Questions tagged [binding-energy]

Please use binding energy in the context of the atomic scale and/or atomic systems. This can be used in nuclear reactions.

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Can the ratio of gravitational force to Coulomb repulsion force in the nucleus be increased by adding neutrons? How many?

As you know, the ratio of gravitational force to Coulomb repulsion force between two protons is very small. This means that the source of nuclear stability cannot be the force of gravity. Can some ...
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Topological knots and energy of a point particle

May be a naive question...Suppose a particle in space curves around a similar point particle(possibly 3+ dimensions) and produce a topological knot in space, how does the energy of the point particle ...
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Difference between bound and unbound nuclear states?

What are the differences between bound and unbound nuclear states? What does bound or unbound excited states mean? Please explain in nuclear sense.
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Is mass gained from the fusing of two nuclei with nucleon numbers higher than 56?

I am just confusing myself with binding energy and the binding energy curve. I want to know whether I have interpreted the graph right. So when both nuclei have a nucleon number over 56 and are fused ...
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Why does nuclear fusion not occur with nuclei with a nucleon number higher than 56? Please tell me if I am correct

Please tell me if my assumption is correct. So nuclear fusion does not occur with nuclei (with a nucleon number higher than 56) because the binding energy of the product nucleus is lower than the ...
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Why is hydrogen-boron called a fusion reaction?

As we know, we usually call fusion such a reaction in which two light nuclei make a heavier one and release energy. For fission, a heavy nucleus breaks into light ones. My question is, in proton-boron ...
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Why is the mass of the proton such a precise value?

Why is the mass of the proton such a precise value? A proton is composed of 3 net valence quarks and what is often described as "binding energy" or "a zillion gluons and quarks and anti-...
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Where is mass defect in nuclear fusion? [duplicate]

The hydrogen is one proton and the helium is two protons and two neutrons. Neutron is a little heavier than the proton. But there is something strange. Where is the mass defection? As a result, the ...
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Analogy between gravitational binding energy and the binding of Atoms

When atoms bind together, their total energy is less than each individual's energy. When planets come together, their total energy is also less (i.e. nature of attractive force). The mass of each ...
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Reason for peaks in graph of binding energy per nucleon

A similar question was asked before, but it asked for a different thing. My question here is: What is the reason for spikes in this graph? The graph initially has spikes and then shows a constant ...
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Gravitational bonding energy of a galaxy

If most mass from a proton comes from the nuclear force's bonding energy between quarks that make-up this proton, why wouldn't most mass from a galaxy come from the gravitational force's bonding ...
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Why does nature have higher atomic nuclei if Iron(Fe) has higher binding energy per nucleon? [duplicate]

From the binding energy per nucleon (B.E./A) vs atomic number (Z) we know that Iron (Fe) is most stable nuclei in the nature. Here comes the question that if nature has found the stable nuclei then ...
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Why is the mass of a Hydrogen atom lower than the sum of masses its parts?

I understand that when the electron and proton are arranged to form a hydrogen atom, the potential energy of the system is lower than when separated. As a result, according to mass-energy equivalence, ...
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How can nuclear fusion release energy (even in principle)?

After reading a comment by @Stian Yttervik to one of the answers in this question that goes as I would add that in both cases, the resultant products are in sum lighter than its reactants - and that ...
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What is the probability that two chemical species of binding energy $E$ will be bound?

This may seem like a very simple question, but I've been agonising over it for days. What is the probability, $p$, that two chemical species with binding energy $E$, will be bound. My first instinct ...
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Why has $evB$ been equated to $mv^2/R$ here?

When $24.8 keV$ x-rays strike a material, the photoelectrons emitted from K shell are observed to move in a circle of radius $23mm$ in a magnetic field of 2 × $10^{-2}$. The binding energy of K shell ...
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Is the mass defect in Einstein's $E=mc^2$ the mass of the force-carrying particles within the nucleus?

Basically, what the title says. Is the difference in mass between the sum of the masses of individual nucleons and the nucleus itself the mass of all the force carrying particles I.e. $W$ and $Z$ ...
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Binding energy for electrons

When protons and neutrons interact attractively and coalesce to form an atomic nucleus, their energy in this state must be less than what it was when they are separated, so they lose mass which is ...
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How mass of a nucleus can be measured?

I know that mass of an atom can be measured using mass spectrometer, but how mass of a nucleus can be measured? simply by subtracting total electron mass of that atom? or there are other professional ...
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Is it possible for a system to have negative potential energy?

With respect to both gravity and electromagnetism, to the best of my understanding potential energy is added or subtracted from a system based on the distance between two objects such as charged or ...
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Binding energy per nucleon

This graph shows the binding energy per nucleon which is the energy required for extract a nucleon from a nucleus. From the fermi gas model of nucleus I know that both protons and neutrons are in a ...
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Iron has the highest binding energy but if it happened to fall apart would the electrostatic force accelerate the newly formed nuclei? [closed]

Maybe it is impossible to break an iron nucleus but let pressume we have 10 inert iron atoms and somehow fission them in lighter elements. Will the electrostatic force cause to accelerate these ...
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Is it right interpretation to interpret $E=mc^2$ using potential energy?

I am wondering that it is the right interpretation to interpret $E=mc^2$ with potential energy. What I mean is this: When I studied nuclear fusion, there was missing mass. The hydrogen's nuclear ...
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Why nuclear binding energy influence mass?

I do understand this from a energy point of view. However, let's consider a system with two small mass point in a classical case. The total mass of the system should be $M=m_{1}+m_{2}-\frac{E}{c^{2}}$ ...
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Binding energy in nuclear fission

As far as i know, in a nuclear reaction we "go" from a binding energy $B_1$ to a binding energy $B_2$ with $B_2$>$B_1$ because a bigger binding energy means more stability for the nucleus. If we ...
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How and why does an electron add up (enters) in the valance shell of an atom?

