Questions tagged [binding-energy]

Please use binding energy in the context of the atomic scale and/or atomic systems. This can be used in nuclear reactions.

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Why does critical mass for radioactive isotopes seem to have little relation to half-life?

I understand that too short a half-life and flash point, becomes kind of meaningless, if the element generates too much heat, so this only applies to longer half-lives. Also, as I understand it, flash ...
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Binding energy of Hydrogen = 0 = 13.6 ${\rm eV}$? [closed]

I was solving nuclear physics today.I used the binding energy formula on hydrogen.I found that B=0.But,B is also,as mentioned in my textbook,13.6eV. How?
CODE_FOR_PURSUIT's user avatar
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Is there proof for: "Elements heavier than iron will decay to iron by processes such as fission and alpha emission"?

Freeman J. Dyson in his "Time without end: Physics and biology in an open universe", Lecture 2: Physics, part G: All matter decays to iron, claimed that on a long enough time scale "...
Sourabh Choudhary's user avatar
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How can a proton be stable if binding energy *increases* it's mass? [duplicate]

A hydrogen atom weighs 13.6eV less than a proton + electron. This missing energy, which is tiny compared to the rest mass of almost a GeV, was carried off by a photon when the atom formed. Nuclei show ...
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$Q$-value (nuclear)

I'm studying principles of physics. I have a question. In my book, they seem to have calculated the Q value in different ways. $$ \begin{align} \rm p + {^{27}_{13}Al} &\rightarrow \rm{^{27}_{14}Si}...
SungJin Park's user avatar
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Do orbits with positive energy tend to infinity?

Consider any potential field $$V = V(x)$$ (not limited to gravitational potential field, but we only consider time-independent ones) in 3-d space that satisfies the following conditions: The ...
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If the fine-structure constant was very large could positronium have negative mass?

Positronium is an atom with one electron and one positron. It's mass is 1.022MeV which is almost twice the electron mass: The ground-state (1S orbital) binding energy of -6.8eV reduces the total mass ...
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Why is helium-4 the only nuclide with a negative nucleon binding energy?

He-4 is very unusual as it’s the only nuclide that does not accept another nucleon. In other words, even if you force a proton or a neutron into He-4, it will be kicked out immediately. If you ...
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What is the causation of the mass deficit in atomic nuclei?

I've always heard that when protons and neutrons are combined together into nuclei, the mass of the product is less than the mass of the constituents. And that this mass is called the mass deficit and ...
Wander verse's user avatar
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Most stable isobar for even-$A$ nuclei

In the Liquid Drop Model of the nucleus, the most stable isobar is the one whose atomic number $Z_{A}$ is the one corresponding to the minimum mass, and can be found from the mass parabola or, by ...
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Why do nucleons pair up?

I'm learning about the semi-empirical mass formula currently, and in the explanation for the pairing term, the course notes say that it's energetically favorable for nucleons to pair up. Could someone ...
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What is the real meaning of energy released in nuclear fission? [duplicate]

In a nuclear fission reaction the total energy and thus the mass of the products are lower than the total energy of the reactants. I understand the the difference in this energy can be used in a ...
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During fusion, how does mass turn into energy?

This is my (flawed) understanding of how fusion basically works: Let's assume that a fusion reaction has a net gain in energy. First, there is an input amount of kinetic energy to get the two light ...
Edward Chen's user avatar
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How is energy conserved in formation of chemical bonds?

I understand that when an H$_2$O molecule is formed, it has lesser total energy than the constituent (2H and O) atoms. I also understand that the potential energy (PE) will be reduced when the atoms ...
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Is the mass of Satellite + Earth system less than their individual masses?

I understand that when a Earth + Satellite system forms (satellite comes into orbit) the total energy is -ve. If the energy of the system when placed at infinity is 0 (assuming P.E and K.E is 0 at ...
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Why can't massive nuclei combine together to release energy

I am basically confused as why can't larger nuclei undergo fushion and release energy. One reason I know is because of too much protons than neutrons which generates stronger electrostatic repulsive ...
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Why is the nuclear binding energy per nucleon not constant at beginning?

