Questions tagged [atmospheric-science]

The study of the composition or dynamics of the gaseous layers around planets, often applied to questions on Earth's atmosphere but can be applicable to all planets & moons in the solar system.

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1answer
34 views

Why it doesn't rain in winter much like summer(central asia)? [closed]

Why doesn't it rain in winter much like summer ( in Central Asia)? Although during winter water vapor in atmosphere should condense more to get precipitation?
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1answer
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What actually happening in land breeze?

From childhood we are taught about land breeze and sea breeze , but I always had a doubt. Look at diagram Book just say " air above ocean become warm so it rise up creating a low pressure zone ...
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1answer
30 views

Criteria for Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability

I am presently engaged on a project to model elements of the behavior of Jupiter's atmosphere. I have been given by my authority some readings on fluid dynamics to raise awareness for the code. ...
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Is climate change going to render the atmosphere unsafe for air travel? [closed]

It seems that climate change on the whole induces instability in the atmosphere, more intense and unpredictable storms, etc. Obviously we don't fly into major known storm systems, but I imagine that ...
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1answer
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Blue sky and Red sunset, Why? [duplicate]

I tried several resources for understanding this phenomena, but none of them were satisfying. I'll citate one from wikipedia (others were also similar): Blue light from the sun is scattered more than ...
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1answer
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Falcon 9 exhaust color

We've seen quite a few Falcon 9 launches over the last years, but couple of days ago (at the NASA DART / Falcon 9 launch from Vandenberg SFB at 10:21pm local time, on Nov 23) we noticed something that ...
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Calculating temperature change of of ocean if it absorbs 1K of temperature from the atmosphere [closed]

My practice problem reads “if the temperature of the atmosphere decreased by 1K everywhere, and the heat released is given to the top 100 meters of the ocean, the temperature of the ocean rises by $\...
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Any lecture notes or easy explanation of Holton's Meteorology?

I am struggling with understanding Holton's Dynamic Meteorology. Any lecture notes based on the book with easy explanations will help.
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What determines the Earth's atmospheric transmission window?

That is, the opacity/transparency spectrum for electromagnetic radiation.The ionosphere plays a big part but is that due to the composition of ionospheric plasma(not to mention the plasma frequency)? ...
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1answer
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Predicting drag or drag coefficient?

Would it be possible to mathematically predict what the drag on free-falling object will be in 10 seconds (for example), if you know the current altitude, velocity and pressure? I know you can ...
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1answer
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Does our blue sky also scatter UV or just visible blue?

I'm wondering if I should wear sunscreen or UV sunglasses when exposed to only blue sky, such as working in a room with large windows that let in a substantial area of blue sky. Then, I wondered if ...
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1answer
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What will happen when a gas cylinder is taken to space (vacuum)?

Inside the atmosphere, I guess the atmospheric pressure negates the pressure exerted by the gas that's inside a gas cylinder. However, when taken to a vacuum (space), Will the gas cylinder burst due ...
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What is the rationale-intuition for the "constant flux layer assumption", in atmospheric surface layer for turbent "diffusion"?

I wonder if, beyond the math, there is a physical intuition that I'm missing underlying this ubiquitous assumption of vertical constant fluxes in the surface layer (particularly in the inertial ...
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3answers
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Do sunrises and sunsets look the same in a still image?

A question that popped into my head: if I see a picture of the sun close to the horizon, in an unknown place, can I know if it was taken at sunset or sunrise? Do sunrises and sunsets look the same in ...
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How do I set up surface pressure as function of time due to atmospheric erosion by Solar wind?

It is known that highly energetic particles from the sun when striking a planet ionize the atmospheric particles and the ions may escape the planet by being guided by the solar magnetic flux that ...
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2answers
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Why is air considered to rise adiabatically?

Do air parcels not push against other air and do work on them? When air molecules within an air parcel bump into air molecules outside the air parcel do they not transfer energy to them?
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Why temperature rise in stratosphere and thermosphere although they are higher in altitude so they should be cooler?

