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Questions tagged [binding-energy]

Please use binding energy in the context of the atomic scale and/or atomic systems. This can be used in nuclear reactions.

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Why is Iron the most stable element? [duplicate]

Iron has the highest binding energy per nucleon in the entirety of the known elements. But why Iron specifically? What makes it have the highest binding energy per nucleon?
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1answer
801 views

Why do products of nuclear decay have a lower mass than the original nucleus, when the sum of the mass of its nucleons is larger? [duplicate]

I've just started covering the topic of binding energy in Year 13 at school (final year before University). The definition we've been given of binding energy is that it is the work done when ...
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1answer
108 views

How is electromagnetic binding energy introduced in the stress-energy tensor

Take the hydrogen atom. It is easy to imagine that the gravitational pull it creates is smaller than the sum of those of the proton plus the electron, because a photon of 13.6 eV was created when the ...
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1answer
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How can one interaction influence the way another interaction generates mass?

This question arose as a follow-up of this one and applies generally to all interactions and all ways to generate mass. To make it clear, I take here the example of the neutron, whose mass is in ...
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2answers
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Gravitational binding energy of 2D circle [closed]

I'm interested in calculating the gravitational binding energy for an object modelled by 2D circle for a small collision simulator. In the simulation, I'm using a 2D equivalents of 3D properties (e.g ...
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3answers
730 views

Are chemical bonds matter?

So it recently blew my mind that chemical bonds have mass. And that a spring that's wound up similarly weights a little more. But there is a distinction between mass and matter. I believe that a ...
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1answer
183 views

Can energy be weighed?

The binding energy of nucleus is calculated as- Mass defect = (Total mass of nucleons-Mass of the nucleus) And after that $E=mc^2$ is used for calculating the binding energy. Hot water is heavier ...
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1answer
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Does the rest mass energy include the potential energy of the particle?

The potential energy (as far as I have studied - that is, mainly classical physics) depends on the reference level, since its absolute value cannot be calculated. It can therefore be negative as well. ...
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2answers
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Does chemical energy contribute to mass? [duplicate]

Does chemical energy contribute to the mass of an object? I don't mean the bond energy, but the possible energy that could be released (i.e. Does an atom of oxygen and a molecule of hydrogen (H2) have ...
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0answers
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How to explain binding energy of electron in Geant4 particle transport code?

The question is related to binding energy of electrons in oxygen atom. First I will put the question and later explain how did I came across it. ========= The question =============== In the Geant4....
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1answer
123 views

How does fusion work in the Sun if neutrons have more mass than protons?

According to my textbook, the next result of the fusion reactions in the Sun is: 4H -> He + neutrinos + gamma photons However, if hydrogen atoms are basically a proton and helium atoms are 2 protons ...
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3answers
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Is there an example of a situation where you need a continuous spectrum?

If you had a hydrogen atom you could say that you want to be able to ionize them. But if you then add the potential due to the earth, e.g. $$V=\frac{-Gm_eM_\oplus}{\sqrt{(x_e-x_\oplus)^2+(y_e-y_\oplus)...
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3answers
264 views

What is the binding energy of a black hole?

As the particles which constitute a black hole collapse they become tightly bound. I assume this means a lot of energy would be required to liberate a particle from that bound state. Is it a finite ...
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1answer
434 views

How covalent bonding lower the energy of potential energy? [duplicate]

Considering the potential energy of interacting particles, how does covalent bonding lower the energy of the system?
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3answers
2k views

What is the binding energy of a neutron star?

Neutrons which constitute a neutron star have a rest mass that is greater when separated from the star because they are bound with a certain potential energy. This potential energy causes the system ...
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3answers
4k views

Do chemical bonds have mass?

When an exothermic reaction occurs, the energy in the chemical bonds of the reactants is partially transferred to the chemical bonds of the products. The remaining energy is released as heat. For ...
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1answer
963 views

Binding energy and mass

I’ve been told that a greater binding energy means the nucleus is more tightly bound, and therefore that decreases the mass of the nucleus with respect to its nucleons when separated. But why does a ...
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4answers
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Why are heavier nuclei unstable?

