Questions tagged [atmospheric-science]

The study of the composition or dynamics of the gaseous layers around planets, often applied to questions on Earth's atmosphere but can be applicable to all planets & moons in the solar system.

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Quantitatively, what is the radiation dose from cosmic rays without the geomagnetic field?

Many, many popular science articles claim that if the Earth didn't have a magnetic field, then the much higher concentration of cosmic rays that reached the surface would cause health damage to humans....
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Tholins color and scattering

One of the prevailing explanations for the reddish color of certain asteroids surfaces and planetary atmospheres, such as Jupiter's and Titan's, is the presence of complex polymeric molecules called ...
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When light is scattered, How do particles in sky decide which frequency to vibrate at?

I understand that when electromagnetic waves from sun hit/interact with the particles(charges) in the sky, the particles also oscillate with the same frequency of sunlight and hence radiate(scatter) ...
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Isobars shift westward with increasing altitude

While studying the formation of lows and highs on weather maps, I noticed that some shift westwards as you view the map at a higher altitude. It seems that the movement of isobars is delayed at higher ...
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Planetary atmosphere interfacing with near vacuum - now put it in a jar

Celestial bodies that have atmospheres have a gravity sufficient to hold the atmosphere to the body. This atmosphere interfaces with the near vacuum of space yet is held to the body by gravity. I was ...
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Clausius-Clapeyron relation for high pressures

I can see that the Clausius-Clapeyron relation depends on the change in specific volume $\Delta v = v_g (1 - \frac{v_c}{v_g}) = v_g - v_c$, with $v_c$ equal to the volume of the condensed phase and $...
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Have rocket float into upper atmosphere via balloon [duplicate]

I'm assuming a majority of the fuel used in a rocket to say get to the moon is involved in escaping earth's gravity. So why can't we create a smaller weighing rocket, with less fuel to carry and ...
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Atmospheric pressure in non-nertial frame?

Any object kept in an accelerating container of water feels different pressure than unaccelerated. Because if we go into the frame of water the g effective changes. Since air is also a fluid, a ...
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Convection in stratified atmosphere

In the stability analysis of stratified atmosphere in the presence of gravity, we consider a blob of atmosphere and perturb it (move it up by a small height $\Delta z$). Initially, the blob had the ...
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Can a cold gas be considered as ideal at a very high speed?

Considering a plane flying in the atmosphere, my book uses the perfect gas law $pV=n\bar RT$. Yet, as the plane itself is taken as the reference, the air ($T=-50°C$) has a speed of $800 \ \mathrm{km/h}...
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How do you calculate light attenuation by wavelength at a given air mass coefficient?

I am trying to get a good view of light wavelength distribution as a function of viewing angle, with a specific interest as $z \approx 90^\circ$ near the horizon (sunrise/sunset). Air mass ...
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Oxygen condensation on Earth

I am getting interesting results using the Clausius-Clapeyron relation to calculate the saturation vapour pressure of diatomic oxygen. I am using the following values: 214kJ/kg for latent heat of ...
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Atmospherical gases concentration with altitude [duplicate]

The hydrostatic relation says that the change in pressure over altitude depends on gravity acceleration and density. Can we apply the hydrostatic relation to each component of the atmosphere ...
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What has been going on in the atmosphere over the past couple weeks? [migrated]

First there was a once-a-century bomb cyclone 2000 miles wide that froze the entire Eastern US. Gigantic US winter storm leaves millions without power and cancels holiday plans Then Europe had a ...
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Moist adiabatic lapse rate

Wikipedia gives the following equation to calculate the moist adiabatic lapse rate $\Gamma_w$, assuming that there is only one condensible gas (water vapour) mixed in the "dry air": $\...
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How does a volcanic eruption cool the planet's surface?

For example, after the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in 1991 according to this paper, The introduction of large amounts of sulphuric acid aerosol into the stratosphere increases the planetary albedo (...
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Calculating pressure in high/low pressure systems

I don't understand how to calculate the surface pressure in high/low pressure systems. For example, let's say we have a planet without oceans whose surface is completely flat. Then at every point of ...
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What is the temperature of a greenhouse gas?

