Questions tagged [atomic-physics]

Atomic physics is the field of physics that studies atoms as an isolated system of electrons and an atomic nucleus. It is primarily concerned with the arrangement of electrons around the nucleus and the processes by which these arrangements change. This includes ions as well as neutral atoms and, unless otherwise stated, for the purposes of this discussion it should be assumed that the term atom includes ions.

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To what extent can atoms be *specularly* reflected (in the context of high velocities in a rarified atmosphere)?

This is a follow up to earlier comments below this answer regarding orbits at low altitude. The suggestion is to try to obtain energy from the Earth's rotation to maintain an orbit with a very low ...
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Does a single atom vibrate?

Thermal vibration looks impossible, but does a single atom in vacuum vibrate due to the electrons' or subatomic particles' movement? If yes, is there a way to stop it?
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Do atoms emit and absorb photons at the same wavelengths?

I know that atoms absorb photons, which promotes electrons to higher energy levels, then upon de-excitation a photon is released. Is it true that the lines for absorption and emission spectrums are ...
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Zeeman effect-derivation

I am wandering from where the equation for Zeeman effect in weak field $\mathbf{B}$ comes from: $$ \Delta E=g_j \mu_B M_j, $$ where $g_j$ is giro-magnetic ration (g-factor) defined as: $1+\frac{J(J+1)+...
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How to find magnetic moment without using the trick?

I'm trying to find the total magnetic moment of Manganese ion ($Mn^{2+}$), we could find the electronic configuration is $\rm [Ar]3d^5$. I think one way we could find the magnetic moment is to use the ...
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Why don't nuclei lose their integrity when the environment they are created in changes? [closed]

Atomic nuclei are built in environments of massive pressure and heat such as star cores or supernovas. So, how do nuclei keep their integrity once the pressure and heat levels are low? Most atoms stay ...
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Do we not know that momentum is certainly not conserved at single electron double slit experiments?

I am aware that tons of experiments are performed on this topic and the scientists try to be very careful with the experiments and take every possibility into account. In a single electron double slit ...
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Do these violate Relativity? [closed]

Two questions, classical answers to both defies the speed limit. [From Photoelectric Effect and Bohr's Atomic Model] : What will be the velocity of the electron which is ejected by a Hydrogen atom ...
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Why do the cesium atoms in an atomic clock have to be tossed into the air like a fountain?

Even the NIST website for the standard F-1 clock and the new F-2 do not explain, exactly, why it helps (or is necessary) to make the cesium atoms appear, at least temporarily, weightless.... Wouldn't ...
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Azimuthal quantum number for $sp^3$ hybridization

The $s$ orbital corresponds to $l=0$. The $p$ orbital corresponds to $l=1$. For an electron in an $sp^3$ hybridization orbital, what is $l$?
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Is atom vibration (not speed) correlated with temperature?

As far as I know every atom vibrates / oscillates / I don't know what it's called in English with a frequency, specific for its element. I don't mean the velocity of the atom, which defines ...
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What are all the properties that changes instantly under phase transition in Dicke system (dynamics not steady states)

It is well known that a collection of atoms, placed in a very closed area (placed together within a distance smaller than the wavelength emitted by the atoms), they superradiate, the peak intensity of ...
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Can a photon with energy value not corresponding to the discrete energy level differences excite an atom? [duplicate]

I'm a sophomore majoring in physics, and I had some question about the discrete energy value of atoms and its excitation. So, I know that in order to make a hydrogen atom in a ground state to get &...
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How to prove Nitrogen atom with total angular momentum $L=2$ and $L=1$ are not anti-symmetric?

I'm working on Problem 5.13(d) in "Griffiths 《Introduction of Quantum Mechanics》 2nd Edition". It asked to determine the nitrogen electron configuration by Hund's rule. And here is the ...
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Why do individual helium atoms rise?

Balloons full of helium rise because the buoyant force is great than the gravitational force and the buoyant force is due to a pressure difference between the top and bottom of a ballon but why ...
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Why do alpha particles get deflected by gold foil even though net electric field inside a metal is zero?

