Questions tagged [atmospheric-science]

The study of the composition or dynamics of the gaseous layers around planets, often applied to questions on Earth's atmosphere but can be applicable to all planets & moons in the solar system.

121 questions with no upvoted or accepted answers
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181 views

Why do random slabs stay dry in the rain?

The image below shows the slabbed area I can see from my work window Whenever it rains some of the slabs stay dry however, it is never consistent which ones. Can anyone explain why this happens to ...
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132 views

Extremum principle for gradient wind balance

Dear Physics StackExchange, as is well known, analytic solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations are only available for very special flows. Therefore, in most fields concerned with fluid dynamics, a ...
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Is there a difference in the infrared absorption spectrum of a greenhouse gas when pure and when mixed with non-greenhouse gases?

According to the standard IPCC greenhouse climate change hypothesis a doubling of the preindustrial CO2 concentration of 285 ppm in the atmosphere - the current value is 405 ppm - would lead to an ...
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306 views

Minimum velocity required to “skip” a spacecraft across the atmosphere?

When, hopefully, Virgin Galactic spacecraft start regular operations in a few years time, they will be simply travelling upwards, then achieving weightlessness for a short while, followed by a ...
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1answer
167 views

Special conditions at layer F2 ionosphere

I saw this graph about the electrons density in different altitudes and difference between night and day, the difference between the 2 electron densities (day and night) decreases till 300 Km (F2 ...
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108 views

Physical reason for Helium-hole?

I just found a "Helium-hole" from atmospheric data provided here. I was actually looking for this, and the first search was immediately succesful, a hole was found from; Time: 05.01.2002, 05:00 UTC ...
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222 views

relation of vortex street structure to Stroudhal & Reynolds Numbers

While on an expedition to a lake, it was noticed that the wind speeds gusted violently in seemingly periodic wakes and the proposed explanation was Von Karman vortex shedding off of nearby mountains ...
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Is it possible to detect the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere by observing Northern Lights?

From my limited understanding, the different colours observed from the Northern Lights is due to the presence of different gases in the atmosphere. Is it possible to observe the amount of CO2 in the ...
3
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1answer
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While flying over Rome we noticed that during sunset, there was a green color between the red and blue of the sunset sky. What causes it?

The picture has only been trimmed and not edited. The green is visible when the red or orange tapers off into the blue. Is this different from what causes the green flash? We were flying from Rome.
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Weird and unintuitive results from thermodynamics/hydrostatics for an isothermal atmosphere and possible explanation(?)

It is known from hydrostatics that for a fluid in equilibrium in a gravitational field, $$\frac{dP}{dz} = -ρg$$ Let us from now on suppose the atmosphere is isothermal and has temperature $T$. We ...
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99 views

Why don't two air masses just mix in the atmosphere?

In weather fronts, two air masses of different temperature, density etc. meet and one just moves over or under the other. Why do these two just mix together? What is the physical mechanism that ...
3
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1answer
196 views

Does the brightness of day follow simple harmonic 'motion'?

Is it really true that the brightness during the day on earth follows simple harmonic motion? My teacher mentioned this as an example but it doesn't feel obvious to me by any stretch of the ...
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Behaviour of Altimeter at different temperatures

I have realized that the Altimeter of my bike computer (it uses Air Pressure to determine altitude and needs to be calibrated every start) is not consistent at different temperatures. At the Start ...
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283 views

False sunset and false sunrise time estimation

False sunset and false sunrise are described . Here is a sample day rise and set time according to AccuWheather site and calculated value of sunrise and sunset in my country. Could you please help ...
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How can a gas giant be said to have an atmosphere?

They are made of gas, right? So, there won't be a solid-gas or liquid-gas boundary that defines where the atmosphere starts. So, if there isn't a boundary, we can't define part of it to be an ...
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Bulk and dynamic viscosity in the atmosphere

I'm studying the physics of the atmosphere but I'm struggling with the matter of viscosity (Navier-Stokes equation) for gravito-acoustic waves. From Landau-Lifschitz : $$ (T)_{ij} = -p\delta_{ij} + \...
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What is atmospheric stratification?

