Stack Exchange Network

Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers.

Visit Stack Exchange

Questions tagged [atmospheric-science]

The study of the composition or dynamics of the gaseous layers around planets, often applied to questions on Earth's atmosphere but can be applicable to all planets & moons in the solar system.

0
votes
1answer
28 views

Doubt in relation of kinematics and oscillation of electrons [on hold]

My question is about the effect of a radio waves on an Ionospheric Electron. The ionosphere is a region of electrically neutral gas, composed of positively charged ions and negatively charged ...
0
votes
0answers
39 views

Why doesn't the kinetic theory of gases apply to the “consensus” hypothesis regarding rocky planet's surface temperature [on hold]

Is it because people have trouble thinking in terms of this theory literally "outside the box?"
0
votes
1answer
41 views

Wind speed limit

According to Wikipedia, the highest wind speed not related to tornadoes ever recorded was 408 km/h. But I am wondering, what is the maximum theoretical wind speed possible here on Earth? It clearly ...
-1
votes
0answers
26 views

Snow without sunlight [on hold]

I just saw an ad for a certain mobile game. The sun was obstructed by some machines. And there was snow and wind blowing. The snow: My theory is that snow couldn't have been formed, because the were ...
1
vote
1answer
52 views

How thick would the atmosphere have to be to block all the sunlight?

this is a question I haven't been able to find an answer to anywhere. How thick would our atmosphere have to be for the surface of the planet to be completely dark? Is that even possible? Thank you!
20
votes
5answers
6k views

If the pressure inside and outside a balloon balance, then why does air leave when it pops?

Sorry for the primitive question but when we inflate a rubber balloon and tie the end, its volume increases until its inner pressure equals atmospheric pressure. But after that equality is obtained ...
2
votes
1answer
32 views

How would music sound in different atmospheres?

How different would a musical piece sound in different atmospheres? I assume that sound travels differently in other planets depending on what their atmosphere is made of, affecting the frequencies. ...
0
votes
1answer
32 views

What units are represented by pr - micrometer?

In studying column abundances, I often encounter the units $pr-\mu m$. What does this stand for? Part per micrometer? how can this be an abundance unit? Incredibility I cannot figure out what it ...
1
vote
1answer
33 views

Formation of Red and blue bands in the sky

Today at the time of sunset I saw this The sky is divided into two parts one In red and one in blue which are very distinctive Can anyone tell how? The upper part of the image points towards the ...
2
votes
1answer
34 views

Can a syringe be used as a hanging scale if needed?

FYI: This is not a homework q; I am just curious... You can assume that... the syringe tip cap creates a "perfect" seal, i.e., keeps air from flowing in/out! the syringe is completely depressed ...
2
votes
1answer
40 views

How is sound affected by gravity?

How would sound be different on a planet with a stronger gravitational field? My reasoning leads to sounds of the same wavelength having higher frequencies - is this correct?
1
vote
0answers
17 views

How does the Torricelli barometer create a vacuum at the top of the tube? [closed]

Hi everyone! Can someone explain to me how does the Torricelli barometer creates a vacuum at the top of the tube? And how does it work?
0
votes
0answers
20 views

How many scattering events happen in the atmosphere over 1 km?

In Vector Monte Carlo Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Simulations, they take a Stokes vector, let's say [1,1,0,0] and multiply it with a matrix, with elements close to 1. But if there are much ...
0
votes
1answer
56 views

(Why) does wet air contain more oxygen?

I've heard the fact wet air contains more oxygen is the reason experts recommend to humidify the air. Intuitively, I'd say wet air should contain water of a greater density and thus, make less space ...
1
vote
2answers
34 views

What is the hygropause?

I've been reading on planetary atmospheres and I've encountered this term which I can't find defined anywhere on the web. What is the definition of Hygropause?
0
votes
2answers
64 views

What will happen to atmospheres of very large planets?

Our earth can hold our atmosphere whereas Mars cannot. So the atmosphere retention mass must be between the masses of Mars and Earth, but if mass is to be considered then can an iron ball having the ...
3
votes
4answers
84 views

Would a helium ballon pop or freeze in space?

I have read these questions: Why doesn't Helium freeze at 0K? Do objects in space freeze immediately? Now I do understand that a helium balloon cannot float up to space. But let's assume this ...
1
vote
0answers
15 views

What would earth's wind look like without differential heating?