If you have more neutrons than protons, then there will be more strong force present to counteract the repulsive forces between protons. Why is it that above bismuth, no nucleus is stable, regardless ...
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2answers
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What is the binding energy in General Relativity?

In general relativity, the potential energy is given by $$V(r)=\frac{h^{2}}{2r^{2}}\left(1-\frac{2M}{r}\right)-\frac{M}{r}.$$ Solving $V^{\prime}(r)=0$, there are two points where circular orbits ...
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1answer
155 views

Why do elements on the Binding Energy per Nuclear Molecule after Iron (most stable) even form?

So I was reading about the stability of elements based on Nuclear Binding Energy, and I saw that the 'Iron group' of elements were most tightly bound and hence most stable, and that is why the graph ...
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3answers
349 views

Is it possible for man to break Earth into 2 parts? [closed]

Many countries have extreme devastating nuclear weapons. Also they have weapons in very large numbers. I want to ask that Is it possible for man to break earth into 2 parts with the help ...
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1answer
808 views

Total energy of neutrons and protons

In a stable nucleus, are the total energies of neutrons and protons same?
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3answers
16k views

When a nucleus is split, what form of energy is released?

When an nucleus is split, what form of energy is released? All of the websites I have looked at say there is a lot of energy released when an atom is split, but it never says what form of energy it is ...
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3answers
807 views

Coupling fission and fusion and disappear all mass. Why doesn't this happen?

I'm confused about the fact that in a fission process the masses of the "products" are less than the mass of the "reactants". And in a fusion process the masses of the "products" are less than the ...
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1answer
185 views

Binding energy per nucleon dependency

For a given isotope, does the nuclear binding energy per nucleon depend on the presence of electrons? For instance, if an electron was excited by an incoming photon and jumps to a different orbital, ...
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3answers
8k views

Why do only heavy radioactive elements perform fission?

Why do only heavy radioactive elements perform fission? I mean what's so special about heavy elements which makes them ideal for nuclear fission? Also why do only neutrons show fission/fusion and why ...
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0answers
723 views

Asymmetry Term in the Semi-Empirical Mass Formula

Could someone explain to me in simple terms what the asymmetry term means and how it is derived. I don't really want a full fledged mathematical derivation, but more the basic principle and idea ...
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2answers
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Why more Fe-56 than Ni-62 as fusion product in heavy stars?

Suppose we create an Fe-56 nucleus and an Ni-62 nucleus, each from individual protons and neutrons. In the case of Ni-62, more mass per nucleon is converted to binding energy. Thus we could argue the ...
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2answers
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Energy from 1 gram of fuel in a nuclear power plant?

It might go without saying, but I am asking about a fission reactor. I assume the fuel still has mass after it is used. If I am right about that, I can't use $E=m*c^2$ to answer my question. Hence my ...
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2answers
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BINDING ENERGY OR BINDING ENERGY PER NEUCLEON REMAINS CONSTANT [duplicate]

Which one is constant BINDING ENERGY or BINDING ENERGY PER NEUCLEON? I GOT LOTS OF ANS. BUT I CAN`T UNDERSTAND. IS NEITHER OF THE IS CONSTANT?
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2answers
414 views

What is an element's “weight” when talking about “elements heavier than iron” being formed in supernovae

I always hear that elements heavier than iron are formed in supernovae. But, what is taken as an element's weight? I had always believed that this meant any elements with an atomic number greater than ...
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1answer
121 views

Protons and Neutrons Overshoot Actual Mass? [duplicate]

When I add up the mass of 6 protons and 6 neutrons in amu, I get a mass that is greater than the mass of carbon. I thought that it should be the other way around, because I have not including binding ...
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2answers
797 views

Semi-empirical mass formula [closed]

The mass formula is given by $M(Z,A) = ZM_{p}+(A-Z)M_{n}-a_{1}A+a_{2}A^\frac{2}{3}+a_{3}\frac{Z(Z-1)}{A^\frac{1}{3}}+a_{4}\frac{(Z-A/2)^2}{A}+a_{5}A^\frac{-1}{2}$ So I am just wondering here what ...
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1answer
243 views

Mass of an Atom

So the mass deficit of an atom, denoted by $\Delta M(Z,A)$, is given by the following formula, $\Delta M(Z,A) = M(Z,A) - Z(M_{p} + m_{e}) -NM_{n}$ However since the rest mass of an electron is a lot ...
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3answers
683 views

Binding Energy of an atom

I would like to know if there is any difference between the binding energy of a nucleus and the binding energy of an atom and what exactly do we mean when we say Binding energy per nucleon.. Edit to ...
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0answers
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What is the difference between mass defect and mass deficit?

