Questions tagged [binding-energy]

Please use binding energy in the context of the atomic scale and/or atomic systems. This can be used in nuclear reactions.

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Negative potential energy

In fusion of hydrogen into helium, hydrogen has negative potential energy which adds up and results in a mass defect.. Doubts:- Why is there negative potential energy between the nucleons in a ...
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Cause of energy release in fusion [duplicate]

For the fast few months, I have been scratching my head for this problem which I have faced while studying fusion. In a hydrogen fusion, two hydrogen (for instance ) fuse to form a helium nucleus. I ...
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Why doesn't a nucleus-like body made up of just neutrons exist?

We know that neutrons exert short ranged nuclear forces over other nucleons in a nucleus, and these forces are only attractive in nature. Also this force is universal and doesn't differentiate between ...
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Why is some mass converted into energy when neutrons and protons combine to form nucleus?

So some of the mass is converted into energy when neutrons and protons combine to form nucleus. Why? And how? And then why do we need to supply the same amount of energy to separate them?
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Nuclear fusion mass defect and energy production

In researching the topic of nuclear fusion, I have a few doubts related to the mass defect, 'negative' potential energy and resultant energy released as a by-product of nuclear fusion. When two ...
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What happens when the universe runs out of fuel?

After some X billion years, one would think the stars in the entire universe will run out of hydrogen. What would happen next? Is there any way to get hydrogen out of heavy metals (extreme fission)? ...
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Why do elements, as they have more protons, need a higher amount of neutrons to stabilise them? [duplicate]

I've seen the graphs of the stability line but I can't find any reason as to why this happens, I understand radiation, just not why radiation needs to occur in the first place if that makes sense.
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Fusion energy origin

In fusion , I have understood so far that two light nuclei fuse to form a heavy nucleus. The nucleons in the light nuclei experience lesser binding energy as compared to the nucleons in heavy nucleus ...
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Why does the stability of a nucleus depend on the binding energy $\textit{per nucleon}$ instead of the total binding energy?

The larger the total binding energy of a nucleus, the greater the minimum energy that must be added to infinitely separate the constituent nucleons. Shouldn't the total binding energy, then, be used ...
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In general relativity, assuming a spherical uniform mass distribution, what is the total energy value of the gravitational field inside the sphere?

In Newtonian mechanics, assuming a spherical uniform mass distribution, the total gravitational potential energy (gravitational self-energy) inside the sphere is $$U_{gs}=-\frac35\frac{GM^2}R.$$ In ...
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How can a proton in a nucleus decay into neutron and positron in β+ decay if neutrons have greater mass than a proton? [duplicate]

I'm guessing it has something to do with mass defect/binding energy??
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Inertial properties of negative masses

Pondering Casimir effect and negative mass and Gravitational binding energy as alternative to dark matter? I start to think that each form of negative energy has negative gravitational mass. The list ...
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How is Alpha Radiation possible?

Alpha radiation would seem to occur when a pair of protons and neutrons are magically plucked from the amorphous (i.e. having no particular structure) nucleus of a heavier atom. Some of the problems ...
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What determines the half-life (or stability) of an isotope?

Why is it that some elements do not have any stable isotopes, while others of very similar mass have multiple stable isotopes? What determines this phenomenon and what determines the strict ...
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Derivation of the Binding Energy of Atoms without Kinetic Considerations and Relativistic Corrections

The question Relativistic corrections to the binding energy of atoms is answered with a brief chronology of ideas about the binding energy of the electron to the atomic nucleus. (The emphasis in the ...
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Relativistic Corrections to the Binding Energy of Atoms

The binding energy of atoms is the minimum energy required to remove an electron of an atom from its orbital. Using dimensional analysis, we can derive the following equation. $$E_B\propto\frac{m(ke^2)...
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Xe-135 Binding Energy - Calculations Not Agreeing With Reported Values

I am trying to calculate the binding energy of Xe-135 using the following equation: \begin{equation} BE = \Delta{}c^2 \end{equation} Where $\Delta{}$ is the mass defect: \begin{equation} \Delta{} = ...
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When calculating the $Q$-value of a reaction, does the energy released by gamma rays need to be considered?