I can understand, how it is constant after awhile, that due to the range of strong nuclear force the force is increasing linearly with the linear increase of the nucleon number, making it a constant. ...
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Negative Energy [duplicate]

I am uneducated on physics so please excuse my ignorance. I've been looking into negative energy which hasn't made much sense to me thus far. Through what I've read I think negative energy is simply ...
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Pairing term in semi-empirical mass formula and nature of spin-dependence of nuclear forces

I have a silly confusion. The Pairing term of the semi-empirical mass formula tells that nucleons tend to pair up. I believe that pairing up means forming a state in which two nucleons combine to give ...
Solidification's user avatar
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How the $N/Z$ ratio affects the stability of isotopes and their method of radioactive decay?

Although there is a graph that tells us the number of isotopes and which ones are stable or abundant in nature, like the one below, I have come across the $N/Z$ ratio, which is the number of neutrons ...
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Separation energy of nucleons and Coulomb barrier

My question is related to this topic: Tunneling of alpha particles. Unfortunately it didn't quite solve my doubts. My professor and the book I'm reading (Particles and Nuclei: An Introduction to the ...
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Coulombian barrier fission

Protons and neutrons in a nucleus are both in a well of $\sim$ 50 MeV (obviously that depends on the specific nucleus), but the shape of the quantum well is different because there is the Coulomb ...
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Nuclear binding energy and gravitation

A nucleus $A$ can be split into two smaller nuclei $B$ and $C$. It is well known that the sum of the masses of $B$ and $C$ will not equal the mass of $A$ due to the nuclear binding energy and the ...
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The difference between neutron and proton separation energy of a nucleus

For a given nucleus, why does the value of the neutron separation energy $S_n$ differ from the value of the proton separation energy $S_p$? One of the reasons that is immediately obvious is that the ...
Solidification's user avatar
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Nuclear physics explained by QCD

I have been studying Particle & nuclear physics and I know that nuclear physics should normally be explained by particle physics. Specifically, I would like to ask if there is any theoretical ...
Georgia Zachou's user avatar
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Confusion about energy conservation for fusion and fission (binding energy and $Q$-value)

In a nuclear reaction, a system consisting of a nucleus or nuclei lose mass, and this mass gets turned into energy, which is quantified by $E=mc^{2}$. But I'm conceptually confused. According to ...
beancurdedward's user avatar
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Calculation of nuclear binding energy from atomic masses

The binding energy $B_\mathrm{nuc}(Z,N)$ of a nucleus of proton number $Z$ and neutron number $N$ satisfies $$B(Z,N) = (Z\cdot m_p + N\cdot m_n - m_{\mathrm{nuc}}(Z,N)) \ [1], $$ where $m_p$ is the ...
Étienne Bézout's user avatar
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Why does the mass deficit exists? [duplicate]

Everyone knows Albert Einstein's famous formula: $E = m * c^2$ In nuclear fission, we make use of it by converting mass into energy. But what is the mass that gets converted? Of course, when nuclei ...
dark_ursus's user avatar
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Binding energy vs Mass number Plot and Pairing effect for higher nuclei region

I have two doubts. In every text or literature, one always see the graph of binding energy per nucleon vs mass number and not binding energy vs mass number. Is it like we don't interpret any useful ...
Anshul Sharma's user avatar
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Is there a way to determine whether a given nucleus is radioactive?

When a nucleus decays it is finding a more stable configuration, as all nature is. But is there a way of finding whether a specific configuration will decay? I know that there is a specific proton-to-...
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How can negative potential energy cause mass decrease?

The mass of a hydrogen is less than its constituent parts(proton/electron). The explanation given for this is the following: Youtube For hydrogen, $m = m_{components} + m_{extra}$ where we can write $...
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Why is U-238 detrimental for nuclear bomb?

I know U-238 is more stable than U-235, because it is an even-even nucleus. Only neutron with energy larger than 1.6Mev can split an U-238, while any neutron can split U-235. But why is the presence ...
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What happen with missing energy conserved as mass in decay $\rm {}^4H\to {}^3H + n$?

What happen with missing energy conserved as mass in decay $\rm {}^4H\to {}^3H + n$? https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isotopes_of_hydrogen $${}^4H \leftrightarrow {}^3H + n$$ $$4.02643 > 3....
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Why we can take for granted that energy binding is associated with inertial mass?

