Questions tagged [binding-energy]

Please use binding energy in the context of the atomic scale and/or atomic systems. This can be used in nuclear reactions.

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What $E=mc^2$ has to do with nuclear formation?

I am a bit confused that what actually the Einstein's equation meant to describe binding energy wht is that $c^2$ for as when nucleon combine what is the need of speed of light in equation?
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About the Stability of hydrogen Isotopes

Shouldn't tritium be more stable than a hydrogen atom with no neutrons? Why does tritium do alpha decay but not hydrogen atom with no neutrons? I suppose that when the number of neutrons increases the ...
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Why is Helium 4 so stable?

I've been looking at stuff to do with binding energies and was wondering why Helium 4 is so stable. The fact everything up to carbon is less stable seems a bit odd. Is there a reason for this or ...
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$Q$ value of beta plus decay (positron emission) [closed]

I am unable to understand Q value for positron emission. The general reaction is as follows: $$p \to n + e^+ + \nu$$ $$ ^A_ZX \to ^A_{Z-1}Y+ e^+ + \nu \tag{1a}$$ This reaction $(1a)$ was giving in ...
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Feshbach -Resonance why are hyperfine structures important?

The hyperfine structure of energy levels around the ground state seem to enable Feshbach and be intrinsic to it. Why do we need hyperfine levels? I.e. why is Feshbach specific to ultracold atoms in ...
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Difference between Annihilation and Mass defect

I just need to clear something up. As I understand it, the mass defect of a system is the result of a loss of potential energy of a system. So (for example) when a nucleus forms, energy is released, ...
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86 views

Does the annihilation of antihydrogen with heavier matter resulting in conversion of heavier elements back to hydrogen?

If an antihydrogen atom annihilate with a heavier atom of matter, will the remaining nucleus of the heavier atom be disassembled into individual protons and neutrons? If so, is this considered to be ...
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Highest Binding Energy per Nucleon

According to Wikipedia Isotope of nickel has the highest binding energy per nucleon. But according to a statement in the standard textbook of our country it is said that Fe has the highest binding ...
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Why do different elements have different number of isotopes?

For example: Carbon-12,Carbon-13 and Carbon-14 are three isotopes of the element carbon with mass numbers 12, 13 and 14 respectively. Lithium-6 and Lithium-7 for lithium,etc. My question is that are ...
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Why are there no stable isotopes with an atomic mass of 5 or 8?

One of the things I've encountered in my travels is the mass-5 roadblock. Rod Nave writes about it on his excellent educational hyperphysics website: The helium-4 nucleus or alpha particle with a ...
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Calculating binding energy of a molecule

To calculate binding energy of an atom we find difference between the mass of whole nucleons that constitute that atom and the experimental mass of the atom from tables. But, to calculate the binding ...
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Conversion of mass to energy in chemical/nuclear reactions

Is mass converted into energy in exothermic chemical/nuclear reactions? My (A Level) knowledge of chemistry suggests that this isn't the case. In a simple burning reaction, e.g. $$\mathrm{C + O_2 \...
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From where does the binding energy come from always to bind the nucleus?

Inside the nucleus there would always be the repulsive forces. The binding energy puts the nucleus binded but the energy eventually gets exhausted, but the repulsive forces are ever lasting. To bind ...
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What is the theoretical efficiency of fusion?

What is the theoretical limit of the amount of energy that can be extracted from a fusion reaction? I am not talking about the practical efficiency of a reactor, but rather what fraction of the mass-...
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Why nuclear fusion deliver energy instead of taking? [duplicate]

In nuclear physics, when you break eg. a nucleus of Uranium, some neutrons are liberated, and the original atom degrades to a lighter element. The energy that was used to keep these subatomic ...
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Why is there a difference in measured binding energy vs formula for binding energy? [closed]

I have a question about calculating the energy release from a fusion reaction. With parameters I have been supplied the liquid drop model semi-empirical binding energy formula gives the wrong answer. ...
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What happens if the bound electron of hydrogen atom gains kinetic energy exceeds binding energy?

