Stack Exchange Network

Stack Exchange network consists of 174 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers.

Visit Stack Exchange
Join us in building a kind, collaborative learning community via our updated Code of Conduct.

The study of the composition or dynamics of the gaseous layers around planets, often applied to questions on Earth's atmosphere but can be applicable to all planets & moons in the solar system.

0
votes
1answer
23 views

Does dew point change with change of ambient temperature?

I know dew point is the temperature at which air becomes saturated with vapor that was already in the air. So if I take some unsaturated air in a container and lower it's temperature, eventually at ...
0
votes
0answers
21 views

Computation of refractive index of the upper atmospheric air using pressure, temperature and humidity measurements

Upper Air Sounding Systems (UASS) measure the properties of the atmosphere typically till a vertical height of 30 km from Mean Sea Level (MSL). The balloon-suspended sensors used over here measure ...
1
vote
1answer
21 views

Some Rayleigh Scattering questions

Last week I've heard about Rayleigh scattering for the first time, when the classic 'why is the sky blue?' question has crossed my mind and I must admit that it is fascinating! However, I do have a ...
2
votes
1answer
69 views

Superior Mirage

I've been fascinated about mirages and never thought I'd get to see a superior mirage. I live on the south coast of England and enjoy a distant view of the English channel. Last Friday 3 August 2018 ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

The link between two definitions of “potential density”

In Kundu's book , 4ed, P21, they define the potential density $\rho_\theta$ like this: However, later in P22, they define the potential density gradient as It seems to me that the potential density ...
-3
votes
2answers
49 views

What if the luminosity of Sunlight increased by 10% [closed]

If the luminosity of sunlight increased by 10%, would people be able to survive outside? Would such brightness of light be very harmful to them, for exemple as much as the Mercury Vapour Lamp without ...
0
votes
0answers
12 views

Does the speed of a light wave decrease in Earth's atmosphere? [duplicate]

Light wave is made up of photons, which exchange energy with the atmospheric molecules.
1
vote
2answers
19 views

what is the refraction index in the upper atmosphere(e.g Theromosphere)?

I've been searching for the refraction index in the upper atmosphere such as Stratosphere and Thermosphere but I can't find it, all that I've seen is all equation without any number that I can use it. ...
-2
votes
3answers
64 views

Max. air temperature on Earth [duplicate]

Is there any max. temperature that air on Earth could reach, assuming that solar radiation is standard and the average temperature on Earth is 14.6 like today? I mean, is there any chance that the ...
1
vote
3answers
57 views

Ocean density vs atmosphere density

I understand that the density of the oceans on Earth in on average constant regardless of the depth. It is 1020 kg/m^3 at the surface and 1050 kg/m^3 at deep waters. I understand too that this is not ...
1
vote
2answers
74 views

Global warming and air temperature

The layman's question. Is there a maximum temperature that can be reached by air on Earth due to global warming? For example, one that would prevent living organisms from functioning? I read somewhere ...
-1
votes
0answers
27 views

Why is there no purple in the rainbow? [duplicate]

I see from here that while green and orange are how we perceive actual wavelengths of light, purple is a mixture of red and blue. Why is there this difference? Green is a mixture of blue and yellow. ...
0
votes
0answers
12 views

Earth-like atmosphere on Mars, possible?

I recently watched a TED talk by a journalist, Stephen Petranek, in which he talks about colonization of Mars. Reaching the end of the presentation he talks about terraforming the planet, making it "...
0
votes
0answers
31 views

How can austronaut survive in the Thermosphere? [duplicate]

In my college class on space.. it says that: Thermosphere's temperatureis about 2000C approaching 500 miles into space? This would basically melts everything we are using in our space crafts, the ...
0
votes
1answer
44 views

Can Rayleigh scattering explain the orange color of the Titan sky?

It is my understanding that Rayleigh scattering depends on both the length of the particle as well as the wavelength. Due to the similar lengths of molecular nitrogen and oxygen it is blue light that ...
3
votes
1answer
116 views

Why can't hot air balloons fly higher then helium balloons?