In the context of atmospheric stability, what are the meanings of stable or unstable stratification? What is stratification?
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119 views

Mathematical approaches to atmospheric refraction

Understanding atmospheric refraction, particularly of ultraviolet, and into the blue part of the visible spectrum is of great interest to me. Although, I have a strong background in trigonometry and ...
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42 views

Surface UV exposure with cooler star

If the sun's surface was ~ 4000K (and earth closer to compensate), the UV component of the radiation would be less. However, UV makes ozone via photolysis of oxygen. Also, the stratosphere would ...
3
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2answers
99 views

How does the Earth's magnetic field protect it from the solar wind?

Several sources (see linked questions at the end) say that earth's magnetic field shields us from the solar wind. The general consensus is that without earth's magnetic field, the atmosphere would be ...
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20 views

Difference in rotation of the atmosphere at different levels

The atmosphere near ground level rotates at the same rate (on average) as the earth's surface because of drag effects beween air and ground, and continues to rotate because of inertia. Correct? My ...
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1answer
101 views

How is temperature related to quantum vibrational states of molecules?

When a molecule of greenhouse gas absorbs a photon of long wave infrared radiation it is boosted to the next allowed vibrational state. The vibrational state, as I understand it, involves deformations ...
2
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1answer
190 views

Can Rayleigh scattering explain the orange color of the Titan sky?

It is my understanding that Rayleigh scattering depends on both the length of the particle as well as the wavelength. Due to the similar lengths of molecular nitrogen and oxygen it is blue light that ...
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40 views

What is the optimum altitude for tapping atmospheric charge?

The atmosphere appears to have a large potential difference (voltage) in relation to ground. The obvious example is the thunder where this voltage becomes large enough to break the insulator - air. Of ...
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36 views

What is the current limiting factor for GPS clock synchronization precision?

In the (slightly dated) paper 'Quantum Clock Synchronization Based on Shared Prior Entanglement' [R. Jozsa et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2010 (2000)], the authors describe the GPS synchronization ...
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1answer
122 views

Why do clouds appear pinkish after rain?

Monsoon winds are blowing over India and after every rain I observe that the clouds are turning pinkish, even during the night. What causes such a phenomena? Or are the observations coincidence?
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3answers
312 views

Temperature distribution in a column of air

Say there is a sealed cylinder of air that has a height $\mathrm{h}$ and area $\mathrm{A}$ on the ends. The initial temperature throughout the column is $T_0$ and has a uniform initial density $\rho_0$...
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106 views

Ionospheric electron density measurements

I've been working on measuring total electron column density (TEC) with multi frequency GPS data. In theory, signal delay caused by TEC differences should affect the code and carrier nearly evenly in ...
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58 views

Velocity Profile of the Upper Atmosphere

Consider an Earth-Centered Inertial (ECI) frame in which the tangential (to Earth's surface) velocity is measured. Now consider obtaining constant average velocity profiles of the atmosphere as a ...
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123 views

Maximum temperature possible on earth

What is maximum temperature that can we have on earth on a single day? Lets say an air mass is static over an area and there is no way for air mass to move, sun warming it up would increase ...
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129 views

Atmospheric Tides effect on atmospheric pressure

Regarding the atmospheric tides effect on the pressure, this answer (and the referenced sources) seem to point that such effect is very small. However, this pressure prediction graph for my hometown ...
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63 views

Is there a resonance within the earth, separate from the Schuman resonance?

In a very recent biography of Nikola Tesla by Bernard Carlson, the author explains that Tesla measured the resonant frequency of the earth using his invention - the amplifying transmitter. Tesla came ...
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57 views

What instruments are used to determine the degree of water in the atmosphere of Mars?

More precisely, how does one go about measuring the small amount of water vapor in what is almost a vacuum by terrestrial standards?
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68 views

How is convection possible in fluids, in the absence of a contact surface for any buoyant force?