How does an electron add up (enters) in the valance shell of an atom? Why is energy released when an electron adds up in the valance shell of an isolated atom.
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$\beta^-$ and $\beta^+$ $Q$ value issue

It's unclear to me why the following doesn't work when I calculate the $Q$ value for $\beta^-$ and $\beta^+$ decay. If we start with a parent nucleus $P_z$ with $Z$ electrons decaying through $\beta^-$...
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Binding energy of an exciton

The binding energy of an exciton is usually modeled after the hydrogen atom and varies with charge $q$ as $q^4$. I don't understand why it is $q^4$ and not $q^2$ - If we assume an electron and hole, ...
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Does nuclear binding energy concern nuclear force or EM force?

From my understanding, binding energy is the energy required to separate all nucleons in a nucleus an infinite distance away from each other. I cannot tell whether this ignored the effect of one of ...
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Nuclear force and binding energy

What i read about binding energy is that it is the energy released when nucleus is formed due to the attraction of the strong nuclear force between nucleons. But even after the nucleus is formed, the ...
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Does more binding energy between nucleons in different elements as they have more nucleons mean the nuclear force between them is stronger?

My picture of fission is that the nuclear force is the centripetal force and the electrostatic is the centrifugal one and when some energy helps the electrostatic force the nucleus reacts with fission....
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Why does a proton and an electron weigh more than a hydrogen atom [duplicate]

Don't the bonds between the proton and the electron have energy equal to the kinetic energy of the proton and the electron?
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How much energy is required to fuse two protons? [closed]

What is the kinetic temperature required to fuse two protons in a plasma? How much energy does it release? What are the products of the fusion reaction?
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What is Binding energy, actually?

I have read from my textbook about binding energy but it indicates two completely different ideas.I am listing them below: Definition (1): "Binding Energy : An atomic nucleus is a stable ...
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Why the Binding Energies of Neutron and Proton are different?

In my textbook, Problems in General Physics by I E Irodov there is following problem: I am able to solve the problem. I am able to do all the maths, to the right answer, but I have a conceptual doubt....
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Mass-energy equation vs chemical bonding reactions

If use $E=mc^2$ in chemical energy like needs to bonding and ...  it means there must reduced or added some mass after reaction, by Wikipedia mass-energy equivalence: Because the speed of light is ...
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Nuclear binding energy and mass defect

Kenneth S. Krane, Introductory to Nuclear Physics, defines mass defect as Δ=(m(A,Z)-A)$c^2$, where m is the mass of the nucleus with atomic number Z and mass number A and he says that given Δ, we can ...
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Need help understanding a radioactive decay question

I have the following question: A stationary nucleus of uranium-$238$ undergoes alpha decay to form thorium-$234.$ The following data are available. Energy released in decay $4.27 MeV$, Binding ...
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Why is there a link between binding energy per nucleon and fission energy?

"The reason energy is released in fission is because the daughter nuclei have a greater binding energy per nucleon." I just can't get my head around this for some reason. I am in high school physics. ...
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Binding and exfoliation energy

This question could seem simple, but it's not clear for me. Let's say I have a $\text{MoS}_2$ bilayer, is its binding energy same with exfoliation energy? As far as I know, we can calculate binding ...
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Fundamentally, why do some nuclei emit ionizing radiation?

I understand that some nuclei and their isotopes are not stable and therefore at random intervals bits of the nucleus (i.e. protons & neutrons) break away with differing amounts of energy ...
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As neutrons are more massive than protons, does the Sun increase its mass while fusioning elements?

Where is the mass coming from when neutrons are produced from protons in the Sun? If a positron is made, will it possibly annihilate with an nearby electron?
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Quantitative contribution of kinetic and potential energies to the binding energy of the $\sigma$ orbital in $\text{H}_2$ or $\text{H}_2^+$

When a hydrogen molecule forms, 4.52 eV of energy is released, while for $\text{H}_2^+$ the binding energy is 2.77 eV. Such a binding energy is the difference of energies that have four terms in them: ...
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Identify the Origin of each term in Weizsäcker's Semi-Empirical Mass formula?

I was hoping someone could explain each term in Weizsäcker's semi-empirical mass formula in simple English because I don't understand it. Any help will be appreciated thank you. $$M_{Z,A} = ZM_{H} + (...
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Why is energy released during the formation of the nucleus?

We know that mass defect in the nucleus occurs because of mass being converted to energy by the mass-energy equivalence. If that's the case then what triggered the release of energy during the ...
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What is the force at play in the emission of neutron out of Helium-5

On nuclear fusion, Wikipedia reads (about Tritium-Deuterium fusion): The (intermediate) result of the fusion is an unstable 5He nucleus, which immediately ejects a neutron with 14.1 MeV. The recoil ...
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How is the concept of binding energy linked to ionization energy?

I understand that the reason when you plot ionization energy against atomic number, you get peaks at the noble gases, is because they have full valence shells. When I was trying to think this through,...
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How does binding energy work?

I do not have a very advanced understanding of binding energy and atomic mass but in my classes, I have learned that the atomic mass is equal to the sum of the number of protons and the number of ...
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Do excited nuclear (and atomic) states have higher mass?

One of the basic calculations in nuclear theory is obtaining nuclear mass based on the liquid drop model. One uses Weizsäcker's formula to get the binding energy $$E_B=a_VA-a_SA^{2/3}-a_C\frac{Z(Z-1)}...
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Understanding nuclear mass defect

I'm having a bit of trouble understanding mass defect, in the context of nuclear physics. The argument from my class is: The nuclear force is attractive, and so does work on the particles as they are ...

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