It is common to state that a proton is bounded state of three quarks, and that the QCD energy binding (associated to a "cloud" of gluons joining together the three quarks) is responsible for ...
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In what form is the binding energy released after nuclear fission?

This is too primitive question. but I cant find a definitive answer anywhere. Everywhere its mentioned that Binding energy is released in the good-ol uranium 235 and uranium 238 nuclear fission. Where ...
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In a fission reaction mass is converted to energy my students are asking where the mass is taken from - do the nucleons have less mass afterwards? [duplicate]

I am teaching year 11 Physics for the first time. In a fission reaction mass is converted to energy my students are asking where the mass is taken from - do the nucleons have less mass afterwards?
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Calculating energy released in nuclear fission (inclusion of all fission products)

To answer this question, shouldn't we include the masses of the neutrons and the electrons in the given nuclear reaction? If I do that, I obviously get a slightly different answer from the one ...
John Russell's user avatar
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Are very stable super-heavy elements theoretically possible?

I was recently reading about superheavy elements. According to that article all superheavy elements currently known have only been synthesized in laboratory experiments and have a very short half-life,...
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Binding energy vs. Ionization energy of hydrogen

Why is the binding energy of the electron in atomic hydrogen not the same as the ionization energy of hydrogen? The binding energy is $\approx 13.605874\text{ eV}$ (accounting for fine structure, see ...
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Conservation of energy and loss of mass in nuclear radiation

I'm learning about mechanical energy from Kleppner and Kolenkow (second edition), and in Chapter 5 (section 5.10), they introduce the notion of conservation of energy and connect it to the Einstein ...
D Ford's user avatar
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Deriving the destruction energies of asteroids

I wanted to check the validity of an expression for the energy required to destroy an asteroid. Assuming that the asteroid is spherical, the gravitational binding energy can be given as $U_{GBE} = 3/5 ...
John's user avatar
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Is there a list anywhere of known or hypothetical hypernuclei?

Does anyone have resources that include a list or set of descriptions of hypernuclei that been observed, or been proven to be possible hypothetically? Is it possible, even, that there is something ...
blacktopshaman's user avatar
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Why is the deuterium bottleneck temperature 0.1 MeV?

During big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), deuterium has a lower binding energy per nucleon (~1.1 MeV) than the other similar nuclei, and so prevents heavy elements from forming until the temperature ...
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Equation to predict stability, half-life and decay products of atomic nuclei?

Given an atomic nuclei say C-14 or U-233 or anything in-between or outside the range and given the ratio of protons and neutrons in the nuclei, is there a comprehensive equation or set of equations ...
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How does the increased binding energy per nucleon help in stability?

I have some read answers on this forum, some books like Halliday Resnick and my course books. I have understood that binding energy is the energy we need to supply to break nucleus into individual ...
Ayush's user avatar
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My book says “binding energy is the energy released when a nucleus is created from another nuclei or nucleons”

According to my book “binding energy is the energy released when a nucleus is formed from nuclei or nucleons.This nuclear binding energy is derived from nuclear force “. How is the binding energy ...
Eman H's user avatar
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How to explain different, seemingly inconsistent, values for the mass of the alpha particle in different books?

I’m trying to calculate the energy of an $\alpha$ particle after the decay of Ra-226 following an example in a german school book and came across different values for the mass of an $\alpha$ particle. ...
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Difference between bandmodel and bondmodel in semiconductor?

I have confusion in the two models of semiconductor and it is as follows: $1$- according to the bond model it says that the electrons which is bounded Silicon atoms,when we apply electric field this ...
amin's user avatar
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Nuclear binding energy and natural radioactive decay

I have just started to learn about nuclear binding energy. While I believe I understand the concept well, there is one thing I do not still fully grasp. I understand that the nuclear binding energy ...
user12277's user avatar
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Why are nuclei with large numbers of neutrons only stable with correspondingly large numbers of protons? [duplicate]

Large numbers of protons need to be separated by neutrons, otherwise they repel.... But why do nuclei with large of numbers of neutrons only remain stable with a relatively, correspondingly large ...
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