Questions tagged [atmospheric-science]

The study of the composition or dynamics of the gaseous layers around planets, often applied to questions on Earth's atmosphere but can be applicable to all planets & moons in the solar system.

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27 views

Which electric field does E represents in the Ionospheric Dynamo Current equation?

In Ionospheric Dynamo Current equation $j=\sigma(E+v\times B)$ where $j$ is the current density, $\sigma$ is the tensor conductivity, $v$ is the velocity of the tidal wind velocity (hence the ...
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Distance of rainbow from observer [duplicate]

I have been reading about rainbows and I know that there is a different rainbow for each observer. Also the rainbow is centred on a line joining the head of a person to his shadow. What does it mean? ...
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101 views

Does sky luminance really decrease in steps as the Sun goes deeper under the horizon?

Playing with some atmospheric scattering simulations, I've come across a fact that, as the Sun goes lower under the horizon, sky luminance (neglecting sources of light other than the Sun) appears to ...
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3answers
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Is there a difference between the red sky in the morning and in the evening?

It certainly has a different feeling to it, but does the temperature or earth's rotation or the clouds or anything else really make it two different physical phenomena or at least different colors? ...
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Bouyancy of ozone gas

If ozone is $O_3$ why is it an outer layer of the atmosphere? It seems $O_3$ would sink in a solution of $O_2$, rather than float on it.
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If the Sun had a larger surface temperature how would that affect its appearance to us in the sky?

I thought about this when I came across wiens displacement law which says the higher the temperature, the lower the peak wavelength. If the sun was a lot hotter, and its peak wavelength wasn't in the ...
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To what extent do (man made) generators of heat from internal sources in earth's system cause climate change?

So I'm very far from a climate scientist but I've always wondered, why don't things like electric heaters, lightbulbs, etc, contribute to climate change, or even things like the accelerated decay of ...
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Light in atmosphere versus space

The atmosphere appears bright because of scattering of light whereas space appears dark due no atmosphere to aid scattering. Is it possible to demonstrate it with such darkness in a huge vaccum ...
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306 views

How much does temperature affect the time of sunrise?

Please forgive me if this is a dumb question, or if my understanding of basic physics is wrong. Please feel free to correct me. As I understand it, if the Earth didn't have any atmosphere, then the ...
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1answer
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Is it possible to drain all oceans' water to space? [duplicate]

Assuming: That I have an ideal straw (a very long pipe) from the ocean to space; That the straw (pipe) is ideal (will not break); That i can pump all the air from the pipe creating vacuum inside the ...
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Are rainbows three dimensional? If so, what determines their depth? [duplicate]

I am wondering whether rainbows are three dimensional, and if so, what determine their depth? How to calculate the depth of a rainbow, given its radius? From what I understand, all rainbows are ...
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1answer
27 views

Relationship between CO2 concentration and thermal conductivity of the air in a volume?

How much would the percentage of CO2 in a room need to change in order to make a measurable change (using transient hot wire method) to the thermal conductivity of the air inside room? Are there other ...
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631 views

Why does high pressure cause clear skies?

In high-pressure areas, air falls, but why does high pressure leads to clear, sunny skies?
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While flying over Rome we noticed that during sunset, there was a green color between the red and blue of the sunset sky. What causes it?

The picture has only been trimmed and not edited. The green is visible when the red or orange tapers off into the blue. Is this different from what causes the green flash? We were flying from Rome.
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350 views

How does scattering of light happen in atmosphere?

I know that the scattering of light decreases as inversely proportional to the 4th power of wavelength. But what happens at the atomic level? Does the photon get absorbed and re-emitted? Does the ...
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What is the contribution of conductive heating to atmospheric warming?

I know someone who disputes the idea that the Earth's atmospheric temperature would average -18 deg C in the absence of greenhouse gasses. He maintains that conductive heating would warm the air and ...
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4answers
65 views

Do CFCs get emitted in air from appliances?