The temperature of a gas is usually the sum of the kinetic energy of its particles, right? Whereas the temperature of a solid object is given by the Stefan-Bolzmann equation, as a function of how much ...
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What causes wind gusts?

A difference in temperature causes different pressures, air travel from high to low pressure, and that is wind. We can even produce wind in an experiment like in this video. In this video, what is the ...
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Does a space capsule naturally rotate during atmospheric re-entry or does it stabilize in a certain orientation? and why?

I asked this question in another forum category: If during atmospheric re-entry a capsule (with a shifted center of mass to produce lift) does not produce any rcs thrust, will the capsule naturally ...
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How has Earth's atmospheric water been in previous eras and periods?

How has partial pressure and net amount of water vapor and colloidal water been in previous eras and periods on Earth?
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Can low lying clouds increase the distance of the radar reach from 18 to 120 km?

I have seen an article (sorry its Russian) claiming that low lying clouds have increased the distance of the radar reach from the normal 18 km till as far as 120 km. This allowed the military ship to ...
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Why is the lightning waveform modelled by double exponential waveform?

As per wiki: The electric current within a typical negative CG lightning discharge rises very quickly to its peak value in 1–10 microseconds, then decays more slowly over 50–200 microseconds. Why ...
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How much $\rm CO_2$ stays in the troposphere?

I'm trying to make a model which gives the increase of $\rm CO_2$ in ppm for one year, when given the $\rm CO_2$ emitted in one year. For now, I've calculated the mass of the troposphere using the ...
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At high altitudes, does reentry cause the atmosphere to burn, or only heat up?

A Google search reveals the following about high altitude reentry: A re-entering vehicle develops a very energetic pressure wave at its leading surfaces. The energy density is sufficient to cause ...
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How does absorbing a free thermal neutron convert nitrogen-14 into carbon-14? (Radiocarbon dating, etc.)

Why doesn't a nuclide of N-14 simply absorb the neutron created by cosmic rays or solar wind interacting with the atmosphere and become N-15, which is stable? How or why does the resulting Nitrogen-15 ...
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Would Aeroplanes or Helicopters work on our Moon?

Would Aeroplanes or Helicopters work on our Moon? In general , I think , in Aeroplane Case: (1) Air is required for Aeroplanes to float : Would Moon have enough air? (2) High speed is required for ...
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How can the cooling of Venus near the surface be explained during the time that the specific heat capacity of $\rm CO_2$ quadruples from 60 - 40⁰ C?

Imagine that a planet like Venus with an $\rm CO_2$ atmosphere of 92 bar near the surface could be cooled by shading it from the Sun. The total heat content of the atmosphere with the initial 464⁰ C ...
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Atmospheric friction

So when you lift an object, atmosphere spills in from the sides to fill the empty space. That would mean that the atmosphere is pushing up against the side of the object. So wouldn't that mean that ...
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Is the atmospheric voltage gradients beneath overcast sky higher or lower than it is on a clear day?

According to Wikipedia and other sources the atmospheric electric voltage gradient near the Earth's surface is approx 100 V/m on a 'fair weather' sort of day. Does a diffusely overcast and cloudy sky ...
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Within close proximity, how much does the atmosphere influence light and thus what we see?

Not sure if this is the best place to ask. Apologies if not. (Assume this is under generally average conditions) Say you have an object that is 1 metre in front of you. When you see that object, how ...
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How distant is the horizon on Venus?

Strong atmospheric refraction can make the horizon on Venus much closer than expected, but how close is it? My naive calculation is very different from reported observations. A source cited in How ...
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How does the adiabatic coefficient $γ$ vary with temperature (200K-20000K)? [closed]

At high temperatures, such as those encountered in hypersonic flight, γ varies a lot. My problem is that I can‘t find a graph accompanied by an explanation as to how & why it changes under ...
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Does pressure decay exponentially for a mixture of gases?

