Questions tagged [atmospheric-science]

The study of the composition or dynamics of the gaseous layers around planets, often applied to questions on Earth's atmosphere but can be applicable to all planets & moons in the solar system.

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Validity of defining Effective Permittivity in Dielectric Mixture

I am a optics-major student currently studying the topic of line-of-sight propagation of wave in scattering medium. I recently noticed some interesting articles about microwave propagation in mixtures,...
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How much does the sky weigh? [closed]

How much does the sky weigh? I don't know how much the sky weighs. Is the sky gravity? I tried researching, but I can't find scientific information that is proven.
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Do I have enough information to figure out the pressure in this problem? [closed]

The problem goes as follows: A 20 L volume of air isothermally compresses itself until it reaches a volume of 4 L. The temperature is $T=293.15 \ \mathrm{K}$. The initial relative humidity is 60%. ...
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Using the sky and ground as a battery

Since there is a voltage difference between the ground and sky, shouldn't I theoretically be able to light a bulb by connecting one terminal to the ground and raising the other one to the sky (via a ...
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10 votes
2 answers
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Alternate sky colors?

Ok, so the sky is blue because of Rayleigh scattering - blue wavelengths of light scatter off atmospheric particles in the air (more/more easily than others) - I understand this pretty well. So, if ...
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Is it generally accepted that Field Aligned Currents are caused by Force-Free Fields?

I am currently an undergraduate working on a project about FAC (Birkeland Currents) and it seems that most of the sources on the subject are very technical and hard for me to read (particularily ...
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Can you estimate vertical wind speed based upon temperature difference?

I have some data from an automatic weather station, with recordings of both $\rm 2\ m$ air temperature and $\rm 2\ m$ air pressure and also the surface temperature. Is it possible to estimate vertical ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Is the cross-sectional area of a mercurial barometer standardized?

Many textbooks mention that the height of a column of mercury in a mercurial barometer is 29.92" Hg under standard atmospheric conditions. However, they usually do not mention the diameter of ...
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1 vote
2 answers
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Differences in interactions of light with different mediums

I am trying to figure out this problem, I apologize in advance if the question is silly. If i am correct sunsets are red because red light doesnt get diffounded as much as blue light, which eventually ...
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1 answer
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How does air cool as it nears the poles?

I understand air is heated by the equator causing it to rise towards the poles. But why does air cool and sink after nearing the poles. Shouldn't the air still possess heat, after being heated by the ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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Geometry: path length in atmosphere ("round" Earth)

I'm having trouble obtaining this formula. I'll paste the text from the book: Considering the curvature of the Earth ($R$ is the Earth radius) and a non-vertical direction (zenith angle $θ$), the ...
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Barometric equation with different species [duplicate]

The barometric equation gives the pressure dependence of a perfect gas in a gravitational potential. In particular $$ P(h) = P_0e^{-\frac{mgh}{k_BT}} $$ where $m$ is the mass of molecules and $T$ the ...
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Colours of the sky if sun was blue?

What would be the colours of the sky at different points of the day if the sun was a blue star? This is assuming that our earth is at a similar distance away from the surface of the blue sun as it is ...
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Dielectric function of carbon dioxide gas in infra-red range

I did calculations on Rayleigh scattering by CO2 molecules in earth atmosphere, taking into account decreasing density with altitude and so on. The problem is that I can't find the datas on the carbon ...
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7 votes
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Why exactly do higher frequency (>240 Hz) sounds on Mars travel ~4% faster than lower frequencies? What's the physics and are there optical analogies?