In certain reaction, gamma rays are released as products. Take the following reaction for example: $${}^1_{0}n + {}^{235}_{92}U \rightarrow {}^{140}_{54}Xe+{}^{94}_{38}Sr + 2{}^{1}_{0}n + \gamma(6MeV)....
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Why electrons in orbitals have negative energy?

The potential energy of electron is negative so; kinetic $+$ potential $= \ \ -$energy ; but the kinetic energy gets lower as an electron is farther from nucleus; needs less acceleration to orbit I ...
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Nuclear physics questions [duplicate]

Why the mass of nuclues is smaller than the individual mass of nucleon which is the mass of individual subatomic particle? Why is there a missing energy?
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Mass defect and nuclear binding energy

Nucleons bound in the reactant nuclei have low binding energy and when they fuse together , the nucleons are bound more tightly as coloumb force is also increasing. Since energy is required to tightly ...
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Why is there destructive interference in an atom between protons and electrons?

"In energy wave theory, Planck’s relation describes the energy of a transverse wave, emitted or absorbed as an electron transitions energy levels in an atom. When an electron is contained within ...
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$Q$ values for 3 types of beta decays

For the three types of beta decay: \begin{align} _z^AP&\rightarrow {}_{z+1}^AD + e^-+\bar{\nu} & Q_{\beta^-} &= (M_P-M_D)c^2 \\ _z^AP&\rightarrow {}_{z-1}^AD + e^++{\nu} & Q_{\beta^...
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On non-existence of molecular helium (and or why that's equivalent to bond order zero)

Why does molecular orbital theory (MOT) imply that molecular helium does not exist? All answers I found in the web use following two standard arguments, but I not see why these are sufficient to ...
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Why is the isotope Lithium 6 stable against alpha decay?

According to the table the binding energy of Helium 4 is 7.073915MeV/Nucleon while the binding of Lithium 6 is 5.606291MeV/Nucleon. So why is the lithium 6 isotope not an alpha particle emitter? I ...
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When nucleons are assembled in form of nucleus is some mass lost? [duplicate]

We are told that $B.E = [Zm_p + Nm_n - M] c²$ Here, Z = Atomic no. ,$m_p$ = mass of proton, $m_n$ = mass of neutron and M = Mass of nucleus. Because if the mass is not lost then the energies should ...
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Why can atoms only gain or lose electrons and not protons?

I know that an object can become net negative or net positive by losing or gaining electrons, and having more or fewer protons than electrons but why can't protons be transferred too?
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Converting between mass and binding energy in semi-empirical mass formula

The semi-empirical mass formula is given in terms of the binding energy as: $$ B(Z,N) = aA - bA^{\frac{2}{3}} - s \frac{(N-Z)^{2}}{A} - d \frac{Z^2}{A^{\frac{1}{3}}} - \frac{\delta}{A^{\frac{1}{2}}}$$ ...
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How does moving an electron to a higher level actually work?

I understand the photoelectric effect and I assumed until an hour ago that to excite an electron, the photon should have energy equal to the binding energy of the initial level plus the binding energy ...
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How weak are the Van der Waals bonds? What is their contribution to the total mass of an object?

We know that every binding energy can be expressed as a negative mass contribution to the total mass of the system. It is well known, for example, that composite nuclei have a “mass defect” when ...
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Why is internal energy of nucleons ∝ to binding energy? [duplicate]

In fusion , as two light nuclei fuse , the relative binding energy experienced by each nucleon is increased and hence the internal energy of the nucleons is decreased which by E=mc² causes a decrease ...
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Nuclear binding and internal energy [duplicate]

A section of some article: When you cool a body at rest its internal energy decreases. Since energy is related to mass, here $E=m_0c^2$, where $m_0$ is the rest mass, the rest mass of the body ...
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Strong nuclear force in fusion

I have read that there is an increase in the amount of the binding energy from the reactant nuclei and the product nucleus during nuclear fusion and this causes the decrease the internal energy (...
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4 votes
5 answers
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Why do two hydrogen atoms bond?

