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Questions tagged [atmospheric-science]

The study of the composition or dynamics of the gaseous layers around planets, often applied to questions on Earth's atmosphere but can be applicable to all planets & moons in the solar system.

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What would the temperature of the tropics be if the atmosphere did not try to balance out heat the latitudinal surplus and deficit

The atmosphere acts to even out the heat imbalnce between the surplus at the tropics and the deficit at the poles. Assuming that the composition and density of the atmosphere stay the same, what ...
Geoff Parsons's user avatar
-4 votes
2 answers
112 views

Surely $\rm CO_2$ reflects incoming solar infrared radiation?

Is the greenhouse effect not cancelled out by the $\rm CO_2$ in the atmosphere reflecting solar infrared radiation back into space? It seems logical to me that, if $\rm CO_2$ reflects infrared shifted ...
Eschaton Magazine's user avatar
8 votes
3 answers
2k views

How does gravity overpower a vacuum?

While watching experiments with vacuum chambers, I had a thought. If you put a sealed box at normal atmospheric pressure inside a vacuum chamber, pumped out the air and pierced the pressurized box I'd ...
Walt Spring's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
44 views

What is the range of noon sun color temperature, when a light meter reports full expected sunlight (+/- epsilon)?

My question came from trying to find what uncertainty bounds, if any, I can assign to a color temperature sensor, without access to an artifact with a precisely calibrated output spectrum. This leads ...
user3732008's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
132 views

Why can't we see green color in the sky? [duplicate]

From sunrise to sunset we can see a variety of colors in the sky. For example, during morning the most dominant color is blue whereas during sunset orange,red,yellow and there shades are more dominant....
Ishaan's user avatar
  • 517
-2 votes
1 answer
68 views

Can we use thermonuclear explosion to fight climate change? [closed]

Nuclear war can create nuclear winter, which is opposite to global warming. Can we detonate thermonuclear (because they don't create radiation) bombs somewhere to decrease global temperature?
Den4ik's user avatar
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0 answers
23 views

Blue color scattering [duplicate]

I'm trying to understand, in terms of cross sections, why is the sky blue? Intuitively, blue has a smaller wavelength than the rest of the colors so it can "see" the internal structure of ...
MTYS's user avatar
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0 answers
35 views

Expanding the barotropic nondivergent potential vorticity equation: Which vector calculus property/identity to apply for dot product and del operator?

I am trying to expand the barotropic nondivergent potential vorticity (PV) equation [link] $$\frac{\partial \zeta}{\partial t} = -\vec{V} \cdot \nabla(\zeta + f)$$ where $\zeta$ is the relative ...
Brian Añano's user avatar
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1 answer
54 views

The Darkening of the Sky During a Total Solar Eclipse

During a solar eclipse, the sky maintains a high brightness even when the Sun is, say, 95% eclipsed by the Moon. During the last ten seconds before totality is when most of the darkening of the sky ...
michaelc35's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
28 views

Besides Beard and Chuang model, any prevalent models for the shape of raindrops?

In Beard and Chuang, 1987, the famous Beard and Chuang model that describes the rotational cross-sections of raindrops in their equilibrium state. My question is: Besides this model, any prevalent ...
138 Aspen's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
64 views

Why doesn't gravity causing the adiabatic lapse rate violate the laws of thermodynamics?

I'm looking to fully understand how the adiabatic lapse rate works and why it causing warmer air doesn't violate the laws of thermodynamics. My understanding is as follows: consider a parcel of air ...
Cloudyman's user avatar
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Atmospheric pressure and gas pressure

Can somebody please explain this to me. How is it possible the cap didn't fall since there's air trapped inside the container? If not mistaken, the trapped air has a pressure same as the atmospheric ...
ZhangJin's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
36 views

Which of the blocked radiation windows will (mostly) open if one where to observe from the surface of Mars, instead of the Earth?

Earth’s atmosphere is composed of about 78 percent nitrogen, 21 percent oxygen, 0.9 percent argon, and 0.1 percent other gases. Trace amounts of carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and neon are some ...
some_math_guy's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
48 views

It is possible to estimate the height of an explosion by its looks?

There's various social media postings (e.g. on reddit or on Twitter) saying this is what an exoatmospheric intercept (by an Arrow) missile looks like (I took 4 frames from the video, in case you don't ...
got trolled too much this week's user avatar
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0 answers
23 views

Any research or study that monitored the spectrum of the natural light during the entire day?

I am interested in understanding the light spectrum during sunrise, morning, midday, afternoon, golden hour, and blue hour. Is there anyplace I can look at those?
Alessandro Carrese's user avatar
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40 views

What regulates the size of our atmosphere?

