Questions tagged [atmospheric-science]

The study of the composition or dynamics of the gaseous layers around planets, often applied to questions on Earth's atmosphere but can be applicable to all planets & moons in the solar system.

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24 views

How does one determine which signs to take for the Gradient Wind Equations?

Under geostrophic balance, one can write $$\frac{V^2}{R}+fV-fV_g=0$$ where $V:$wind speed, $V_g:$ geostrophic wind speed, $f:$ Coriolis parameter, and $R:$ radius of curvature. Solving for $V$, we can ...
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Nature of relationship between atmospheric $\rm CO_2$ and temperature

So I had a simple thought: Venus is ~400C with 95% CO2, and Earth is ~15C with 0% CO2.. Assuming linearity, this equates to 1C for 1% atmospheric CO2. Why is the relationship assumed to be so much ...
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Vertical air speed [closed]

Assuming that the divergence varies linearly with the pressure between the surface ($1000$ hPa) and the tropopause ($200 $ hPa). Can someone tell me how do we calculate the vertical speed on the ...
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1answer
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Would everyone die? [duplicate]

When you open the door of your spaceship, the oxygen disappears from the ship. So if I put a very very long tube from the Earth to space, would all the oxygen from the Earth automatically aspire into ...
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Why the extraterrestrial solar spectrum is higher than blackbody spectrum? [duplicate]

I am reading "Radiation Heat Transfer by Michael F. Modest(2003)" and the author talks about how the solar spectrum can be approximated by black body radiation at 5777K. I'm finding the plot ...
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Brightness Temperature layered atmosphere

I'm trying to figure out how to apply the radiative transfer model to calculate the brightness temperature Tb in microwave (Rayleigh–Jeans approximation) considering atmosphere and no scattering. If I ...
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Is a simulation of the greenhouse effect and other temperature variations on earth possible?

I want to program a computer simulation of the earth in Python. For example, I can have the earth visible and near infrared albedo, the earth's middle infrared albedo, and from that I can get the ...
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1answer
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Does warm air on a macroscopic scale tend to produce more wind (turbulence)?

I am a private pilot and noticed something. Flying in the colder winter days seems way calmer and less turbulent to me than flying during the summer. Now because I do not have that much of experience ...
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Why does atmospheric drag speed up satellites?

I've read that old satellites slowly lose altitude when encountering the very thin atmosphere, and strangely enough they speed up. My theory is that the work done by the drag force is insignificant in ...
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2answers
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How to calculate Water Vapor Pressure?

So, we know that $$\text{Relative Humidity(%)}=\frac{\text{Actual Water Vapor Pressure}}{\text{Saturation Vapor Pressure}}$$ Now, we can find saturation vapor pressure only from the ambient ...
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5answers
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The question of the second law of thermodynamics

I am asking question which definitely will be considered as duplicated but I want to ask it more explicitly to prevent empty speech. Suppose we have "closed" system which is consists of ...
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0answers
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Can a bulk acid solution in motion be dissociated into its components ions with the application of magnetic field?

I was wondering, that like we have Van Allen Belts surrounding the Earth which are created due to interaction between Earth's magnetic field and the solar winds from Sun. Since Solar winds contain ...
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How fast did the interior of Venus warm up?

Context: The atmosphere of Venus wasn't always as warm as now: a few hundred million years ago it was much more habitable. I am interested in how fast the interior of the planet warmed up, after it's ...
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2answers
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Why don't we hear sonic booms because of gas molecules?

I was running some calculations of ideal gas molecules in a box for $O_2$ molecules at $T=300K$ and $V = 100 cc$, and I saw that $v = 445 m/s$. My question is, why don't we hear sonic booms all the ...
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2answers
59 views

How is the spin of hurricanes explained from an inertial frame?

I have read that hurricanes spin because of the Coriolis effect. Since the Coriolis force is a ficticious force, which is only present in a frame that is rotating w.r.t. to an inertial one, I am ...
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How high could a dust particle go?