SciTech Daily's April 1, 2022 Variable Speed of Sound on Mars: What Sounds Captured by NASA’s Perseverance Rover Reveal About the Red Planet says The result of the recordings: a new understanding of ...
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Photon Radiation from Van Allen Belt

The Van Allen belts contain charged particles, and the geomagnetic field drives them back and forth, thus accelerating them. My questions: Will that cause the charged particles to lose energy by ...
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Hydrostatic pressure trapped inside a bottle

I think I almost understand what is going on here, I just need a discussion The question is: Why is hydrostatic pressure trapped inside bottle? I have an open bottle and then I put a cap on it. The ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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Invariant Concentration of Ideal Gas Mixture with Altitude

Consider the following scenario, We have two gasses, $A$ and $B$, both approximately ideal mixed together in a gravitational field of constant magnitude $g$. Let them have masses per particle of $m_a$ ...
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Why water bearing clouds come black to the eyes? [duplicate]

Why water bearing clouds come black to the eyes? As far as I know mist is whitish, and rivers and seas are relatively transparent...Why the water inside the cloud absorbs all wavelengths?
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Why do we see only the sun as yellowish or orangish? Why not stars, because both of their light undergoes atmospheric refraction? [duplicate]

We see the colour of the sun as yellow to orangish on an average due to its light getting refracted due to the atmosphere. Then why do we see stars as white and not colourful, because light coming ...
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3 votes
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How can daylight have a higher colour temperature (e.g. 6500 K or D65) than sunlight in space?

Supposedly, daylight at midday has a colour temperature of 6500 K. This reference is also the standard for calibrating computer screens (that's how I fell into this). However, outside the atmosphere ...
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-1 votes
1 answer
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What wavelength should a laser beam have to not interact with the dust in the air for the laser emitter location not to be possibly detected?

What wavelength should a laser beam have to not interact with the dust in the air for the laser emitter location not to be possibly detected by any kind of wave detectors? What is the quantitative ...
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Wave propagation around the globe

I've been able to detect the pressure wave of the tonga volcanic eruption with the atmospheric pressure sensor here in switzerland (about 17Mm away). I've detected a swing of about +1.2hPa and -1hPa. ...
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How come air masses displace air when it moves rather than mixing with it? [duplicate]

It seems if you had one mass or air moving towards another air mass, that the molecules within that first air mass would be able to penetrate into the second air mass because the distance between air ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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Advection Term in the Lorenz 96 Model

The Lorenz 96 Model is defined as $$\frac{dx_i}{dt}=\underbrace{(x_{i+1}-x_{i-2})x_{i-1}}_{advection}-x_i+F$$ with some forcing $F$ and periodic boundary conditions so that $x_{i+N}=x_i$ for some $N$. ...
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3 answers
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What causes the behavior of this lightning flash?

I saw a "strange" behavior in the recording made by an ultrafast video camera. We can see a lightning flash growing dim, the growing bright a few times before it's gone. How can this happen? ...
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If lightning is caused by ionisation of air, why does it only last briefly?

I'm comparing lightning and fire - both are related to ionisation of air but lightning happens so fast in a blink of an eye while fire goes on until it runs out of fuel. My question is: despite being ...
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Is it possible to see behind the horizon because of light refraction?

I was debating a flat earther who claims that he was able to see what he shouldn't see if earth was spherical He stood on a hill with height of 201 m and used his camera to see all of Dubai which was ...
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2 votes
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Is there a theoretical minimum on how low the auroras can occur in the atmosphere?

Specifically, can they occur at around 40km up? (the height of a decent helium balloon)
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4 votes
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Why is ozone $\rm O_3$ in the Earth's upper atmosphere?

If you look at the density table, you will see that ozone has the highest density among other gases, so why is it in the upper layer of the atmosphere, in the picture I schematically drew how the ...
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8 votes
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Why does the "edge" of the sun appear red first?

During sunset, I have noticed many times that the Sun's outer boundary becomes red first but the middle part is yellowish by that time and then after some minutes the whole sun becomes red. Now I have ...
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What am I doing wrong in this estimation of the mass of the atmosphere?

I'm trying to approximate the mass of the atmosphere. I'm treating it as an ideal gas and therefore its density follows: $$\rho(z) = \rho(0)e^{(\frac{-mgz}{k_BT})}$$ Where I'm using $m=4.2122\cdot10^{-...
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6 votes
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Does gravity slow down sound (does sound travel faster downwards than upwards)?