Do the refrigerators and air conditioners that use CFC or HCFC cause damage to the environment even when they are working normally. I mean, is there any gas emission under normal conditions when the ...
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How does brightness affect color? [duplicate]

How does brightness affect the color of light? For instance, the sun might be yellow because of the blue scattering when the light travels through the atmosphere - but if you look at it, it seems ...
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2answers
117 views

Why does the sun always have some whiteness? [duplicate]

So the atmosphere scatters light on its way to earth, making the color of our sky. For example, when the sky is blue on a clear, sunny day, the sunlight appears somewhat yellow because the blue light ...
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150 views

Sound and gravity

How would heavier gravity (or lighter gravity) affect sound in terms of what I hear? For example, say there is a planet that is capable of supporting human life, but it has heavier gravity than ...
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1answer
329 views

Is there a difference in the infrared absorption spectrum of a greenhouse gas when pure and when mixed with non-greenhouse gases?

According to the standard IPCC greenhouse climate change hypothesis a doubling of the preindustrial CO2 concentration of 285 ppm in the atmosphere - the current value is 405 ppm - would lead to an ...
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55 views

Satellite radiance measurements in spectral regions

Q: A satellite measures longwave radiation emerging from a planet with uniform surface temperature T1 and uniform atmospheric temperature T2. What values of radiance does the satellite measure in the ...
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2answers
64 views

Regarding the $E x B$ drift in the Earth's magnetic field

So I have a burning question: The only reason that the E x B drift doesn't generate an electric current is because both the electrons and the positive ions move towards the same direction (towards ...
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1answer
27 views

Rayleigh Scattering, Atmosphere-Dependant

I've come across the Wikipedia article on Rayleigh Scattering and it quotes that In detail, the intensity $I$ of light scattered by any one of the small spheres of diameter $d$ and refractive index $...
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1answer
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Determination of the variability of different spectra over shorter wavelength ranges from that of a single spectrum?

To pictographically explain, how do you convert Fig. 1 to Fig. 2? Fig. 1 to Fig. 2
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1answer
65 views

How did Mars lose all its surface water?

A lot of geological evidence suggests that Mars once had quite a bit of surface water. I assume it wasn't whisked away into space, so where did it all go? What processes caused the water to go there? ...
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2answers
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Would a supersonic object without a combustion power source leave behind a contrail?

Contrails, as far as I understand them, are caused by either a pressure change that forces the condensation of H2O(g) OR by the release of warm H2O from a combustion engine. Most plane contrails, I ...
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4answers
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Why does the warm air rises up?

Warm air has more energy than cold air. This means that according to the Einstein equation $E = mc^2$ the warmer air has a greater mass than the cold one. Why is the warm air rising, if it has a ...
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3answers
280 views

Why do gas giants have similarly coloured stripes?

After looking at Jupiter and searching 'exoplanets gas giants' on google I found that many had stripes on them. I found that pretty peculiar. So why do they have stripes. I think it has something to ...
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2answers
269 views

Would a human die from high air pressure at the bottom of the Mariana trench if it wasn't under water?

I read an article recently about gelatinous fish that live deep underwater, and if they were brought up to the surface would 'melt' due to the lower pressure not supporting their bodies. This got me ...
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1answer
184 views

Air Pressure in a Mine

In Sunday's "60 Minutes" TV program the correspondent descended into a gold mine said to be 2 miles (3 km) deep. What equation describes the air pressure relative to sea level atmospheric pressure?
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1answer
185 views

Water at 0 atmospheric pressure

Suppose I put a bucket of water on the surface of the Earth. Then somehow the atmosphere disappears. My question is: Would the water fly out of the bucket, or would it be still there? My reasoning ...
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1answer
57 views

why high pressure systems are colder in temperate climates?

How do we derive equations which relate the temperature and pressure anywhere in the atmosphere? (assuming earth is still so no coriolis effect and flat if that makes the problem any easier). Like ...
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What kind of outdoor weather is ideal for condensing moisture that's in air?

