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Questions tagged [atmospheric-science]

The study of the composition or dynamics of the gaseous layers around planets, often applied to questions on Earth's atmosphere but can be applicable to all planets & moons in the solar system.

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Satellite radiance measurements in spectral regions

Q: A satellite measures longwave radiation emerging from a planet with uniform surface temperature T1 and uniform atmospheric temperature T2. What values of radiance does the satellite measure in the ...
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Regarding the $E x B$ drift in the Earth's magnetic field

So I have a burning question: The only reason that the E x B drift doesn't generate an electric current is because both the electrons and the positive ions move towards the same direction (towards ...
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Aurorae and Cause of ozone hole over Antarctica

All the proposed causes of Aurorae (as listed here) have something to do with charged particles trapped by geomagnetic field. ...
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Lack of Gravity of an object suspended in mid-air [duplicate]

I Would like to know what would happen to an object suspended in mid air overtime as the earth rotates. with gravity not having effect on it as the earth rotate will it also move or will it stay in ...
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Wind Direction in a Thunderstorm

Does anyone have any resources they can point me to that show how wind works in a thunderstorm? Our homeowners insurance company is saying that it's impossible for more than 2 sides of a home to be ...
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Rayleigh Scattering, Atmosphere-Dependant

I've come across the Wikipedia article on Rayleigh Scattering and it quotes that In detail, the intensity $I$ of light scattered by any one of the small spheres of diameter $d$ and refractive ...
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Determination of the variability of different spectra over shorter wavelength ranges from that of a single spectrum?

To pictographically explain, how do you convert Fig. 1 to Fig. 2? Fig. 1 to Fig. 2
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How did Mars lose all its surface water?

A lot of geological evidence suggests that Mars once had quite a bit of surface water. I assume it wasn't whisked away into space, so where did it all go? What processes caused the water to go there? ...
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Would a supersonic object without a combustion power source leave behind a contrail?

Contrails, as far as I understand them, are caused by either a pressure change that forces the condensation of H2O(g) OR by the release of warm H2O from a combustion engine. Most plane contrails, I ...
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Why does the warm air rises up?

Warm air has more energy than cold air. This means that according to the Einstein equation $E = mc^2$ the warmer air has a greater mass than the cold one. Why is the warm air rising, if it has a ...
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Why do gas giants have similarly coloured stripes?

After looking at Jupiter and searching 'exoplanets gas giants' on google I found that many had stripes on them. I found that pretty peculiar. So why do they have stripes. I think it has something to ...
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Would a human die from high air pressure at the bottom of the Mariana trench if it wasn't under water?

I read an article recently about gelatinous fish that live deep underwater, and if they were brought up to the surface would 'melt' due to the lower pressure not supporting their bodies. This got me ...
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Air Pressure in a Mine

In Sunday's "60 Minutes" TV program the correspondent descended into a gold mine said to be 2 miles (3 km) deep. What equation describes the air pressure relative to sea level atmospheric pressure?
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Water at 0 atmospheric pressure

Suppose I put a bucket of water on the surface of the Earth. Then somehow the atmosphere disappears. My question is: Would the water fly out of the bucket, or would it be still there? My reasoning ...
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why high pressure systems are colder in temperate climates?

How do we derive equations which relate the temperature and pressure anywhere in the atmosphere? (assuming earth is still so no coriolis effect and flat if that makes the problem any easier). Like ...
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What kind of outdoor weather is ideal for condensing moisture that's in air?

What kind of outdoor weather is ideal for condensing moisture that's in air? Temperature, humidity? Does condensation increase the more difference in temperatures there is?
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Can we theoretically guide cold air from high altitude down to the needy cities as free AC?

If you had an insulated tube (approximate size say 15k feet (5km) tall, 50ft (15m) diameter) with the top end open and bottom end closed, would the air in the tube eventually become as cold as the ...
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Relation between atmospheric pressure and planet's gravitational field

consider atmosphere to be a gas and planet as solid spherical object of mass Im trying to create a math model relating the two phenomena gravitation and pressure due to atmosphere. I feel these two ...
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How can you calculate the atmospheric layers on another planet?

I'm working on a program that procedurally generates planets, and I'd like to make a realistic atmosphere with realistic pressures at different altitudes. I know that for earth we have 7 layers to our ...
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Why is Mars so cold when it has so much atmospheric $CO_2$?

Mars has 1/10 of Earth's atmosphere but that atmosphere is 95% CO2. Why is Mars so cold when it has so much atmospheric CO2?
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How is global warming distributed with respect to altitude?

Lets assume a sea level temperature increase 2c/3c. Then, what is the temperature increase at 10 km altitude? Temperature increase at 30 km altitude? Temperature increase at 70 km altitude? And ...
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Why dont we account the rotation of the earth in aircrafts? Is it just because of the air or is there more to it? [duplicate]

Today there was a seminar regarding modern air crafts held in my school. At the starting of the lecture, we were asked a question which I found quite intriguing. "Why does a helicopter or a fixed ...
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1answer
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What is the difference of pressure of a gas in a closed container at a given distance from the Earth?

If I have a closed container of a given height $(h)$, located at a given distance from the centre of the Earth $(r_o)$, what would the pressure difference be at the top of the container vs the bottom? ...
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Interpreting and correcting negative vertical column densities of a trace gas in the atmosphere

I have a direct-sun spectrometer that I am using to measure the concentration of a trace gas in the atmosphere. The basis of deriving this concentration is the Lambert-Beer's law. Since my instrument ...
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How do frogs and fish rain? [closed]

I saw a documentary about the rain of frogs and fish in certain areas due to water sprouts sucking them up and causing rain of frogs and fish (pretty large ones) hundreds of miles away. But how is it ...
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Motion of a contrail “vortex”

I want to understand what causes this motion on contrails (Cirricular motion) and it’s name if possible. What effects it? How and why is it formed?
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Weird and unintuitive results from thermodynamics/hydrostatics for an isothermal atmosphere and possible explanation(?)