According to this answer, the partial pressure of a gas decreases exponentially in height, when placed in gravity. For a mixture of gases, the partial pressures of each component follows this law ...
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How much UVA and UVB is blocked by shadow or being indoors?

I could not find a clear answer online so I though to try this forum instead. I did find answers on how different types of glass can block different degrees of UVA and UVB. But I was wondering, if I ...
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What would the theoretical barometric pressure be at the bottom of a canyon that is about 15 miles below Earth's surface?

I'm trying to create a fictional world. I am kicking around the idea of supercritical CO2 lifeforms that live at the bottom of some abyss. I read that supercritical CO2 must be at 88F and 72atm. I am ...
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Is atmospheric pressure on an object in vertical plane equal to that of horizontal plane? [duplicate]

Suppose there is a cubic object placed at a surface level. Will the atmospheric pressure exerted on the upper surface of it be equal to that of the pressure exerted on its sides? As far as I know ...
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Meaning of $\rho_b$ in equation for air density

I looked for an equation for air density in different parts of the atmosphere and found the barometric formula on wikipedia. My only problem is that I don't understand what p_b means in the formula. ...
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Winds or waves in specific conditions?

Winds are mainly produced by differences in temperature of the atmosphere and waves are mainly produced by winds. However, could a rogue planet (without orbiting any star and with a cold core so no ...
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How much force would the wind of Saturn (1800 Km/hour) exert on my body if i appear on its surface?

Maybe I should have said pressure. I don't know how to measure the exact pressure of the air molecules on my skin, anyways was curious to know this, like what exactly will happen to my body if i ...
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Derivation of the planet flux observed at Earth (solid angle problem)

I'm having issues understanding how Sara Seager, in her book "exoplanet atmospheres", determined the solid angle subjected to a detector on Earth. By the figure: The solid angle was defined ...
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Is it possible to determine a moment in time when earth's atmosphere is no longer breathable due to the reduction in atmospheric pressure? [duplicate]

If the universe is expanding, the "pressure" of the "vacuum" in space is decreasing, the earths Atmosphere is expanding, atmospheric pressure is decreasing. Taking into account: ...
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What percentage of sunlight isn't scattered by the atmosphere?

What percentage of sunlight isn't scattered by the atmosphere and instead will arrive at your eyes directly from the sun. It's been aksed here before but a proper answer hasn't been given. I was ...
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Aerostatic force experienced by object due to air

This is an undergrad physics problem, which puzzled me because of the little background provided; see also the comment below by @RC_23. Problem. Compute the force exercised by the air to an object ...
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Why the sunset is red and a possible experiment?

Before downvoting: I have read some of the answers and will cite them as well. Not trying to debunk physics or create conspiracies. I love physics but I don't understand it. Background This is more or ...
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If you decreased the mass of a planet, but kept the mass of the atmosphere the same, would the air density decrease?

So, I know that atmospheric pressure is a result of both the atmospheric mass and the force of gravity acting on it. If you were to decrease a planet's gravity, but keep the atmospheric mass the same, ...
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Would a straw work in a completely sealed container?

Let's say you had a hollow metal cube. A hole is drilled through the side, and a straw is put in. The only way for anything to get in or out is through the straw. The container is filled fully with ...
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Confusion about the horizontal pressure gradient force being equal to the gradient of the geopotential in pressure coordinates

I see many sources in atmospheric dynamics express the following: $\frac{1}{\rho}(\nabla p) = \nabla_p \phi$ For example this source equation 10. The reasoning given is that $\frac{1}{\rho}(\frac{\...
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How does the local zenith angle evolve as a function of atmospheric vertical depth?

From Gaisser's Cosmic Rays and Particle Physics (ed. 2016). I know $\theta$ and I have the vertical depths $X_{v}$. I want to solve for $X$ via a simple trigonometric relation. However, theta evolves ...
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Does dusk really remain for a shorter period of time at the equator?

It is said that the dusk remains for shorter time at equator than the poles. Because, the equator rotates faster than poles. But it is also true that time is the same in every latitude, and if it's ...

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