If the earth were not subject to differential (solar) heating, but otherwise had the same atmospheric and surface temperatures, and same rate of rotation: What would its wind look like? E.g.: Would ...
0
votes
0answers
20 views

Whether below figure on atmospheric pressure is correct?

How conservation of energy is explained in the below figure? It seems atmospheric pressure in multiplication of Area(PA) is balanced by mg. If this is correct then if we take bigger diameter pot, the ...
1
vote
1answer
20 views

Is it possible to calculate the refractive index of a gas mixture given the pressure, temperature and wavelength?

I am searching for a formula to calculate the refractive index at a specific point in a planetary atmosphere. Given are pressure, temperature, wavelength and the molecular composition of the ...
0
votes
1answer
45 views

What is the pressure of water after entering atmosphere? [closed]

I was wondering if water exits from the pump and reach the ground, is the pressure of the water at the point of the ground be 0?
0
votes
0answers
28 views

Was torricelli right on atmosphere as energy to push mercury level up in barometer?

How below image can be explained in regard to Torricelli's logic on atmospheric pressure. Also, If we close the pot from the top and pressurize it to 1 kg/cm2 g, what happens with mercury level in the ...
-1
votes
2answers
121 views

Does a helicopter that simply hovers remain in the same spot on earth? [duplicate]

Ignoring statistical variation in wind, will a helicopter that only applies force perpendicular to a perfectly sphere earth remain in the exact same spot relative to the earth? I am arguing with ...
0
votes
0answers
31 views

How much must the Sun's radiation be reduced to offset global warming?

About 70 % of earth is covered with clouds and the rate of atmospheric water vapor is increasing. Also the warming of the oceans will most probably cause more and deeper low pressures and increased ...
3
votes
0answers
13 views

Is it possible to detect the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere by observing Northern Lights?

From my limited understanding, the different colours observed from the Northern Lights is due to the presence of different gases in the atmosphere. Is it possible to observe the amount of CO2 in the ...
0
votes
1answer
76 views

What would happen to the water bodies if gravity ceased to exist on Earth?

If water stopped flowing (it would stop flowing downwards from mountains and all) then, would it start rising upwards? If it floats on the space ( I say space because there'd not be any atmosphere) ...
1
vote
2answers
46 views

Is the Earth Atmosphere Model at this NASA site wrong?

I've been trying to get a decent numerical approximation (curve fit) of Earth's Atmosphere Model, and found what I was looking for at this NASA's web site. However, when checking some basic ...
6
votes
2answers
83 views

What causes the color difference of lightning flashes?

Some flashes of lightning are seen in a blue shade while some have a yellowish/orange appearance .What is the possible cause of colour difference?
27
votes
4answers
3k views

What causes the direction of lightning flashes?

During a lightning strike, the flashes appear as cloud to ground or cloud to cloud. Why is this the only manner of propagation? Why do the flashes not go upwards from the clouds into the sky?
1
vote
1answer
58 views

Red colour of the Great Red Spot

In Wikipedia it is mentioned: "It is not known exactly what causes the Great Red Spot's reddish color. Hypotheses supported by laboratory experiments suppose that the color may be caused by ...
0
votes
1answer
49 views

Why the source function is equal to Planck function when we have a local thermodynamic equilibrium?

I understand that the source function $ S_λ $ for the special case of blackbody radiation is equal to the Planck function $B_λ $. However, in the broader case of a local thermodynamic equilibrium (...
2
votes
5answers
147 views

If atmospheric pressure is 76 cm of $\text{Hg}$ , why won't 76 cm of mercury stay in an open tube when suspended in air?

If we keep an hold a tube in air with the closed end up and open end downwards, containing mercury upto a length of 76 cm, why does the mercury not stay in place? Shouldn't atmospheric pressure exert ...
1
vote
1answer
57 views

quantum mechanical treatment of rayleigh scatterring

Is there a quantum mechanical explanation of light scattering by atmospheric gases? Classically, treating the atmospheric particles as excited dipole antennas, we know that the amount of scattering is ...
1
vote
2answers
56 views

How big would the moon appear with no atmosphere? [duplicate]

I know that atmospheric lensing is what causes the moon to look bigger on the horizon, but I assume this effect is still taking place when the moon is overhead too, albeit to a smaller effect. However,...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

Proper atmospheric laser propagation including reflections

I'm attempting to model the propagation of a laser beam (specifically, its beam radius) through the atmosphere, bouncing off a (curved) surface. This is fairly simple up to the surface itself, but I'm ...
1
vote
2answers
56 views

Can Mars have an oxygen atmosphere?

