic repulsion, therefore the nucleus is more unstable, but as ...
3
votes
3answers
3k views

How does the semi-empirical mass formula prove or detract from the existence of the “valley of stability”?

I came across this passage in my lecture notes. The semi-empirical mass formula (SEMF) is a better estimator of atomic mass than the standard mass formula, which neglects spatial arrangement of ...
3
votes
4answers
1k views

Mass Defect…cause and origin?

What makes it occur? How do the protons and nucleus know that they have to lose mass to produce energy...? And is the mass of a compressed Spring more than an uncompressed one?? does a body which has ...
3
votes
1answer
1k views

Radioactive decay / binding energies

If my understanding is correct, the binding energy determines a nucleus' stability and the greater the binding energy, the more stable the nucleus (e.g iron-56). The mass of the sum of nucleons that ...
3
votes
1answer
201 views

Binding Energy of He

The graph of nuclear binding energy is relatively smooth going from H to U, except for He4 (alpha particle). Why is He4's binding energy so anomalously high compared to its neighboring isotopes?
3
votes
1answer
180 views

How is binding energy actually measured?

How, exactly does one measure binding energy? Or, assuming binding energy is calculated from mass defect and $E = mc^{2}$, then, how is mass defect measured? I know one can be calculated from the ...
3
votes
1answer
555 views

What holds metal atoms together? And what accounts for the strength of metallic bonds?

From the wikipedia page for metallic bonding, I've noticed that there seem to be a few things at play: (1) the delocalization of electrons, and (2) the fact that there are a far larger number of ...
3
votes
2answers
324 views

Probability of fluorescence: matching of binding energy and incoming radiation energy?

Assume an X-ray diffractometer equipped with a copper anode X-ray tube. When a sample containing cobalt, iron, or manganese is irradiated by copper's K$\alpha_1$ radiation, sample fluorescence becomes ...
3
votes
2answers
10k views

Why is the binding energy per nucleon not zero for hydrogen atom?

The lone proton has not to be worked on against any electrostatic force. So where does the energy come from? What is mass defect for a hydrogen nucleus?
3
votes
3answers
222 views

Are free electrons truly free?

As this diagram shows, energy levels get closer together as they get higher. Is a free electron then truly free? Or is it in such a high (bound) state of energy that the transitions become nearly (but ...
3
votes
1answer
90 views

Feshbach -Resonance why are hyperfine structures important?

The hyperfine structure of energy levels around the ground state seem to enable Feshbach and be intrinsic to it. Why do we need hyperfine levels? I.e. why is Feshbach specific to ultracold atoms in ...
3
votes
1answer
490 views

Can heavy elements be fused? [duplicate]

Yes, I know, in stars, fusion occurs up to Iron(-56); but, I want to know if fusion past this nucleus can happen at all. If so, the daughter element would move to the right of the peak and its ...
3
votes
0answers
239 views

Can daughter nuclei from fission be lighter than Fe-56?

In a typical nuclear fission reaction, a heavy nucleus decays into daughter nuclei which are lighter and have higher binding energy per nucleon. For example: ...
3
votes
2answers
81 views

What exactly is binding energy?

I've been reading on radioactivity but along the way I got confused, if binding energy is the amount of energy used in holding the nucleus together then why is binding energy also the amount of energy ...
2
votes
3answers
808 views

Coupling fission and fusion and disappear all mass. Why doesn't this happen?

I'm confused about the fact that in a fission process the masses of the "products" are less than the mass of the "reactants". And in a fusion process the masses of the "products" are less than the ...
2
votes
3answers
1k views

Binding energies of $Be$

Just a quick question. How does Beryllium 8 decay into 2 alpha particles? Beryllium 8 has a binding energy of 56.499508 Mev An alpha particle has a binding energy of 28.3 so two of these would have ...
2
votes
4answers
1k views

The “binding energy” of bonded particles adds mass?

This is a follow-up my previous question. Several of the answers indicated that the mass of a particle (atom, proton, etc.) increase with the "binding energy" of it's component particles - the energy ...
2
votes
2answers
506 views

Basics questions about the strong force

I have what is probably a bitter misconception about the strong force which I would like to clarify. Here's my (probably flawed) reasoning. The strong forces holds protons and neutrons together at ...
2
votes
2answers
91 views

How is energy actually extracted from fission?