I was wondering (with my limited classical physics knowledge) why two hydrogen atoms tend naturally to a bonding configuration, I mean, given two hydrogen atoms with zero relative velocity between ...
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Why is energy released when nucleons come together to form a nucleus?

Binding energy is defined as the energy required to split a given nucleus into it's individual protons and neutrons. But why when nucleons are combined they release energy? What is the origin of this ...
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5 votes
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Gravitational binding energy as alternative to dark matter?

Pondering this question: Casimir effect and negative mass and, in particular, the response of John Rennie "as the mass of any bound system is slightly less than the mass of its parts" I ...
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12 votes
2 answers
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Why there is no reaction Deuterium + Deuterium $=\rm {}^{4}He$?

Why there is no reaction like $D+D={}^{4}He$ specified here and in other places like this? Apparently $2\times2.0141-4.0026=0.0256$ is positive. What is the problem with this reaction?
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Potential energy, mass transformation in energy? and nuclear reactions?

Lost mass is converted into kinetic energy after nuclear reactions but what happens to potential energy? (in the case of a non isolated system) I don't know a lot of potential energy and in my idea it ...
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Origin of Nuclear fusion energy

What causes the mass of the two reacting nuclei to convert to energy and if it is for a purpose then why is it released. What is the source for this cause (if there)?
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Binding energy for a uniform sphere bound by a Yukawa potential rather than an inverse-square-law potential?

The binding energy of a uniform sphere that interacts through a force that follows the inverse square law is proportional to $a\frac{C^2}{R}$, where $C$ is whatever charge determines the strength of ...
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What are the chemical properties of uranium-233 that makes it a more efficient fuel than uranium 235?

i'm trying to find what the best nuclear fuel would be. I've already tried finding this answer online but there's nothing that helps. i would like to find an answer please. btw, by efficient, i mean ...
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Mass: a form of energy [closed]

Einstein's $E=mc^2$ and law of conservation of energy implies that mass is a form of energy, but if it is a form of energy then why can we freely interact with mass while the other forms of energy are ...
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What are kinetic and potential terms in binding energy and provided they are of the same order of magnitude, why can't we measure nuclear force?

In my introductory nuclear physics course notes there is an statement I don't understand: "The intensity of nuclear force cannot be measured directly from the binding energy observed in nuclei ...
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Binding energies for muonic atoms - database

Does exist a database reporting binding energies for muonic atoms as done for electrons in the case of NIST [1]? Obviously I don't expect such a level of detail, but would be useful if something ...
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Why binding energy per nucleon curve does not have any peaks after Fe-56 although there are magic numbers higher than 56?

While studying binding energy per nucleon curve, I came across the fact that the curve has peaks at nuclei with magic number of protons or neutrons. But one thing that is very confusing here. I have ...
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Sources of Mass in Special Relativity

Let, we have an object with mass (previously called rest mass) m. It starts moving with a velocity v, and its relativistic mass (not a preferred term nowadays) or total energy becomes $m_{\mathrm{Rel}}...
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(Cold?) fusion by combining protons and electrons?

How does one remove electrons from hydrogen nuclei? Using a tokamak? In any case, do we really need millions of degrees centigrade of temperature to get an electron to fuse with a proton? To make a ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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Why is there a discrepancy between $m_n-m_p$ and $m_d-m_u$?

The difference in mass between a neutron and a proton is $1.3\space {\rm MeV}/c^2$, but the mass difference between an up quark and a down quark is $2.5\space{\rm MeV}/c^2$. How come the mass ...
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Why is there no stable nucleus with two or more neutrons but no protons? [duplicate]

Why is there no stable nucleus with two or more neutrons but no protons?
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Is the nuclear binding energy of a free neutron 0?

This might be a silly question. I've always assumed that the neutron had a binding energy of 0 because it's only one nucleon that isn't interacting with any others most of the time, just like a proton....
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