I don't understand why liquids and gases are acted upon by a buoyant force. In a solid immersed on some fluid medium, the pressure pressure difference caused by gravity exerts a force on the surface ...
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828 views

How far we can see in the thickest possible fog?

There is quite foggy day today here, I cannot see end of the street. This made me think about how much worse can it be. So here is my question: how thick a fog can be? What's the smallest visibility ...
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1answer
44 views

How can you calculate the atmospheric layers on another planet?

I'm working on a program that procedurally generates planets, and I'd like to make a realistic atmosphere with realistic pressures at different altitudes. I know that for earth we have 7 layers to our ...
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20 views

Pressure variance with height of the atmosphere-conflict of answers

When we use the standard equations pertaining to the International Standard Atmosphere to calculate the pressure at 25km above sea level, the answer seems way off from the values that we get over the ...
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47 views

Escape Velocity and its effect on the atmosphere

I’ve been doing some world building and wound up with a bit of a physics puzzle that’s stumped me. So rather than a long winded explanation I’ll simply state the primary parameters. Under otherwise “...
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In Feynman lecture vol1,chapter12 friction between two wet glasses, is there any atmospheric pressure related during the process?

In Feynman lecture vol1,chapter12 friction between two wet glasses, is there any atmospheric pressure related during the process? Does the water between two glasses make use of atmosphere pressure? Or ...
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1answer
34 views

Formation of Red and blue bands in the sky

Today at the time of sunset I saw this The sky is divided into two parts one In red and one in blue which are very distinctive Can anyone tell how? The upper part of the image points towards the ...
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15 views

What would earth's wind look like without differential heating?

If the earth were not subject to differential (solar) heating, but otherwise had the same atmospheric and surface temperatures, and same rate of rotation: What would its wind look like? E.g.: Would ...
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1answer
23 views

Which electric field does E represents in the Ionospheric Dynamo Current equation?

In Ionospheric Dynamo Current equation $j=\sigma(E+v\times B)$ where $j$ is the current density, $\sigma$ is the tensor conductivity, $v$ is the velocity of the tidal wind velocity (hence the ...
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41 views

What is the contribution of conductive heating to atmospheric warming?

I know someone who disputes the idea that the Earth's atmospheric temperature would average -18 deg C in the absence of greenhouse gasses. He maintains that conductive heating would warm the air and ...
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45 views

Satellite radiance measurements in spectral regions

Q: A satellite measures longwave radiation emerging from a planet with uniform surface temperature T1 and uniform atmospheric temperature T2. What values of radiance does the satellite measure in the ...
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1answer
60 views

How did Mars lose all its surface water?

A lot of geological evidence suggests that Mars once had quite a bit of surface water. I assume it wasn't whisked away into space, so where did it all go? What processes caused the water to go there? ...
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2answers
76 views

Why do gas giants have similarly coloured stripes?

After looking at Jupiter and searching 'exoplanets gas giants' on google I found that many had stripes on them. I found that pretty peculiar. So why do they have stripes. I think it has something to ...
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2answers
40 views

What kind of outdoor weather is ideal for condensing moisture that's in air?

What kind of outdoor weather is ideal for condensing moisture that's in air? Temperature, humidity? Does condensation increase the more difference in temperatures there is?
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1answer
29 views

What is the difference of pressure of a gas in a closed container at a given distance from the Earth?

If I have a closed container of a given height $(h)$, located at a given distance from the centre of the Earth $(r_o)$, what would the pressure difference be at the top of the container vs the bottom? ...
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Interpreting and correcting negative vertical column densities of a trace gas in the atmosphere

I have a direct-sun spectrometer that I am using to measure the concentration of a trace gas in the atmosphere. The basis of deriving this concentration is the Lambert-Beer's law. Since my instrument ...
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1answer
37 views

Electron distribution in Low Earth Orbit

I have been searching online for some kind of pdf function that describes the charged electron distribution in Low Earth Orbit in regards to their energies. Any ideas on whether something like that ...