I was observing a construction work this morning. A kind of bulldozer was moving things on the ground and the dust waves (?)/clouds were illuminated by the sun behind. From my POV it seems that the ...
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2answers
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Doesn't Increase of Potential Temperature with Height contradict Adiabatic Nature of Processes within Troposphere?

According to my education as a sailplane pilot our troposphere is in good approximation subject to adiabatic processes. Using adiabatic equations of (nearly ideal) ...
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45 views

What would be Earth's temperature under a very efficiente greenhouse atmosphere?

Assume that Earth has an atmosphere made out of a very efficient greenhouse gas (e.g. a very, very thick wator vapor atmosphere). In that case, what would be the surface temperature (or the ...
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1answer
32 views

How much the Earth atmosphere oscillates due to Moon tidal force and does this produces winds?

As there is the tidal force of the Moon exerted on the Ocean water I supose there must be some force acting to the Earth's atmosphere. So when the atmosphere starts falling down as the Moon is ...
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2answers
143 views

The Cause of lightning and charge distribution in clouds

I was going through this video about lightning and I couldn't understand some points . 1: What caused the water molecules in ice crystals to be arranged in that specific pattern i.e. having positive ...
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3answers
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Why is the atmospheric pressure under a roof and on open land the same?

If someone stands on the ground exposed to the open sky the atmospheric pressure experianced by him will be the same as someone under a roof (which is not part of a sealed box), this is very intuitive ...
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1answer
444 views

What are these strange rays in the sky?

While driving, I noticed the sky had weird rays that appeared converge at some point on the horizon. I took a few pictures in hopes I could figure out what they were. There was a storm coming from ...
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1answer
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Shipping Products to a Low Air Pressure Area

We shipped a container of wet wipes packages by sea and when the container arrived to the port it was unloaded and the packages were verified to be ok. Then, it was loaded to a truck and shipped to a ...
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3answers
512 views

Polarization of sunlight by the earth's atmosphere

I have just learned that sunlight traveling through the earth's atmosphere picks up a net polarization by collisions with molecules ($O_2$, $N_2$, etc.) that the photons encounter. One would think ...
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0answers
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Atmospheric orbital velocity profile

In a general scheme of a planet rotating with angular speed $\omega_p$, ignoring the formation of convection cells, and asuming that surface layer rotates at $\omega_p$ as well, Is there a difference ...
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Simple analytical model for fluid flow in “Mushroom cloud”

In potential flow theory there are simple analytical models (formulas) for velocity-field of elementary features (like source, sink, dipole, vortex etc.) Is it possible to write simple analytical ...
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1answer
34 views

how to calculate how high would a helium balloon with weight go? [closed]

I knew that one liter of helium would lift approximately 1 gram of mass. However, I could not find how to calculate how high would that 1 gram go. Imagine if we have a helium balloon (ignore the ...
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1answer
42 views

Why atmospheric pressure exist related?

My Question is That? There are a variety of gases that are in our atmosphere. They all together create an atmospheric pressure. why this pressure exist I mean look at outside the earth there is ...
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1answer
21 views

Can atmospheric humidity act as a cloud chamber?

According to wikipedia vapor supersaturation is relatively common (20-40% of the time) in the upper troposphere. Assuming perfect conditions (such as sufficient visual contrast and no wind), would it ...
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1answer
33 views

Is atmospheric pressure balanced on an object as it moves?

Consider a box sliding along a friction-less floor at a constant velocity. Now typically atmospheric pressure is 14.7 psi on all surfaces of the object. But if it is moving at a constant velocity, ...
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1answer
57 views

Are fireballs in the wrong direction?

So I was just reading about satellites burning up in the atmosphere. The book pointed out that it wasn't the gravitational velocity (towards the earth) that caused objects to burn up (which makes ...
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1answer
79 views

By what equation the future temperature predictions are made? [closed]

I'm a Ph.D student in plasma physics but interested in learning physics behind climate modeling and predictions. I want to begin with studying what equation is used for the future temperature ...
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1answer
19 views

In an electron beam in the atmosphere, is the light region of the beam under low pressure compared to atmospheric pressure?