It is my understanding that, in its gaseous state, oxygen molecules move fast enough to achieve escape velocity. On Earth, we see this more clearly with helium. Regardless of what's happening on ...
2
votes
2answers
90 views

Temperature as function of $CO_2$

The carbon stored in fossil fuels must have been taken out of the earth atmosphere from CO2 in past periods by plants. Thereby reducing the amount of CO2 drastically and increasing the amount of O2 to ...
2
votes
0answers
20 views

Difference in rotation of the atmosphere at different levels

The atmosphere near ground level rotates at the same rate (on average) as the earth's surface because of drag effects beween air and ground, and continues to rotate because of inertia. Correct? My ...
3
votes
1answer
48 views

Why does the location of the north magnetic pole vary faster than that of the south magnetic pole?

Noticing what Wikipedia asserts about the variation of the locations of the magnetic poles over time, e.g., 1998 $\sim$ 2000 to 2015, one would notice that the location of the north magnetic pole ...
3
votes
4answers
119 views

Why is air pressure higher in winter than in summer?

At the top of a mountain, say Mt Everest, atmospheric pressure is low. So shouldn't the same thing be true for winter season. I.e air pressure in winters should be lesser than that in summers. But ...
2
votes
3answers
121 views

Why is methane considered an important greenhouse gas?

Methane’s absorption bands are centered at 3.2 and 7.2 microns -- far off the peak of the Planck spectrum for a 290 K blackbody near 16 microns. Moreover, its absorption bands overlap with the water ...
1
vote
1answer
21 views

Which electric field does E represents in the Ionospheric Dynamo Current equation?

In Ionospheric Dynamo Current equation $j=\sigma(E+v\times B)$ where $j$ is the current density, $\sigma$ is the tensor conductivity, $v$ is the velocity of the tidal wind velocity (hence the ...
1
vote
0answers
39 views

Distance of rainbow from observer [duplicate]

I have been reading about rainbows and I know that there is a different rainbow for each observer. Also the rainbow is centred on a line joining the head of a person to his shadow. What does it mean? ...
4
votes
1answer
64 views

Does sky luminance really decrease in steps as the Sun goes deeper under the horizon?

Playing with some atmospheric scattering simulations, I've come across a fact that, as the Sun goes lower under the horizon, sky luminance (neglecting sources of light other than the Sun) appears to ...
2
votes
3answers
81 views

Is there a difference between the red sky in the morning and in the evening?

It certainly has a different feeling to it, but does the temperature or earth's rotation or the clouds or anything else really make it two different physical phenomena or at least different colors? ...
0
votes
1answer
39 views

Bouyancy of ozone gas

If ozone is $O_3$ why is it an outer layer of the atmosphere? It seems $O_3$ would sink in a solution of $O_2$, rather than float on it.
0
votes
1answer
43 views

If the Sun had a larger surface temperature how would that affect its appearance to us in the sky?

I thought about this when I came across wiens displacement law which says the higher the temperature, the lower the peak wavelength. If the sun was a lot hotter, and its peak wavelength wasn't in the ...
16
votes
4answers
4k views

To what extent do (man made) generators of heat from internal sources in earth's system cause climate change?

So I'm very far from a climate scientist but I've always wondered, why don't things like electric heaters, lightbulbs, etc, contribute to climate change, or even things like the accelerated decay of ...
0
votes
1answer
20 views

Light in atmosphere versus space

The atmosphere appears bright because of scattering of light whereas space appears dark due no atmosphere to aid scattering. Is it possible to demonstrate it with such darkness in a huge vaccum ...
3
votes
1answer
64 views

How much does temperature affect the time of sunrise?

Please forgive me if this is a dumb question, or if my understanding of basic physics is wrong. Please feel free to correct me. As I understand it, if the Earth didn't have any atmosphere, then the ...