The electric field in metal is zero in electrostatics. But in the Rutherford gold foil experiment, alpha particles get deflected from the gold foil showing the presence of an electric field there. I ...
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Does the Lamb shift occur only in $n=2$?

Could the Lamb shift be used in $n=3,4,5,...$? Or does it only work with $n=2$? And does it work for values of $j$ other than $\frac{1}{2}$?
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Quantum mechanical description of how bonding works?

I am trying to conceptualize of chemical bonding, and really be able to explain to someone with lots of questions how exactly it works. I am having a hard time conceptualizing what the bonding is ...
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Friction in photon absorption/emission process

Question: Is photon emission/absorption by an atom always accompanied by emission of soft photons (i.e. photons of very low energy)? On the one hand, we can consider a scattering problem where at $t=-\...
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Can coherent De Broglie waves induce resonance into a systems with magnetic moments?

As in systems that display Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, electromagnetic waves induce resonance into atomic nuclei, could a coherent De Broglie wave, known as an "Atom Laser" induce this ...
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Why is $J^P=0$ for all even-even nuclei?

I have the following question, for which I have answered fully, but I am questioning the logic behind finding the value of $J^P$ for ${}^{20}_{10}\mathrm{Ne}$: N.B, when I wrote "Number per ...
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Corrections to energy levels in many-electron atoms

While I've been solving the Hydrogen atom problem, using quantum mechanics, I came across several correction factors, that give rise to the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum. The Hamiltonian can ...
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Calculate energy levels from term symbols

Term symbols offer an extremely compact way of describing the different energy levels of a system. It takes into account many corrections, including the central field, spin-orbit interaction, and ...
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On which quantum numbers the energy eigenvalues of a multielectron system depends?

We usually read the case for a hydrogen atom where we find that the potential energy depends only on the variable $r$ and the energy eigenvalues are dependent on principal quantum number only. What ...
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If there are huge gaps between atoms relatively to their size, why can we touch things? [duplicate]

Most of the volume of an object actually consists of empty space rather than molecules. So why don’t solid objects move through each other?
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How is two level optical transition in a spin 1 system affected by the third level?

Suppose you have a spin-1 system. Let us resonantly drive the transition between any 2 levels (say 0 1 transition). How would the the presense of the third level (-1) state affect this transition? We ...
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Help understanding the origin of scattering phase shift

I'm having a conceptual problem. The time-independent Schrodinger equation for a continuum state $\psi_{k, l}(r)$ is given by $$ 0 = \left( - \frac{\nabla^2}{2} + v(r) - \frac{k^2}{2} \right) \psi_{k,...
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Magnetic moment of carbon

I read recently the magnetic moment of carbon is zero. I am surprised how is this possible because the electronic configuration of it is $1s^2 2s^2 2p^2$. So we have two unpaired electrons here. I'll ...
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Electronic quantum jump time = transition time = lifetime?

Naively I assumed that an electron would sit in an excited state (in the shell of an atom) having some stochastic lifetime, so nothing changes and suddenly the electron would jump back into the ground ...
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Pressure broadening in absorption spectra

I was reading about pressure broadening for atomic spectra. What I can't understand is why it is important in absorption spectra if the collisions affect only the lifetime of the excited states. It ...
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Do photons and gravitons emitted in quadrupole atomic transitions have the same momentum?

A transition of an electron from orbital $3\text d$ to $4\text s$ produces photons and in small chances gravitons ($\Delta l= \pm2$) through quadrupole transitions. In 2 atoms, if one does this ...
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How to understand the hydrogen energy level and its wave function?