We have learnt that temperature drop with height as air got expand and kinetic energy of particles decrease. But I read in stratosphere temperature rise and again in mesosphere it drops and again in ...
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2answers
72 views

Are air particles massless? [closed]

so as the question suggests, I wanna know whether an air particle has mass or no. Thank you!
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How does this effect happen? [duplicate]

I searched about this and I did find that it's like the effect you have on train tracks or roads (that they appear to be going to converge at a point), but doesn't that only happen when the object ...
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2answers
59 views

Why does water in the glass enter the straw?

Suppose you have a glass filled with water. Now you insert a straw in that glass. Is the air pressure inside the straw greater than the atmospheric pressure on the water outside it?(I think it is ...
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2answers
95 views

Rain drop equations

Motivated by this question, I am thinking about describing a rain drop beyond the elementary physics. The principal improvement, it seems, would be accounting for the drag force dependence on the size ...
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1answer
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Modelling sky type as an area light source [closed]

I have a trouble understanding the mapping going on here. The author asserts that sky types can be modelled as follow : The first one appears to represent a clear sky view, the second is more of an ...
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0answers
16 views

How does air pressure affect the ability to create a frequency and which frequency is least attenuated

From $I=ξ^2ω^2cρ$ where ξ is the particle displacement, ω the frequency, c the speed of sound and ρ the density of the medium (1, 2), I understand that for the same frequency and amplitude the sound ...
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1answer
39 views

What would happen to atmospheric vapour if the amount of condensation cores decreased?

Some rain is said to form from atmospheric vapour around dust particles from sand storms, smoke etc. What would happen with the vapour if condensation cores decreased in amount?
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2answers
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What determines handedness of wind circulation around pressure extrema in the atmosphere?

I'm reading a textbook (Atmospheric Science - An Introductory Survey 2nd ed, John M. Wallace • Peter V. Hobbs) which states (p14): The winds observed in the Earth’s atmosphere closely parallel the ...
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1answer
45 views

What is air pressure and is it the same as atmospheric pressure?

What is air pressure and in particular is it the same as atmospheric pressure? Can the terms be used interchangeably, and why are there different instruments to measure the two properties?
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1answer
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Scattering of light by gas molecules in Atmosphere, responsible for sky's blue color? [duplicate]

What do we mean when we say gas molecules in air scatter sun light (more blue)? Do they reflect sunlight? Is beam of sunlight falling on one molecule and each rays got reflected into different random ...
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1answer
24 views

Possible to communicate visual messages over long distances using telescopes and mirrors? [closed]

A thought experiment question: From both a theoretical and engineering standpoint, would it be possible to transmit visual messages over long distances on the surface of the Earth via a series of ...
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2answers
227 views

Why does sunset spread over the horizon?

Why does sunset light spread horizontally over the horizon, instead of being radially spread around the solar disk? I understand physics about refraction, and wavelength, and gradient difference ...
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3answers
4k views

Is a westward flying plane heavier than an eastward one?

I understand that you weigh less at the equator due to the increased centrifugal force. From my understanding, the faster you circle the Earth, the less your effective normal force you would feel, up ...
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4answers
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Why do X-ray telescopes have to be in space?

I have read this question: For x-rays the (HUP limit) Δx becomes smaller than the distances between the lattice distances of atoms and molecules, and the photon will interact only if it meets them on ...
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3answers
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What is different in the morning sunlight so it doesn't produce as much electricity as at noon?

Consider I have a solar panel setup as in the above picture. The top sketch is sketching sun rays in the early morning around 6 AM in a clear bright sky. The bottom sketch is sketching the sun ray ...
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0answers
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Atmospheric scale height

In researching atmospheric scale heights I have found that Earth’s atmospheric scale height quoted as both 8.5km and 0.000139m-1. I understand the significance of 8.5km and the natural log but I am ...
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1answer
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Understanding Convectional Rainfall

Consider the following explanation of convectional rainfall given in a VII grade textbook. When air comes in contact with the hot surface of the earth, it gets heated, becomes light and rises in the ...
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How fast does methane rise in atmosphere?

