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Questions tagged [baryons]

Baryons are hadrons (particles composed of quarks) with an odd number, at least 3, of valence quarks. The term is also often used in astrophysics, e.g. "baryonic matter", with a much looser definition understood to mean any matter composed mostly of baryons, but which may also include leptons and other particles, often in opposition to "dark matter".

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Why do Baryonic acoustic oscillations imply peaks in the probability distribution of the position of galaxies?

I have been trying to understand baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO) and there are some parts of the process I don't understand. We start with a hot plasma of baryons and photons. There's also dark ...
P. C. Spaniel's user avatar
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Must a very large nucleus be spherical?

As we do know, residual nuclear force has short distance action so there is no total center to rim nuclear force aggregation inside the nucleus as in the case of for example gravitation in the case of ...
Krešimir Bradvica's user avatar
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Experimental status/test possibilities for baryon number conservation in LHC?

Violation of baryon number is hypothesized e.g. for baryogenesis (more matter than antimatter from Big Bang) or Hawking radiation (baryons -> black hole -> massless radiation) - quite extreme ...
Jarek Duda's user avatar
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When were the notions of "matter" (as opposed to mass) and its conservation introduced? [closed]

With the development of relativity it became clear that mass and energy are the same, and therefore that they aren't separately conserved (or balanced). It seems that during the same period when these ...
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What does it mean, during the Grand Unified Epoch, that matter fluctuated between lepton and baryon states?

My understanding of leptons and baryons is that leptons are an elementary particle, while baryons are a composite particle. Can someone explain to me what particles fluctuating between lepton and ...
blacktopshaman's user avatar
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Where does the baryon number appear in the Lagrangian of the standard model?

In the standard model Lagrangian, the electric charges of the particles are the coefficients of the interaction terms (e.g. $(-2/3e)u'Au$ for the up quark shows it's charge is $(2/3)e $) How can we ...
KaraboMadisa's user avatar
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2 answers
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Why do the ground state of baryons have symmetric spatial wavefunctions?

In Griffiths's Introduction to Elementary Particles (2nd edition), it is essentially said that the spatial part of the wavefunction of baryons in their ground state is symmetric w.r.t the interchange ...
Solidification's user avatar
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Mass of different isospin baryons

Why are the masses of baryons (of same quark content) with different isospin, different? - Is there a physical intuition/explanation to this? Does higher isospin baryons always higher mass than lower ...
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$\Sigma^0$ baryon decay

I’ve seen it stated that the sigma baryon $\Sigma^0$ only decays to $\Lambda^0 \gamma$, and then $\Lambda^0$ decays to $p\pi^{-}$ or $n\pi^0$. I understand that the weak interaction conserves weak ...
ICOR's user avatar
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What is the connection between matter in the universe and the baryon number not being conserved?

Towards the end of "Quarks, the Stuff of Matter", the author discusses the implications of the proton is not stable and ultimately decays. He states, that if the proton decays, then the ...
Rick's user avatar
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Why can't $uus$ and $uds$ quark content have $I = 1$ Isospin?

Well, I know the isospin singlet with $I=0$ and isospin triplet with $I = 1$. But for $I = 0$, why it must be $uds$ quark content rather than other assembly like $uus$ or $dds$? $ud$ can have $I = 0$ ...
thinking yang's user avatar
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Which hadrons were present after the phase transition from the post-Big Bang QGP?

This question relates to the "hadron epoch" (after the initial quark-gluon plasma, but before the end of baryogenesis). My understanding is that the phase transition that ends the quark-...
SgtJohn74's user avatar
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2 answers
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Confusion about baryon number violation in the standard model

I'm reading Gauge Theory by David Tong and not understanding the concept of baryon number violation. I understand that the massless Dirac field has two symmetries, an $e^{i\theta}$ $U(1)$ symmetry and ...
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ELi5- How do pions hold nuclei together if they are so short-lived?

I need help understanding how particles do what they do and maintain the structures they maintain if so many of them exist for such a short time? In the case of the nucleus and pions, pions only exist ...
blacktopshaman's user avatar
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Octet and decuplet baryon wavefunction

I read the octet and decuplet baryons symmetric and anti-symmetric wavefunction from 'Riazzudin and Fiazzudin's book. But I am little confused about the wavefunction of neutral sigma and Lambda baryon....
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Baryon wavefunctions

The textbook I am currently using states that when all quarks have the same flavor, there are no $J=1/2$ baryon wavefunctions for the ground state $l=0$. Is this an experimental result or is there a ...
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$J=1/2$ and $J=3/2$ Baryons with $uds$ quarks