What kind of outdoor weather is ideal for condensing moisture that's in air? Temperature, humidity? Does condensation increase the more difference in temperatures there is?
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Can we theoretically guide cold air from high altitude down to the needy cities as free AC?

If you had an insulated tube (approximate size say 15k feet (5km) tall, 50ft (15m) diameter) with the top end open and bottom end closed, would the air in the tube eventually become as cold as the ...
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1answer
54 views

How can you calculate the atmospheric layers on another planet?

I'm working on a program that procedurally generates planets, and I'd like to make a realistic atmosphere with realistic pressures at different altitudes. I know that for earth we have 7 layers to our ...
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3answers
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Why is Mars so cold when it has so much atmospheric $CO_2$?

Mars has 1/10 of Earth's atmosphere but that atmosphere is 95% CO2. Why is Mars so cold when it has so much atmospheric CO2?
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1answer
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How is global warming distributed with respect to altitude?

Lets assume a sea level temperature increase 2c/3c. Then, what is the temperature increase at 10 km altitude? Temperature increase at 30 km altitude? Temperature increase at 70 km altitude? And ...
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Why dont we account the rotation of the earth in aircrafts? Is it just because of the air or is there more to it? [duplicate]

Today there was a seminar regarding modern air crafts held in my school. At the starting of the lecture, we were asked a question which I found quite intriguing. "Why does a helicopter or a fixed ...
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1answer
41 views

What is the difference of pressure of a gas in a closed container at a given distance from the Earth?

If I have a closed container of a given height $(h)$, located at a given distance from the centre of the Earth $(r_o)$, what would the pressure difference be at the top of the container vs the bottom? ...
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Interpreting and correcting negative vertical column densities of a trace gas in the atmosphere

I have a direct-sun spectrometer that I am using to measure the concentration of a trace gas in the atmosphere. The basis of deriving this concentration is the Lambert-Beer's law. Since my instrument ...
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1answer
81 views

How do frogs and fish rain? [closed]

I saw a documentary about the rain of frogs and fish in certain areas due to water sprouts sucking them up and causing rain of frogs and fish (pretty large ones) hundreds of miles away. But how is it ...
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1answer
50 views

Motion of a contrail “vortex”

I want to understand what causes this motion on contrails (Cirricular motion) and it’s name if possible. What effects it? How and why is it formed?
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109 views

Weird and unintuitive results from thermodynamics/hydrostatics for an isothermal atmosphere and possible explanation(?)

It is known from hydrostatics that for a fluid in equilibrium in a gravitational field, $$\frac{dP}{dz} = -ρg$$ Let us from now on suppose the atmosphere is isothermal and has temperature $T$. We ...
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1answer
33 views

What's the difference between a convection and a polarization electric field?

In the ionosphere and magnetosphere communities, studies frequently refer to the "convection electric field" and the "polarization electric field". What is the relationship between them, and what are ...
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1answer
50 views

Has there been a quantifed estimate of the thermal impact of human activity? Not to include “greenhouse gasses” [closed]

In 1984 I read a prediction by the biological scientist and Nobel Laureate Konrad Lorenz that heat produced by human activity would necessarily increase Earth's average atmospheric temperature. His ...
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1answer
147 views

Why are distant mountains grey?

I have read this question: Where in the atmosphere is the blue light scattered? where John Rennie says: For the same reason, distant mountains keep their color. Also, the distant mountains don't ...
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How fast would the Earth have to spin to lose the atmosphere?

I have read these questions: How fast would the Earth need to spin for us to feel weightless? Why can't we feel the Earth (or being in any non-inertial frame) rotating? And it made me curious. Is ...
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183 views

Why does purple appear in a rainbow?

It is said that people and digital cameras have color sense only for red, green and blue. So when we see violet/purple in a rainbow, whether with our eyes or in a photo, we should be seeing a color ...
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3answers
91 views

Atmospheric Density

As I was reading my textbook, I noted that it stated that the atmosphere becomes less dense as height increases. I am unable to understand this. I understand that pressure decreases as height ...

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