I have read these questions: Hot air balloon trajectory predictions Do atmospheric physics prevent hot air balloons from ascending over 60,000ft? What is precisely the reason that a helium balloon ...
1
vote
1answer
22 views

What are the benefits of direct sun viewing spectrometer over a backscatter measuring spectrometer to quantify trace gases in the atmosphere?

I am using a Pandora spectrometer and a MAX-DOAS spectrometer to quantify the amount of formaldehyde (HCHO) present in the troposphere and stratosphere in Fairbanks, Alaska. Both the spectrometers use ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

Making, nucleation and classification of clouds

I have to write an elaborate about : making and nucleation of clouds and their classification. I was wondering if anyone has some paper or article about it to recommend, or any university lecture.
0
votes
0answers
43 views

How to know atmospheric pressure on surface of another planet?

While reading this Wikipedia, the article says that, “The air pressure at Venus' surface is about 92 times that of the Earth.” I’m familiar with the barometric equation and it’s derivation, however I ...
-1
votes
1answer
55 views

How do we not feel the speed of rotation of Earth?

Many people say, we don't feel the speed because everything around us including the air moves with the same speed, but I am not satisfied with the explanation. If it was so, shouldn't we feel a huge ...
0
votes
1answer
38 views

Night Louder Than The Day [duplicate]

Have you guys ever felt that it is quiet at night than in comparison to day?I'm known with the fact that reduction in people's activity makes night quiet...but is there something else which in a way ...
1
vote
0answers
33 views

What are the average wavelengths and brightnesses of sunlight across the stages of twilight?

I understand that before sunrise, twilight shows several colors, so I'm looking for the average color (wavelength) and brightness (lux) of light that is being projected from the sky before the sun ...
1
vote
0answers
17 views

Slowing the late descent of an atmospheric probe in a gas/ice giant exploration [closed]

I remember the 1995 descent of the Galileo atmospheric module in Jupiter atmosphere. The robust casing made it withstand several dozens of bars of pressure before going out. What measures could be ...
2
votes
0answers
22 views

Why is the color of aurora borealis the way it is?

Why is aurora borealis mostly green, instead of pink, even though green light is emitted by excited oxygen atoms and pink light by excited nitrogen atoms? As nitrogen is present almost more than ...
0
votes
1answer
37 views

What makes an object mirror? [duplicate]

All objects reflect some of the colours and then our eyes are able to see object of different colours. But when we see mirage in a desert then it seems that the sand of the desert is acting as a ...
1
vote
1answer
55 views

Is it possible for a planet or a moon to exist with absolutely zero atmosphere?

Mercury has an atmosphere, no matter how thin that might be. Scientists say that the space is not completely empty because we can always find a few hydrogen atoms per kilometer all over the outer ...
20
votes
2answers
5k views

What is the scientific explanation for radio waves bending around the Earth?

The experiment This experiment is documented in a documentary called Convex Earth. The exact location the following information is taken from starts at 14:25. High frequency directional antennas are ...
0
votes
1answer
13 views

Molecular basis for increased water uptake by warm air

Whats the molecular basis why warm air can uptake more water than cooler air?
0
votes
1answer
34 views

Energy of UV Light

How much energy does UV light, in the atmosphere, exert? For example, I know that CFCs were outlawed because the UV light was providing sufficient energy (BDE) to break the chlorine bonds and ...
4
votes
1answer
73 views

Why microwaves used in satellite communications?

I've been reading recently that:- EM waves with a shorter wavelength have shorter range in air/other medium Microwaves are used in satellite communications over radio waves. This doesn't make sense ...
5
votes
2answers
211 views

Sodium sometimes absorbs orange-yellow light, sometimes emits it? Huh?

Usually, we are told that sodium emits orangish-yellowish light, which is why city streetlamps are that color. Now, I read in New Scientist magazine that exoplanet WASP-96b is bluish because the ...
3
votes
2answers
1k views

Why is this cloud blue?

I saw these clouds on the horizon, behind a ridge (apologies I couldn't get more pixels): Why is the front cloud darker than the cloud behind? There were no other clouds that I saw which could've ...
2
votes
1answer
82 views

Are North aurora and South aurora produced by positive and negative particles respectively?