Every source I can find right now just says something like 'energy/ heat is released by nuclear fission' but I can't find a description of the specific mechanism. I know that the energy 'conversion' ...
2
votes
2answers
6k views

Energy from 1 gram of fuel in a nuclear power plant?

It might go without saying, but I am asking about a fission reactor. I assume the fuel still has mass after it is used. If I am right about that, I can't use $E=m*c^2$ to answer my question. Hence my ...
2
votes
2answers
2k views

Nuclear Binding energy

The nuclear binding energy, is the energy that is needed to seperate the nucleons in a nucleus. And binding energy is also defined as the energy given out when a nucleus forms from nucleons. Also ...
2
votes
1answer
45 views

Stability of isotopes

Yesterday I was looking at the semi-empirical mass formula and calculating some binding energies of specific nuclei. Eventually I came across this website that listed both total binding energies per-...
2
votes
2answers
2k views

Why is the exciton binding energy slightly smaller than the band gap energy?

In a semiconductor it requires energy equivalent to the band gap energy ($E_g$) to excite an electron to the conduction band. This gives rise to an exciton (conduction electron-valence hole pair). The ...
2
votes
2answers
89 views

The mass/energy of an $H$-atom and the gravitational force between it and another particle of mass $m$

The gravitational force between an $H$-atom and another particle of mass $m$ will be given by Newton's law: $$F=\frac{GMm}{r^2}$$ The question is, what is $M$ here? I thought the answer would be $$...
2
votes
2answers
166 views

Binding energy and invisible mass

The gravitational binding energy of a sphere is: $U=\frac{3GM^2}{5r}$, the mass defect is $\Delta E=\Delta m c^2$. Putting: $M=\frac{4}{3}\rho\pi r^3$, we get: $$U=\frac{16}{15}G\rho^2\pi^2 r^5$$. Now ...
2
votes
4answers
187 views

How much of the proton's mass is due to the Higgs field?

The proton mass is 938 MeV. People often claim that (A) The proton is a bound state of two up quarks and one down quark, with the three quarks contributing a total rest mass of $2 \times (2.2 \text{...
2
votes
2answers
114 views

How does Pauli exclusion principle cause the coupling term in Weizsäcker formula?

Consider the pairing term in Weizsäcker formula. Here it is claimed that: Due to the Pauli exclusion principle the nucleus would have a lower energy if the number of protons with spin up were ...
2
votes
1answer
207 views

Why is Helium 4 so stable?

I've been looking at stuff to do with binding energies and was wondering why Helium 4 is so stable. The fact everything up to carbon is less stable seems a bit odd. Is there a reason for this or ...
2
votes
1answer
596 views

Calculating binding energy of a molecule

To calculate binding energy of an atom we find difference between the mass of whole nucleons that constitute that atom and the experimental mass of the atom from tables. But, to calculate the binding ...
2
votes
2answers
4k views

Why has a molecule less energy than the uncombined atoms?

My book says, A molecule as compared to the atoms from which it is formed is more stable because it possesses energy lower than the energy of the uncombined atoms. This difference in energy is due ...
2
votes
1answer
1k views

Does the rest mass energy include the potential energy of the particle?

The potential energy (as far as I have studied - that is, mainly classical physics) depends on the reference level, since its absolute value cannot be calculated. It can therefore be negative as well. ...
2
votes
3answers
271 views

What is the binding energy of a black hole?

As the particles which constitute a black hole collapse they become tightly bound. I assume this means a lot of energy would be required to liberate a particle from that bound state. Is it a finite ...
2
votes
1answer
52 views

For which kind of nuclear reactions is the nuclear binding energy per nucleon appropriate?

The nuclear binding energy curve is often presented as a reason why iron is abundant in planet cores. However, to me it is not entirely evident why binding energy per nucleon, E/A, is chosen to assess ...
2
votes
2answers
66 views

How is mass of neutron compared with proton when it is inside the nucleus? [closed]

The mass of free neutron is around 0.1% more than the mass of proton. When it is bound inside the nucleus, neutron mass is less compared to its mass in free state. The question is how much mass it ...