In an electron beam, is the light region under pressure below atmospheric pressure? Motivation of my question: In the cathode ray tube, the cathode ray (electron beam) becomes luminous and visible ...
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1answer
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Reaction of radiation with Nitrogen-14

When solar wind brings high energy neutrons into contact with Nitrogen-14, a well known process occurs yielding Carbon-14 + a proton. N14 is assumed to exist in upper atmosphere as N2 gas, but the ...
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2answers
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Why the lighter gas, nitrogen, does not rise above oxygen in Earth's atmosphere? [duplicate]

It is known that the atmosphere consists mostly of oxygen and nitrogen, with oxygen constituting about 21 % and nitrogen 78 %. Since released helium and hydrogen gases rise upwards in the atmosphere, ...
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5answers
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Why is the sky *uniformly* blue?

I've read a lot of answers to the questions why the sky is blue. However all the answers I found contain mostly qualitative analysis: Rayleigh scattering is changing the direction of blue light, so ...
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1answer
15 views

In spectroscopy, what element does green indicate presence of in the atmosphere?

And what element does visible green glow indicate in our own atmosphere? https://youtu.be/HDlsdVuv6qQ
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1answer
38 views

Why does the moon sometimes look reddish yellow?

So the question is clear from the title itself. Only sometimes does the moon when it just rises above the horizon, looks reddish in colour. This mostly as I have seen occurs when the moon rises when ...
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1answer
31 views

Can pressure gradient force be balanced by Coriolis force?

I was learning about wind from my class textbook. In that there is first a description of forces affecting the velocity and direction of wind followed by that is geostrophic wind. My question is: At ...
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2answers
187 views

Explanation for an unexpected rainbow

Yesterday, I observed an unexpected rainbow in the sky. There was no forecast for rain, neither was it raining anywhere nearby. I have been trying to find an explanation but don't seem to find any. ...
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2answers
45 views

Why don't hovercrafts move West relative to the Earth [duplicate]

Suppose that there is a hovercraft floating a few centimetres above the Earth's surface. As it is disconnected from the Earth, which is spinning from West to East, shouldn't it appear to move East to ...
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3answers
83 views

How can global warming occur in spite of Energy Balance?

The Greenhouse Gas Theory maintains that an increase in carbon dioxide will cause a corresponding increase in Earth's temperature. But this temperature increase will cause an increase in the flow ...
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0answers
63 views

Does level of pollution determine if a rainbow will be formed? [closed]

Today I saw a rainbow after almost a decade. I live in Noida (a city) in India. Most people I know believe that: we don't see rainbows nowadays because of pollution and now after nearly 3 months since ...
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2answers
80 views

Why is cold air drier than warm air?

I know this has been asked before but i could not understand the replies. If someone has a simpler answer please do so. My simple Geog lesson just said that warm air molecules are further apart ...
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1answer
31 views

Rainbowish phenomenon outside my home [closed]

I took a photo of an amazing sight I had never seen outside my home ( southern india ) but I could not tell if it was a rainbow type thing or an aurora borealis. Can someone tell what this is and it’s ...
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0answers
19 views

Why hot air cools off when it rises and expands? [closed]

I know that when air is heated it will have a high temperature that leads to high kinetic energy of particles,high pressure, low density. But, why when hot air rises and expand they get cold ? ...
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1answer
33 views

If you were to fire a laser or maser into space, how much of its energy would be lost to the atmosphere?

I'm very interested in knowing about how much energy would be lost to the atmosphere if you fired a laser or maser into space. I know the laser would probably diverge quite a bit over that distance, ...
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2answers
44 views

Air Pressure & Atmospheric Pressure

I know that when air is heated it expand, and thus it makes density decrease, pressure increase, and temperature increase. But, why hot air cools off when it expands and rise ? Please answer with a ...
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25 views

Best Resources for Learning Mathematics Behind Weather Forecasting

Anyone know what the standard texts and papers are for understanding how modern ie numerical weather forecasting is done?
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3answers
56 views

By what mechanism does a solar flare overload electronics?

I apologize for my ignorance, but I lack the underlying knowledge to meaningfully research this myself. My knowledge of both Solar Flares and EMPs comes almost exclusively from pop-sci reading. I've ...

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