Our atmosphere is only about 100km thick before the official start of space. That is a mere 1.57307% of the radius of Earth (6,357km). The difference between the gratitational force at sea level and ...
Peter R. McMahon's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
47 views

Hot dust contribution to whirlwinds forming

My father observed an event with a whirlwind and had an aha moment on its forming. What he saw was a weak wind blowing over a sun heated patch of dust, and when the dust rose up, all of suddenly a ...
Nemanja's user avatar
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5 votes
2 answers
289 views

Helium in Uranus atmosphere

I read that in 1986 Voyager 2 measured the composition of Uranus' atmosphere, which turned out to be composed of $85 \%$ hydrogen and $15 \%$ helium. It's not clear to me how this relevant amount of ...
gryphys's user avatar
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28 views

Why shear stress vector must be parallel to flow in this example?

In the book by S. Pal Arya "Introduction to Micrometeorology" there is a chapter about Laminar Ekman Layers. I refer to the following example: Variables are: U, V wind velocity in x, y ...
MichaelW's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
82 views

Formula for air density given temperature, pressure, humidity

What is a good formula for air density (kg/m^3) given temperature (°C), pressure (hPa), and relative humidity? I tried implementing the formulas from here as follows: ...
feetwet's user avatar
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0 votes
2 answers
82 views

When rain clouds are formed, does the entropy decrease?

Water droplets gathered and formed into cloud which gets heavier then does the entropy of the system decreases? If so why 2nd law of thermodynamics allowed it?
user6760's user avatar
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15 votes
4 answers
5k views

Why doesn't the outer most atmosphere that touches spaces freeze?

Why doesn't the outer most gasses in the atmosphere freeze?
Edward Kennedy's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
11 views

Sunset and blue light scattering

During Sunset we see the lower part of the sky changing into red colour wich is of course due atmospheric thickness increased... The higher parts of the sky are still blue suggesting that as blue ...
Krešimir Bradvica's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
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What would be the pressure, temperature and density gradients with altitude of atmosphere with ideal gas?

What would be the pressure, temperature and density gradients with altitude of atmosphere with ideal gas considerations? That is no convection or radiation. Most of the answers I have seen are ...
Rejeev Divakaran's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
43 views

What would happen to a person's body if they were struck with a meteorite?

Considering that this is a meteorite that has broken through the Earth's atmosphere, what would happen to one struck by a meteorite? Not a large one of any sort, but one around the size of a fist. How ...
CrimsnComet's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
117 views

Atmosphere of a hypothetical planet

A hypothetical planet is 2/3 the radius of earth but has 1g surface gravity. Given the planet has the same surface gravity as earth, the atmospheric pressure would be the same. This would also mean ...
Adrean Mainhart's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
61 views

Why is sunset in mars blue?

This is the Martian sunset, as captured by the Spirit rover of NASA. Notice the colors are inverted, i.e. the direct rays blue and diffused rays red, which is exactly the opposite of what you would ...
AlphaLife's user avatar
  • 12.5k
2 votes
2 answers
87 views

Warming due to traditional heating vs heat pumps

I'm curious about the climate impact of different heating solutions, particularly regarding the comparison between traditional fossil fuel heating sources and heat pumps. Traditional fossil fuel ...
langmuiriso's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
88 views

Has a heavier atmosphere and the relocation of oil around the Earth had a measurable effect on the rotation of the Earth?

I am wondering if the man-made carbon emissions put in the Earth's atmosphere over the past 100+ years, and also the relocation of oil around the Earth over this same time period, has had any ...
user57467's user avatar
  • 478
1 vote
1 answer
350 views

Amaterasu particle's secondary particles travel faster than the speed of light?

From this article in The Guardian When ultra-high-energy cosmic rays hit Earth’s atmosphere, they initiate a cascade of secondary particles and electromagnetic radiation in what is known as an ...
Edwardo's user avatar
  • 119
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0 answers
42 views

If you are on the moon, would you be able to hear your hands clapping if you're not wearing your spacesuits?

As I understand it, sound needs a medium to travel and more often than not, the medium is the atmosphere, however sound can also travel through solid objects. And even we can hear our own voice ...
Ashutosh's user avatar
  • 169
1 vote
1 answer
89 views

Relationship Between wind velocity and induced surface water current (general questions)

Consider the following scenario: There is a wind blowing right above lake surface. This wind will induce a surface current in the lake. I am quite new to this topic, so I would be interested to know ...
KnobbyWan's user avatar
  • 159
0 votes
0 answers
29 views

How to model adiabatic lapse rate from first principles?

As a motivating example, consider that the grand canyon floor is ~11ºC warmer than the top. The dry adiabatic lapse rate of 9.8ºC/km, at the average depth of 1.2km deep, implies a 11.76ºC warmer floor ...
Cloudyman's user avatar
  • 1,225
1 vote
1 answer
276 views

What is the relevant phenomenon behind Undulatus/Radiatus cloud formations?