I have difficulty to understand this Hydrogen atom's energy level and its wave function. My difficulty is regarding the hydrogen atom itself, not the energy level and the wave function their selves, ...
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When is a free electron caught by the ion? [closed]

Some questions about ion and a free electron heading towards it and building (or not) of atom. Must the free electron pass through the electron cloud area of the subsequent quantum level in order to ...
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Two electrons in the ground state

I've been introduced to multiple particle systems in quantum mechanics, and in the case of the $2$-electron system, I'm facing this massive confusion. In the ground state of a $2$-electron system, you ...
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1answer
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X-Rays and UV Penetration Dichotomy Relative to Visible Light (Shorter Wavelength but opposite penetration)

My understanding was that relative to visible light, ultraviolet tends to be more strongly absorbed by materials because the higher energy photons are likely to be able to interact with the material. ...
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Why do X-ray telescopes have to be in space?

I have read this question: For x-rays the (HUP limit) Δx becomes smaller than the distances between the lattice distances of atoms and molecules, and the photon will interact only if it meets them on ...
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1answer
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Can an electron jump to a higher orbit with an energy that is only a little less than the theoretical requirment? [duplicate]

I understand that electrons can possess only discrete amounts of energy so if an electron in an atom has to jump from a lower orbit to a higher orbit it will require a discrete amount of energy to the ...
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Does all the atoms have same mass with respect to their molar mass ? Is there any factor that increases its inertia? [closed]

Does all the atoms have same mass (with respect to their molar mass). For example: 1 mole of Uranium 234 has a gram molecular mass of 234 grams, But is there any factors that increases its mass ?. ...
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Total number of states for a two electron system

Let's say, I have the following electronic configuration, $1s2s$, and I'm trying to find all the possible states. By looking at the configuration, it is obvious, that in the $|l_1,m_{l_1},m_{s_1},l_2,...
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Triplet states and Fine Structure

If we have a system, with total spin angular momentum given by $S$, then we have spin multiplicity equal to, $2S+1$. This spin multiplicity basically tells us the different spin states, this system ...
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1answer
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Atomic levels energy

While reading about $LS$ coupling, and the fine structure of atomic energy levels, of various electron-electron configurations, I came across two different representations. For example, if we consider ...
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Degeneracy of Atomic energy levels

I've started reading about the atomic spectra and came across LS coupling and so on. However, I have a doubt regarding the entire thing. Let us say, we have 2 electrons, say $4p-4d$ state, and we are ...
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Does changing energy level of electron in an atom has time duration? [duplicate]

In quantum mechanics electron in an atom is described by the wave function of probability. When the electron changes level the wave function changes to another. Is the changing electron level when it ...
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1answer
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Calculating the magnetic field of the Proton in Spin-orbit Coupling in Hydrogen Atom

I was reading in the Book: Introduction to Quantum Mechanics by David J. Griffiths. In chapter Time-independent Perturbation Theory, Section: Spin -Orbit Coupling. I understood that the spin–orbit ...
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Is it possible to calculate the fine structure constant?

Can this constant be derived mathematically or is derived entirely from experimental data?
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Is the relativistic Dirac equation the most accurate way to calculate energy levels?

I am curious about the current state of the art of calculating energy levels for atoms? Is there a better way to do this now?
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Has the atomic radius been experimentally verified?

In the answer to a previous question it was asserted the Bohr radius was upheld by the Schrodinger wave function to be the most probable size for the atomic radius of 1s hydrogen. Has the radius of a ...
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During promotion of electron in $3p$ orbital before hybridisation, why does it get promoted to $3d$ orbital and not $4s$?

During the hybridization of certain elements such as phosphorus during the formation of $\rm PCl_5$, the atom first gets changed to the excited state. In the case of $\rm PCl_5$, the paired electron ...
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Why is proton emission mode in nuclear decay so rare?

I was reading Atomic Structure and Spectral Lines by Arnold Sommerfeld for historical purposes. This book is a classic from the 1920s. He writes If, in accordance with the sense of Prout’s hypothesis,...
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Why is the law of reflection true?

When a bunch of photons strike a surface then they get absorbed by the electrons on that surface which then starts oscillating and thus re - emit some photons but they do it in the same plane as that ...

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