Say a hydrogen atom is accelerated so that both the nucleus and the bound electron gains kinetic energy exceeding it's electron binding energy, yes I know an hydrogen atom with 1 proton, 1 neutron and ...
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In physics sometimes we find energy that is negative. What does the negative sign indicate?

Sometimes we see energy that is negative, for example, the energy of an electron in orbit. We know energy is something that can do something. In this view does negative energy mean something opposite ...
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Reversibility of the binding energy of the nucleus

I have been taught that mass defect arises due to loss of mass as energy during nucleus formation. Neutrons and protons have less mass in the nucleus than their theoretical mass. So my question is, ...
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Why are heavier nuclei unstable?

If you have more neutrons than protons, then there will be more strong force present to counteract the repulsive forces between protons. Why is it that above bismuth, no nucleus is stable, regardless ...
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Relation between Strong Forces and Binding Energy

The definition of Strong Force is the force that binds the quarks into the protons and neutrons, and spills over around each proton and neutron and is an attractive one. And Binding Energy is the ...
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Why isn't the ground state energy $-13.6 eV$ of electron in hydrogen atom also the rest energy $0.5 MeV$ of electron?

Why isn't the ground state energy $-13.6 eV$ of electron in hydrogen atom also the rest energy $0.5 MeV$ of electron?
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Does the mass of object really increase?

We were taught the concept of binding energy, We first started with the example of two blocks with some masses having a spring between them. And now they are released from their position, As they ...
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Beryllium(8) Never exists! [duplicate]

Why does Be(8) never exist and decay into 2 alpha particles? Here, given Binding energy of Be(8)=7.064MeV & Binding energy of He(4)=7.08MeV.
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Binding energies of $Be$

Just a quick question. How does Beryllium 8 decay into 2 alpha particles? Beryllium 8 has a binding energy of 56.499508 Mev An alpha particle has a binding energy of 28.3 so two of these would have ...
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Why has a molecule less energy than the uncombined atoms?

My book says, A molecule as compared to the atoms from which it is formed is more stable because it possesses energy lower than the energy of the uncombined atoms. This difference in energy is due ...
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Why plutonium and uranium are especially susceptible to do fission?

Why plutonium and uranium are especially susceptible to do fission? Are there any other elements that can also be subject to fission?
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Why does binding energy have an affect on measured mass?

I've looked into how the binding energy functions and that increasing the particles' potential energy or their distance from the other particles increases the mass of the system. My question is why ...
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What is wrong with this calculation of gravitational binding energy?

As far as I understand it the gravitational binding energy of some distribution of mass is the negative of its gravitational self-potential energy. I tried to calculate the latter for a solid sphere ...
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Binding Energy and Instability

I believe that I am correct in saying that: (1) a nucleus constitutes a preferred configuration for nucleons as compared to a disassembled array of nucleons; and (2) nuclei decay so as to achieve more ...
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Negative or positive binding energy?

I'm working with modern physics atm, and can't seem to wrap my head around the binding energies of some molecules. At first, I thought that a negative binding energy = unstable molecule, and a ...
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why does the brehmsstrahlung continuum of a particular anode material extend beyond the k-alpha and k-beta energy level of that material?

I was looking at the excitation spectrum of a few elements in the first page of this document: http://www.amptek.com/pdf/Choosing%20the%20anode%20material%20in%20an%20x-ray%20tube.pdf In particular I ...
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Protons and Neutrons Overshoot Actual Mass? [duplicate]

When I add up the mass of 6 protons and 6 neutrons in amu, I get a mass that is greater than the mass of carbon. I thought that it should be the other way around, because I have not including binding ...
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Calculating the unified atomic mass unit [duplicate]

The masses of electron, proton and neutron (in SI units) are (approx.): \begin{equation} m_e=\text{electron mass}=9.109\times 10^{-31}\ \text{kg} \end{equation} \begin{equation} m_p=\text{proton mass}...
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Why does fusion use mass for energy?