Are North aurora and South aurora produced by positive and negative particles respectively?
1
vote
2answers
46 views

Observations of a mushroom cloud

In this video of a nuclear bomb detonation/mushroom cloud, a few peculiarities arise and I simply had a couple questions pertaining to observations in the animation: Following the detonation, the ...
40
votes
5answers
7k views

Why aren't rainbows more common?

Why are rainbows relatively rare? On any given day, there are billions of water drops in the air of varying sizes and dispersions, all of which light is passing through and refracting. What physical ...
0
votes
0answers
9 views

Ionization of atmospheric methane

I am considering the disasociation of atmospheric methane by a UV laser. I believe 141 nm is the correct wavelength to do this. My question is how efficient would such a laser be in doing this. Would ...
0
votes
0answers
38 views

Signal to Noise Ratio

For the characterization of the ceilometers ability to determine aerosol layers at the different altitude levels quantitatively, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) has to be calculated. The SNR of a ...
3
votes
3answers
86 views

Is wind caused by differences in the atmospheric pressure or by differences in the atmospheric temperature or both?

I have heard that "Wind is caused by differences of atmospheric pressure" and "Wind is caused by differences of atmospheric temperature" both but I don't know for case that doesn't follow one of this. ...
2
votes
1answer
45 views

Inertia over an airplane [duplicate]

When an airplane is traveling, it moves at the same speed as the earth does due to inertia, but since, the plane is not directly touching the globe, how does is the speed of the earth is associated ...
0
votes
2answers
98 views

Given $2\text{ °C}$ atmospheric temperature rise, what would be the temperature increase if confined to an oven?

Consider the 2 °C average global atmospheric temperature rise as discussed by the IPCC. Assume an oven with an the interior that is a perfect cube having a volume of one cubic meter, empty of ...
2
votes
4answers
64 views

Energy Transport in stars

I'm trying to understand why convection is an efficient mode of energy transport in the outer layers of the solar interior. Could anyone give me a little bit of knowledge?
0
votes
0answers
28 views

Scattered Intensity of Light vs Angles of Incidence and Emission

So I just derived an expression for the scattered intensity of light from an atmosphere with ideal isotopic scattering: $I/F=\frac{cos(i)}{4(cos(e)+cos(i))}$, where $I$ is intensity, $F$ is flux, $i$ ...
-1
votes
3answers
71 views

Why is there less oxygen in a pressurised plane that is flying?

Children who have temporary lung problems like asthma attacks have to go on oxygen to heal. (At a hospital.) Immediately after a health incident they can’t go on an aeroplane because there is ...
0
votes
0answers
34 views

Why does the Earth have six atmospheric bands?

This is a follow up to Why doesn't Earth's atmosphere form bands due to different rotational speeds? I know that the earth has atmospheric banding like the gas giants. What I want to know ...
-1
votes
1answer
45 views

Space Straw - Pressures and Possibility [duplicate]

So, Thinking Again :/ If we built a tunnel, out into space far beyond our atmosphere and opened it up Would the resulting differences in pressure then effectively suck out the interior of our ...
-1
votes
1answer
44 views

Can there be a pressure gradient in a large enough closed container?

If we had an airtight container that was large enough, say extended out to the Karmen line, would there still be a pressure gradient? If we assume that the pressure at the bottom was 1atm, would it ...
1
vote
1answer
81 views

Does pollution affect the color of the sky?

We know that the sky is blue due to Rayleigh Scattering. We know that Rayleigh Scattering is dependent on the size of the particles in the atmosphere. We know that pollution is made up of particles, ...
0
votes
1answer
42 views

What causes the perceived intensity of the sun to change on a short timescale?

I was inspired by this question to ask, what causes the "beating down" feeling of the sun to vary day to day? While the linked post explains why the sun feels hotter in the summer than in the winter, ...
1
vote
1answer
25 views

Human body water storage effects on weather patterns

There are 7.614 billion humans and counting. On average a human being consists of 60% water. With that water being locked away from natural circulation for an average of 80 years. Are there any ...
0
votes
0answers
25 views

Extrapolate temperature vs. time

This probably isn't a physics question but I don't know where else to ask. I have 3 values of temperature per day, at 7 AM, 2 PM, and 10 PM. Is it possible to extrapolate them throughout the whole day?...