Archimedes' principle states that the upward buoyant force that is exerted on a body immersed in a fluid, whether fully or partially, is equal to the weight of the fluid that the body displaces. If ...
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1answer
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Conversion of Mass mixing ratio (MMR) to Volume mixing ratio (VMR) and Dobson Unit?

I am trying to convert MMR to VMR and then convert VMR to Dobson Unit (DU). I used three different methods but I get bizarre values. I used the following method to convert to Dobson Conversion ...
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3answers
46 views

Space pump hydroelectric [duplicate]

I'm in the need of some help here. I'm an artist and I want to paint digitally something that can have an use for the future of humanity. I would like to create an illustration about a futuristic ...
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1answer
75 views

What is the expected effect of a Tsar-scale bomb at the antipodal point of the detonation site?

Background Obviously, being next to explosions is bad. The farther away one is from the explosion, the larger the hemisphere of he shock wave is, and so the more the energy from the explosion is ...
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1answer
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Why doesn't lightning stop when it starts raining?

According to my understanding, lightning happens because the clouds get charged due to friction from the moving clouds and the ground gets polarized by the nearby charged clouds. And the two opposite ...
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0answers
86 views

Evidence of Anthropogenic Climate Change

I'm not sure this is a good place to ask this but I would like academic sources showing how atmospheric physicists account for where CO$_2$ in our atmosphere is coming from. I would like primary ...
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1answer
60 views

Should the Rayleigh scattering of blue light somehow 'paint' the Moon image in the sky slightly in blue?

Should the Rayleigh scattering of blue light somehow 'paint' the Moon image in the sky slightly in blue? Maybe the Moon light is too intense during the day for that kind of effect to take place as ...
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2answers
82 views

Why doesn' t the sky look blue from outer space? [duplicate]

The sky looks blue because blue sunlight is scattered all over the atmosphere. Doesn't the same take place in the other direction? From Earth to the sky? So the atmosphere would look blue in outer ...
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0answers
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What causes Saturn's hexagon hurricane? [duplicate]

Recently, Tien Nguyen JPL Fellow - Chief Engineer at NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, did share this photo that says "Cassini catches an awesome glimpse of Saturn’s north pole hurricane" I ...
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1answer
45 views

Lightning's tendency to find a tall point on the ground

Is lightning's tendency to connect to a high point on the ground due to probability in the colloquial sense, or is there some sort of electromagnetic stream of "information" exchanged ...
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1answer
90 views

How much blue sky comes from each altitude; dependence of atmosphere's dielectric constant and isothermal compressibility with altitude?

Background left: from this answer to Moon during the day with bright blue sky light right: from Why does Unity look transparent? below: from this answer note Unity is the bit in the middle. I'm ...
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1answer
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In which altitude does Rayleigh scattering produce the blue color of the sky and are density fluctuations required?

In my Optics textbook, Rayleigh scattering is introduced as producing the blue color of the sky by predominantly scattering short wavelengths because of the well-known $\lambda^{-4}$-dependency. It is ...
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Liquid metal p-trap entry into an underground base on planet Mercury

Imagine we one day establish a colony under the surface of planet Mercury and use integrated thermal acoustics to stabilize the subterranean environment. With a both heat and cold storage available, ...
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0answers
41 views

Why doesn't earth have a hydrogen atmosphere if hydrogen's thermal velocity is 1.75 km/s - less than 1/6th of earth's escape velocity? [duplicate]

I have read that in order to retain a gas, a planet's escape velocity must be at least six times the thermal velocity of that gas (I understand that this is just an approximation of the Maxwell ...
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1answer
42 views

Winds on gas giant planets: Would they increase if closer to their star?

The planets Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are all primarily heated by their internal radiated heat, not by the Sun. Each of them have rotational periods shorter than that of Earth despite their much ...
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1answer
86 views

Why didn't Felix Baumgartner land very close to the launch site?

According to Wikipedia: Baumgartner's ascent took approximately 2 1⁄2 hours, after which the capsule levelled at approximately 38 kilometres (24 mi). [...] The capsule returned to the ground via its ...

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