I have the basic idea: for small nuclei the mass of product is less than the mass of the individual pieces, this mass is released as energy via $E=mc^2$. But why do nuclei use the mass for energy? ...
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Can daughter nuclei from fission be lighter than Fe-56?

In a typical nuclear fission reaction, a heavy nucleus decays into daughter nuclei which are lighter and have higher binding energy per nucleon. For example: ...
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486 views

When does semi-empirical mass formula break down?

When does the semi-empirical mass formula stop working and what are its limitations? Is it when the difference in $N$ and $Z$ becomes large or when atoms become too big?
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Comparison between Bethe-Weizsäcker-Model for the nuclear binding energy and measurements

I tried to compare the binding energies of between the measured data and the Bethe-Weizsäcker model. My plot looks like this and I don't understand the large discrepancy: For the measurement I used ...
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Where does mass deficit energy go?

I get the idea (at least, as much as a layperson can) that a helium nuclei has less mass than the sum of its parts. That mass deficit is turned into energy. At this stage I feel like I've heard two ...
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Why is the total energy of an electron in an atom negative? [duplicate]

Why is the total energy of an electron in an atom negative? We know that $$E = -\frac{e^2}{8\pi\epsilon_0a_0}.$$ What does the negative sign in the above equation means?
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Alpha decay condition using semi-empirical mass formula

I have to find a equation of Z as a function of A, where Z denotes the atomic number and A denotes the mass number of an atom, for odd-even nucleii which can barely undergo alpha decay (by themselves) ...
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557 views

Energy release with hydrogen fusion

$$H_1^2 + H_1^2 \rightarrow He^4_2+ \text{energy}$$ How can energy be released, if the left hand side of this equation has less mass/energy than the right? $\text{BE}_H \approx 1 \text{MeV}\\ \text{...
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Can heavy elements be fused? [duplicate]

Yes, I know, in stars, fusion occurs up to Iron(-56); but, I want to know if fusion past this nucleus can happen at all. If so, the daughter element would move to the right of the peak and its ...
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Energy from 1 gram of fuel in a nuclear power plant?

It might go without saying, but I am asking about a fission reactor. I assume the fuel still has mass after it is used. If I am right about that, I can't use $E=m*c^2$ to answer my question. Hence my ...
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807 views

Semi-empirical mass formula [closed]

The mass formula is given by $M(Z,A) = ZM_{p}+(A-Z)M_{n}-a_{1}A+a_{2}A^\frac{2}{3}+a_{3}\frac{Z(Z-1)}{A^\frac{1}{3}}+a_{4}\frac{(Z-A/2)^2}{A}+a_{5}A^\frac{-1}{2}$ So I am just wondering here what ...
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If Hydrogen's nucleus lacks a neutron, then what is keeping the nucleus stable and the proton inside it?

I have two questions : In a simple hydrogen atom $(^1_1H)$, there is no neutron. So, if there is no nuclear force to hold the nucleus together then what is the thing that is holding the atom together?...
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Energy released in nuclear fission

In induced fission of U-235, neutrons are bombarded at the U-235, producing U-236. This U-236 then undergoes fission: U-235 + n --> U-236 --> Ba-141 + Kr-92 + 3n As far as I understand, the energy ...
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Why do nuclei decay so fast and slow?

Why do nuclei like Oganesson (also known as Ununoctium, this is the 118th element on the periodic table) decay in about 5 milliseconds? This is weird that they decay. In comparison, why do elements ...
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What holds metal atoms together? And what accounts for the strength of metallic bonds?

From the wikipedia page for metallic bonding, I've noticed that there seem to be a few things at play: (1) the delocalization of electrons, and (2) the fact that there are a far larger number of ...