Why are there two different $J = \frac{1}{2}$ baryons with quark content $uds$ (the $\Lambda_{0}$ and $\Sigma_{0}$) but only one $J = \frac{3}{2}$ baryon (the $Σ_{*,0}$) with the same quark content? I ...
Archie C's user avatar
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Derivative of a "particle" field

Working with Lagrangian we often encounter derivatives of particles fields, for example let's consider the first term of the LO chiral Lagrangian $$ \mathcal{L}_{B\phi}^{LO}=\text{Tr}[\overline{B}(i\...
Schiele's user avatar
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Quark structure of Baryons

I was studying Particle Physics then suddenly I came up with a question that why only Baryons are made up of three quarks, at first I thought to to conserve Baryon number which is $\frac{1}{3}$ for ...
Bishal Sarkar's user avatar
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Baryon Number Conservation

To my understanding, every conservation law is associated with some continuous symmetry in the relevant theory. Then what is the symmetry associated with the conservation of Baryon number?
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Is there any way to think of Quarks in a baryon with Clebsch-Gordan coefficients?

I'm wondering if this idea is as un-natural as it feels in my head. My understanding of CGC's is that I have various fractional spin states like: $$ \text{particle 1:} \ |j_1=\frac12, m_2=\frac12,-\...
akozi's user avatar
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Method of Neutral Particle Mass Calculations from Bubble Chamber Images

I am looking into events within bubble chamber images and have come across a stumbling block. It relates to finding masses of neutral particles within bubble chamber images, specifically the mass of ...
SatinArmchair's user avatar
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1 answer
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Total number of particles in the universe (according to Planck Surveyor measures, 2018)

Recently, Marco Ajello et al. (2018) has estimated the total number of photons in the whole observable universe as: $$N_\gamma \approx 4\cdot 10^{84}.$$ On the other hand, the ratio of baryons to ...
Davius's user avatar
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On the quark composition of baryons

Baryons are made of three quarks, in the form $\vert qqq \rangle$. If we consider just the isospin doublet $u$ and $d$, there are 8 total possibilities: Now, the first 4 are respectively $\Delta^{++}...
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What is the modern status on the Skyrmion theory of baryons?

It was noticed in the 1960s that chiral perturbation theory, describing the goldstone-bosons (pions) of the breaking $SU(N_f)_L \times SU(N_f)_R \to SU(N_f)_V$ of the chiral symmetry, has solitonic ...
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Finding $\Sigma$ wavefunctions from proton wavefunction. Any operator which can achieve this?

Knowing the isospin part of the wavefunction of the proton, it is possible to find that of the neutron by applying the isospin lowering operator $I_-$ which sits horizontally to the left of the proton ...
Solidification's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
141 views

Which force is responsible for $\Sigma$(1385) decay?

I was looking at the excited state of the $\Sigma^+$, the $\Sigma^{*+}(1385)$, on Wikipedia. I was wondering which forces are responsible for its two most dominant decays $$ \Sigma^{*+}(1385) \to \...
Y2H's user avatar
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Spinor index contractions for baryons

For an $SU(N)$ QCD with $N_f$ flavours one writes baryons as \begin{equation} B^{{a_1}…a_{{N}_f}}=\epsilon^{i_1…i_N}\psi_{i_1}^{a_1}… \psi_{i_N}^{a_{Ν_f}} \end{equation} by contracting the colour ...
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Could exotic baryons be stable inside exotic stars?

Neutrons are stable inside a neutron star because beta decay doesn't release enough energy to send the proton and electron up to the Fermi energy. Could this principle apply to baryons that have charm,...
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What is the value of the baryon asymmetry? [duplicate]

Define the baryon asymmetry, which sometimes is called the baryon density, as the baryons to photons ratio $\eta = n_b/n_\gamma$. I found in Ref. 1, published in 2018, that the value of $\eta$ is of ...
Dr. phy's user avatar
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1 answer
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About the recent bounds on the baryon asymmetry

While I'm studying the baryon asymmetry, the ratio of baryons number to the photons number in the universe - some times is called baryon density - $: \eta= n_b/n_\gamma$ I have found many experimental ...
Dr. phy's user avatar
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Higgs decay into baryon-antibaryon pair

I have an exercise for "Introduction to high energy physics" and I'm baffled. The exercise states: Problem: Higgs particle of mass 125.7 GeV decays in an exclusive channel of baryon-...
Joanna Szulc's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
679 views

Mass of baryons and their spin state. Is there any connection?