Is there any difference between the mass defect and the mass deficit? I have read that the mass defect of a nuclide is never negative and have also been told that the mass defect is the same as the ...
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2answers
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Binding energy of Helium and repulsion of protons

I've just done an exercise of computing the binding energy of Helium 4, which is around 27,43 MeV. Obviously the binding energy "compensates" for the repulsion between the protons due to their charges....
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0answers
854 views

Mirror nuclei: accounting for the difference in mass between nuclei

I was wondering if anyone here could guide me in the right direction with respect to the following problem: Two nuclei are considered mirror nuclei if interchanging the neutrons and protons turns ...
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2answers
673 views

The semi-empirical formula and $E=mc^2$

The semi-empirical formula is used to find the binding energy of a nucleus. But if you know the mass of a nucleus and the number of neutrons and protons that this nucleus consists of (and you know ...
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4answers
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Why is the total energy of an orbiting system negative?

Assume it's an circular orbit. Object A orbits around object B. Take object B as frame of reference. .$E=KE_a + GPE$ .$E=\frac 12m_av_a^2 +(-\frac {GM_bm_A}r)$ .$E=\frac 12m_a(GM_br)+(-\frac {...
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2answers
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The mass/energy of an $H$-atom and the gravitational force between it and another particle of mass $m$

The gravitational force between an $H$-atom and another particle of mass $m$ will be given by Newton's law: $$F=\frac{GMm}{r^2}$$ The question is, what is $M$ here? I thought the answer would be $$...
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1answer
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What's the difference between binding energy and separation energy?

My understanding of the two was as follows: the binding energy of a nucleus is, classically speaking, the energy needed to put together/take apart that nucleus completely (i.e. a measure of the strong ...
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3answers
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Does energy conservation not hold in fission and fusion processes?

I have read that during fission and fusion processes, there is some kind of equilibrium between the single nucleus and the disintegration products, so they are constantly being converted into each ...
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1answer
114 views

Is it correct that whenever energy change, mass also change?

Can I simply claim that, according to the mass-energy equation $E=mc^2$, whenever the energy of an physical object (not necessarily a microcosmic one) changes, its mass also change? Okay, I noticed ...
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2answers
323 views

Probability of fluorescence: matching of binding energy and incoming radiation energy?

Assume an X-ray diffractometer equipped with a copper anode X-ray tube. When a sample containing cobalt, iron, or manganese is irradiated by copper's K$\alpha_1$ radiation, sample fluorescence becomes ...
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0answers
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Why is it inappropriate to calculate free energy change from end points alone?

In molecular dynamics, free energy changes are estimated using a variety of protocols to establish a path between the starting and ending states. The classic example is umbrella sampling in which a ...
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3answers
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Binding energies of $Be$

Just a quick question. How does Beryllium 8 decay into 2 alpha particles? Beryllium 8 has a binding energy of 56.499508 Mev An alpha particle has a binding energy of 28.3 so two of these would have ...
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4answers
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Mass Defect…cause and origin?

What makes it occur? How do the protons and nucleus know that they have to lose mass to produce energy...? And is the mass of a compressed Spring more than an uncompressed one?? does a body which has ...
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2answers
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What makes a nucleus unstable?

My question is simply that - what makes a nucleus unstable? What exactly causes a nucleus to start breaking apart in the first place? Is it the Coulomb force between the neighboring protons? I'm just ...
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1answer
3k views

Difference between a hydrogen ion and a proton

I've run into a bit of a problem on this weeks coursework. A proton and an electron initially at rest combine to form hydrogen. Find the wavelength of the emitted photon? So, as far as I can see, ...