It is known from hydrostatics that for a fluid in equilibrium in a gravitational field, $$\frac{dP}{dz} = -ρg$$ Let us from now on suppose the atmosphere is isothermal and has temperature $T$. We ...
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What's the difference between a convection and a polarization electric field?

In the ionosphere and magnetosphere communities, studies frequently refer to the "convection electric field" and the "polarization electric field". What is the relationship between them, and what are ...
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Has there been a quantifed estimate of the thermal impact of human activity? Not to include “greenhouse gasses” [closed]

In 1984 I read a prediction by the biological scientist and Nobel Laureate Konrad Lorenz that heat produced by human activity would necessarily increase Earth's average atmospheric temperature. His ...
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Why are distant mountains grey?

I have read this question: Where in the atmosphere is the blue light scattered? where John Rennie says: For the same reason, distant mountains keep their color. Also, the distant mountains don't ...
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How fast would the Earth have to spin to lose the atmosphere?

I have read these questions: How fast would the Earth need to spin for us to feel weightless? Why can't we feel the Earth (or being in any non-inertial frame) rotating? And it made me curious....
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Why does purple appear in a rainbow?

It is said that people and digital cameras have color sense only for red, green and blue. So when we see violet/purple in a rainbow, whether with our eyes or in a photo, we should be seeing a color ...
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Atmospheric Density

As I was reading my textbook, I noted that it stated that the atmosphere becomes less dense as height increases. I am unable to understand this. I understand that pressure decreases as height ...
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Simple computation of the spectrum of the blue sky

Given an approximation of the spectrum of extraterrestrial sunlight by blackboby radiation at 5800K, between 360 and 800nm, is there a simple formula or algorithm that can be used to make an ...
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how is temperature related to quantum vibrational states of molecules

When a molecule of greenhouse gas absorbs a photon of long wave infrared radiation it is boosted to the next allowed vibrational state. The vibrational state, as I understand it, involves deformations ...
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Electron distribution in Low Earth Orbit

I have been searching online for some kind of pdf function that describes the charged electron distribution in Low Earth Orbit in regards to their energies. Any ideas on whether something like that ...
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Why does the Sun appear more round while distant stars can appear more pointed?

In a minute physics video about the shapes of stars, it mentions that stars in the night sky appear star-shaped due to imperfections in our eyes known as suture lines which cause diffraction. Then ...
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Why is it that the wind over land in day(low pressure) move to the sea(high pressure)?

According to my understanding, wind moves from its region of higher pressure to its region of lower pressure. So during sea breeze, cold wind over the sea(high pressure) blows to the land(low pressure)...
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Earth-like Atmosphere Breaks Second Law of Thermodynamics due to Conduction?

Consider a neutral gas around an Earth-like atmosphere with density, pressure and temperature given by $\rho,\ p$ and $T$ respectively. To keep the system a closed system assume that the atmosphere is ...
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Colors of the Aurora

I've seen several web pages that attempt to explain the colours of the aurora but they seem to gloss over or leave out certain details, so I'm still confused. For example, this page explains it in ...
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Why do cyclones have translational motion?

This answer provides a good explanation why cyclones (e.g. hurricanes, typhoons, and tornadoes) have rotary motion. However, cyclones usually also have translational motion -- they move from place to ...
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Why do random slabs stay dry in the rain?

The image below shows the slabbed area I can see from my work window Whenever it rains some of the slabs stay dry however, it is never consistent which ones. Can anyone explain why this happens to ...
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Blocking of infrared radiation from the sun by $\rm CO_2$ [duplicate]

Why is the infrared heat from the sun not prevented from entering the earth's atmosphere by $\rm CO_2$ to the same extent that it is prevented from leaving the Earth's atmosphere?
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What type of mirage is this?

I am very new to the world of mirages and would like some information as to the type of mirage in this picture which I took this morning. It is the cargo ship African Kalmia which passed my location ...
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Why is sunscreen more important in the middle of the day?

I suppose that if the Earth had no atmosphere and no magnetosphere, then when standing up on the surface of the Earth -- say, on the equator -- my body would catch more radiation from the sun in the ...
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1answer
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Evaporation amount of water for a Storm [closed]

How much water from the ocean is evaporated for a storm over water? I am trying to figure out what conditions will cause the most evaporation or how to calculate the amount of water evaporated for a ...
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For a lay person, what if there was no atmosphere? [closed]

What if there was no atmosphere (or little like on the moon)? Could I then hover above and watch the Earth below turn? Originally I queried, "why couldn't a person just float up in a balloon, hover ...
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1answer
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Does more light from Andromeda get scattered in the atmosphere than in the entire trip to Earth?

Fires have been burning here in Northern California. Today there was just a slight haze of smoke. The sun had a slight red hue to it. As expected the lower it got the redder it became. The blue light ...
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Good books on Venus?

I'm looking for good books on Venus. I need some more general and some specifically about the atmosphere and atmospheric waves. Any detailed, complete and well structured book references are welcome.
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Why do our eyes perceive changes in apparent position of stars as twinkling?

Okay, so we all know that the changes in refractive index leads to continuous changes in star's apparent position but then why don't we see them moving up and down rather than brighten and dim in ...