Baryons are made of three quarks which are spin-1/2 particles. According to the rule of addition of angular momentum, baryons can have either spin-1/2 or spin-3/2. It is intriguing to note that light ...
Solidification's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
53 views

Nucleon resonance

I tried to fit low baryon resonances to N(1440) in an SU(3) octet. So I started with $$\frac{N + \Xi}{2} = \frac{3 \Lambda + \Sigma}{4}$$ What should the respective $\Lambda (I=0), \Xi(I=\frac{1}{2})...
Klaudia Łapa's user avatar
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1 answer
169 views

Gell-Mann—Okubo formula

How was the Gell-Mann—Okubo formula $$ M = a_0 + a_1 Y + a_2 \left[ I \left( I + 1 \right)-\frac{1}{4} Y^2 \right] $$ rewritten using isospin and strangeness to this formula? $$\frac{N + \Xi}{2} = \...
Klaudia Łapa's user avatar
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1 answer
514 views

Why can't $\Sigma$ baryons decay strongly?

First of all, I must say this is a homework question. The complete question includes particles like $p$, $e^-$, $\Lambda$ and $\Omega$. It's pretty easy to understand why $\Omega$ and $\Lambda$ have ...
MiguelFuego's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
237 views

Why are Delta baryons called "Delta isobars"?

A lot of people seem to call the $\Delta$ baryon "Delta isobar", however there is no mention of "isobar" on its Wikipedia page. Am I missing something? Why do people use the term &...
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Probabilities of $ \Omega^- $ baryon decay

The $ \Omega^- $-decay can occur in a few different ways. According to this document (page 3, $\Omega^−$ DECAY MODES), the three most probable decays are \begin{align} \Omega^- &\to \Lambda^0 + ...
Mario's user avatar
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0 answers
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’t Hooft anomaly matching and massless baryons

In Lectures on Gauge Theory by David Tong there is statement (section 5.6.3 The Vafa-Witten-Weingarten Theorems), that: To invoke the full power of ’t Hooft anomaly matching, we needed to assume that ...
Nikita's user avatar
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Is it possible that rescuing the Idea of a Baryo/lepto-dynamic Field had some Relevance in the FermiLab Result?

We know that Fermilab, Brookhaven, and other laboratories have found discrepancies with the SM. One option that almost immediately comes to mind is that the so-far exact conservation law of baryon and ...
joigus's user avatar
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3 votes
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Baryon to photon ratio

In Dodelson's "Modern Cosmology", the current baryon-to-photon ratio is defined as $$ \eta_b \equiv \dfrac{n_b}{n_\gamma} = 5.5 \times 10^{-10} \left(\dfrac{\Omega_b h^2}{0.020}\right). $$ I ...
phenolphthalein's user avatar
8 votes
1 answer
860 views

What fraction of the mass of all baryonic matter are black holes?

Is there a calculation of how much of the mass of baryonic matter is black holes, including supermassive black holes in the center of galaxies?
Arman Armenpress's user avatar
-1 votes
3 answers
153 views

Like quark baryons

Why aren't there particles like neutrons or protons but with 3 up or 3 down quarks, instead of 2 up/1 down or 2 down/1 up. Does there have to be 2 different types of quarks for the strong force to ...
Infinite Delta's user avatar
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1 answer
570 views

How does the process $\bar{K}^0+p \to \Lambda^0+\pi^+$ work?

I was asked to find an energy for the $\bar{K}^0+p \to \Lambda^0+\pi^+$ interaction for an exercise and I got curious about how the Feynman diagram for this process would look like. In terms of quarks,...
Mipeal's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
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Is the process $\pi^{-}+p^+\to\bar{n}+n+n $ allowed?

Is the process $\pi^{-}+p^+\to\bar{n}+n+n $ allowed? Is there any collision involving only the mesons and baryons that would produce antibaryons (along with other particles)?
Никола Андрејић's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
47 views

What happens to extra-galactic rays when they arrive at the solar system?

Quazars send baryons from other galaxies towards us which are deflected from by the local magnetosphere. The early solar system probably picked up many millions of extragalactic cosmic rays for every ...
bandybabboon's user avatar
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Is the baryon number consistent when it comes to annihilation?

I've previously asked a question on here about if it was possible to change the barion number by radioactive decay, for example positron emission, and the answer was of course no, as the baryon number ...
Mat NX's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
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Could a Λ or Σ baryon be stable inside a nucleus?

A common "cartoon model" of a nucleus is that there are a set of bound energy levels for the protons and a similar set of bound energy levels for the neutrons. The existence of these energy ...
Michael Seifert's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
495 views

Can protons and neutrons be completely converted into Leptons?

In beta decay, a neutron releases an electron and turns into a proton. The inverse happens, though usually not naturally, in positron emission, where a proton emits a positron and becomes a neutron. ...
Mat NX's user avatar
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-2 votes
2 answers
161 views

Can indistinguishable particle wavefunctions be written as a product of total observable eigenstates?

Consider the wavefunction of say two electrons in an external potential, associated with two possible states $\phi_a$ and $\phi_b$. Furthermore, each electron can have two spin states $\chi_1$ and $\...
user2224350's user avatar