I have read this question: So assuming the heavier planet has the same atmosphere as Earth, and that we can treat the atmosphere as an ideal gas, the speed of sound on the heavier planet would be the ...
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1 answer
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Refraction of light from the earths atmosphere

If a beam of light is propagating through the earths atmosphere is heading towards space, and is moving from a medium with a refractive index of n1 =1.000293 to a medium with a refractive index of n2 =...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Aurora Borealis

As we know that during a solar flare, a large number of electrons and protons are ejected from the sun. Some of them get trapped in the earth’s magnetic field and move in helical paths along the field ...
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5 answers
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Does Atmospheric Pressure Affect Weight Of Objects

The atmospheric pressure is around 100KPa which is 100,000 N/m2. If the gravitational acceleration is g = 10 m/s2, then it would be around 10 tons of weight of air per square metre! Let's say that we ...
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How are these expressions for blackbody spectral energy density established?

My first question regarding the following is: given that it is very close to 1 in the atmosphere, do we really need to consider the index of refraction in this context? In the article Radiation and ...
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Production of Nitrogen Vacancy Centers

A Nitrogen Vacancy Center is a diamond defect in which a carbon atom is replaced by a Nitrogen and the adjacent carbon atom is replaced by a "vacancy", hence the term Nitrogen Vacancy (NV). ...
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What is the maximum flux of 1 GeV stably-trapped protons in Jupiter radiation belts?

And in which L-shell? This graph shows a flux of around 50 stably-trapped protons per m2 per sec on Earth, and I have read it's higher in Jupiter but I can't find the value. A source would be ...
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1 vote
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Can aurora (the geostorm) cause increased static electricity on the ground?

There was a G-1 storm last night and I had major static while taking off clothes, far more than usual. It was a clear night here not foggy like most places.
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Can we witness Optical illusion in which sun appears to set in mid sea than at horizon?

I was searching for optical illusions and came across a video on youtube where sun seems to set in the mid of sea instead of setting at the horizon? Can anyone please explain how this illusion takes ...
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Calculation of dry air density without relative humidity

I would like to estimate the density of dry air at different temperatures and constant pressure (1 bar) just using the densities of nitrogen (79%) and oxygen (21%). I consider the number of other ...
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Can you make mist disappear over a large area by blowing hot air from the ground?

Can you make mist disappear over a large area by blowing hot air from the ground? I heard that mist is created by hot air entering contact with a cold surface, but if the surface is hot, will there be ...
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19 votes
3 answers
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Why is it so dark during a solar eclipse?

At a total solar eclipse the sun is barely covered, like right after sunset. So why is it much darker than right after sunset (which allows us to see the corona)?
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2 votes
1 answer
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Does the global oxygen levels drop during winter months? [closed]

I had a thought while I was trail walking the other day and no one could provide a clear answer. In the winter months, most of the plants are in hibernation mode. Having lost their leaves they are ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Mechanism of structure of atmospheric lightning

Lightning is a natural atmospheric phenomenon.From early childhood years we all are familiar with the concept of lightning.But recently,from a website named Z T RESEARCH,i came across the fact that ...
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3 votes
2 answers
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At what speed would a wind affect a bullet? [closed]

Firing a gun loaded with the fastest bullet (.220 Swift 1,422m/s or any bullet that is super fast and excellent aero dynamics) in a close range (2cm) from the tip of an air blower. What would be the ...
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20 votes
4 answers
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Does the amount of oxygen in air, actually get lower as you go to higher altitudes?

I have heard that there is less oxygen as you go higher (that's what my teacher told me). A reason that supports that is, as you go to higher altitudes, it becomes more and more difficult to breathe. ...
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Temperature-Humidity-Wind (THW) index for hot and cold weather [duplicate]

Does anyone know the formula (or the algorithm, even a fortran code) to calculate the Temperature-Humidity-Wind (THW) index not from the heat index but in general? (someone published a (too simple?) ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Why ozone is found so high up in atomosphere?

I don't know if this is right place to ask this question but its bugging me for a while. Quick Google search gives me values of density ($kg/m^3$) of some normal gases: $O_2 (1.429), N_2(1.1651), CO_2(...
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