I am seeing many people claiming that cumulus clouds that sometimes form periodic wavy patterns (see images for "altocumulus undulatus" or "Radiatus" for instance) have no ...
marco trevi's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
156 views

What is the influence of humidity on NDIR $\rm CO_2$ measurements?

The Question I would like to use an NDIR $\rm CO_2$ sensor to measure $\rm CO_2$ in the 0.1-3% range. However, in the course of my experiments, humidity may vary from ambient (50-60%) up to nearly 100%...
mranvick's user avatar
  • 101
2 votes
1 answer
75 views

Why we typically see no deeper into an atmosphere for an optical depth of 1?

In An Introduction to Modern Astrophysics (p.243), Carroll and Ostlie say that for a optical depth $\tau = 1$ the intensity will decline by a faction of $e^{-1}$. $I_\lambda = I_{\lambda,0}e^{-\tau}$ ...
BlurryConception's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
46 views

Is this Volcanic or Impact winter management proposal right? [closed]

In case of a volcanic winter where a VEI 8 volcano releases large amounts of SO2 and H2S into the stratosphere making it react with OH and H2O to form sulfuric acid (H2SO4) wich would prohibit most of ...
gragggle's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
212 views

The Weight of Air A Human has to Bear

The average circumference of the human chest is $97$cm to $114 cm$. Let us, for the sake of simplicity, assume that this is a circle. The cross-sectional area of the human body then is $\approx 3 \...
Hudjefa's user avatar
  • 183
0 votes
0 answers
36 views

How long does it take for a $\rm CO_2$ molecule close to the surface of the Earth to reemit an absorbed terrestial infrared quant after absorption?

In the theory of climate change a special position is reserved for $\rm CO_2$. In this theory $\rm CO_2$ molecules are absorbing infrared quants emitted by the surface of the Earth. These quants are ...
Hans Haarman's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
39 views

Explanation for an atmospheric optical phenomenon

Consider the atmospheric optical phenomenon appearing in this video. A screenshot at the appropriate time is shown below: The video is footage from a drone flying just above a low-lying, thin layer ...
lineage's user avatar
  • 2,695
1 vote
2 answers
53 views

Does air pressure change at the same rate on high elevation land as in the sky? [closed]

Is air pressure the same in a place like Denver, which is a mile (1.6 km) above sea level, as the same elevation above actual sea level? Same question for 2 miles high, as in any number of mountain ...
Matthew Nichols's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
74 views

Where do the electrons in a lightning bolt come from?

Where do the electrons in a lightning bolt come from? There are problems with the explanations given up to at least two years ago. The explanation that the electrons come from inside the thunder cloud ...
Frank Jansen's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
48 views

Why does the dust in the sky make the light shine more or in other words it is visible from far away?

Why does the dust in the sky make the light shine more or in other words it is visible from far away? This image shows how light is scattered in dust particles]1
Redouan Air addi onasser's user avatar
6 votes
2 answers
430 views

Book recommendations on climate science

I've had my eye on properly understanding climate, climate change and the wide array of phenomena related. But, as a physics grad student, I'd fancy more exact, math-based bibliography, that treats ...
0 votes
0 answers
23 views

How to explain "Vacuum Cleaner Effect" for upper level PV anomaly?

Recently I asked a question regarding PV Anomalies in Earth Science Stack Exchange: https://earthscience.stackexchange.com/questions/25478/how-to-explain-vacuum-cleaner-effect-for-upper-level-pv-...
MichaelW's user avatar
  • 1,299
0 votes
1 answer
40 views

Derivation of particle distribution in a gravitational field

I'm trying to figure out where my logic is failing in the derivation of the concentation of particles with respect to the height in constant temperature and gravity ($n(h)$). So we have the following ...
Krum Kutsarov's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
56 views

Non-zero probability that detonating a nuclear bomb sets off atmospheric fission chain reaction [duplicate]

After watching Oppenheimer I am under the impression that there is always a non-zero probability that the detonation of an atomic/nuclear bomb will set off a chain reaction of fission in Earth’s ...
Jack Casali's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
43 views

Effect of Sun temperature on the thermosphere

Correct me if I’m wrong here. The thermosphere is hot due to its absorption of moderately high energy UV radiation. (<200nm) Cooler stars emit fewer high energy photons. So if the Earth orbited an ...
blademan9999's user avatar
  • 2,908
3 votes
1 answer
53 views

Does a planet's "equatorial bulge" induce any kind of motions or currents in the atmosphere?

Rotating planets, like the Earth, are not perfect spheres but are instead oblates. This affects both the crust and the atmosphere, creating a bulge in the equator 1. I was wondering if there are ...
vengaq's user avatar
  • 2,476
0 votes
2 answers
98 views

Does air in the atmosphere get friction as a planet rotates?

Does air in the atmosphere suffer friction in some way due solely to the planet's rotation? I mean, if you took a rotating planet with an atmosphere (not being influenced or heated by its star, its ...
vengaq's user avatar
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