Questions tagged [analyticity]

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46
votes
7answers
9k views

Why does Taylor’s series “work”?

I am an undergraduate Physics student completing my first year shortly. The following question is based on the physical systems I’ve encountered so far. (We mostly did Newtonian mechanics.) In all of ...
33
votes
4answers
2k views

Is the world $C^\infty$?

While it is quite common to use piecewise constant functions to describe reality, e.g. the optical properties of a layered system, or the Fermi–Dirac statistics at (the impossible to reach exactly) $T=...
29
votes
2answers
2k views

How can dimensional regularization “analytically continue” from a discrete set?

The procedure of dimensional regularization for UV-divergent integrals is generally described as first evaluating the integral in dimensions low enough for it to converge, then "analytically ...
25
votes
3answers
3k views

What do the poles of a Green function mean, physically?

Is there a physical interpretation of the existence of poles for a Green function? In particular how can we interpret the fact that a pole is purely real or purely imaginary? It's a general question ...
18
votes
5answers
656 views

Why is analyticity a good mathematical assumption in general relativity?

In general relativity, real-variable analytic continuation is commonly used to understand spacetimes. For example, we use it to extend the Schwarzschild spacetime to the Kruskal spacetime, and also ...
17
votes
2answers
5k views

Gaussian integral with imaginary coefficients and Wick rotation

Although this question is going to seem completely trivial to anyone with any exposure to path integrals, I'm looking to answer this precisely and haven't been able to find any materials after looking ...
17
votes
5answers
556 views

Does the mass point move?

There is a question regarding basic physical understanding. Assume you have a mass point (or just a ball if you like) that is constrained on a line. You know that at $t=0$ its position is $0$, i.e., $...
14
votes
7answers
1k views

Binary Black Hole Solution of General Relativity?

This is rather a technical question for experts in General Relativity. An accessible link would be an accepable answer, although any additional discussion is welcome. GR has well known solutions ...
11
votes
0answers
790 views

Why does analytic continuation as a regularization work at all?

The question is about why analytical continuation as a regularization scheme works at all, and whether there are some physical justifications. However, as this is a relatively general question, I ...
10
votes
2answers
1k views

Is the step of analytic continuation unavoidable or can you model around it?

One sometimes considers the analytic continuation of certain quantities in physics and take them seriously. More so than the direct or actual values, actually. For example if you use the procedure ...
10
votes
2answers
5k views

Is there an analytical solution for fluid flow in a square duct?

I couldn't find one but assumed it must exist. Tried to find it on the back of an envelope, but got to an ugly differential equation I can't solve. I'm assuming a square duct of infinite length, ...
10
votes
2answers
1k views

What is the intuition behind Kramers-Kronig relations?

I have heard that Kramers-Kronig relations constrains the real and imaginary parts of complex permittivity $\varepsilon= \varepsilon^{'} + j\varepsilon^{''}$. What is the intuition behind this ...
10
votes
2answers
703 views

Decoupling of Holomorphic and Anti-holomorphic parts in 2D CFT

This maybe a very naive question. I have just started studying CFT, and I am confused by why we have two separate parts of everything in CFT (operator algebras and hilbert space), the holomorphic ...
10
votes
2answers
1k views

Where is the Feynman Green's function in quantum mechanics?

In quantum field theory, the Feynman/time ordered Green's function takes the form $$D_F(p) \sim \frac{1}{p^2 - m^2 + i \epsilon}$$ and the $i \epsilon$ reflects the fact that the Green's function is ...
9
votes
1answer
732 views

What is the significance of the branch cut in renormalization group logarithms?

What is the physical significance of the branch cut in renormalization group logarithms? (Is this just an avatar of the optical theorem, or is there something to be understood about these logarithms ...
9
votes
1answer
967 views

A confusion from Weinberg's QFT text (a vanishing term in Lippmann-Schwinger equation)

I was reviewing the first few chapters of Weinberg Vol I and found a hole in my understanding in page 112, where he tried to show in the asymptotic past $t=−∞$, the in states coincide with a free ...
8
votes
1answer
283 views

Are Born-Oppenheimer energies analytic functions of nuclear positions?

I am looking for references to bibliography that explores the smoothness and analyticity of eigenvalues and eigenfunctions (and matrix elements in general) of a hamiltonian that depends on some ...
7
votes
3answers
755 views

Is holomorphicity the real reason for non-renormalization in supersymmetry?

Seiberg traced the nonrenormalization of supersymmetric theories to holomorphicity of the superpotential in chiral superspace. However, this overlooks the fact that with a different number of ...
7
votes
1answer
1k views

Landau & Lifshitz's Approach (contour method) on the WKB connection formulas

Background of the question (see pp. 161, section 47 in Landau & Lifshitz's quantum mechanics textbook Vol3, 2nd Ed. Pergamon Press). We a following potential well $$U(x)\leq E \quad\text{for} \...
7
votes
1answer
705 views

From Minkowski to Euclidean Time in Path Integrals

I'm trying to prove the following equality: $$ <x_{f},\, it_{f}|x_{i},\, it_{i}>=\mathcal{N}\int_{\left\{ x\in\mathbb{R}^{\mathbb{R}}:\, x\left(t_{f}\right)=x_{f}\wedge x\left(t_{i}\right)=x_{i}\...
7
votes
1answer
782 views

Strange use of complex analysis in Weinberg QFT 1?

In the beginning of chapter 3 on scattering theory in Weinberg's QFT book there is a use of the Cauchy residual theorem that I just cannot get. First some notation, we are looking at states that are ...
6
votes
1answer
2k views

Analytic continuation of imaginary time Greens function in the time domain

Consider the imaginary time Greens function of a fermion field $\Psi(x,τ)$ at zero temperature $$ G^τ = -\langle \theta(τ)\Psi(x,τ)\Psi^\dagger(0,0) - \theta(-τ)\Psi^\dagger(0,0)\Psi(x,τ) \rangle $$ ...
6
votes
0answers
74 views

Self-energy that does not obey sum rule

Analytically, I calculated a self-energy $\Sigma(\omega)$, for which I verified that 1) $\text{Im}\big[\Sigma(\omega)\big] \leq 0$ for all $\omega$ and specifically $\text{Im}\big[\Sigma(0)\big] = 0$,...
6
votes
1answer
205 views

Can we do a Wick rotation by an angle not being $\pi/2$?

If a state obeys an evolution equation, we can replace $t$ by $-t$. we get another equation and it is interesting to study its solutions. If we replace $t$ by $it$ (wick rotation) we get again ...
5
votes
3answers
899 views

Free energy functions are analytic or non-analytic in phase transitions?

I already saw this Phys.SE post and it seems perfectly reasonable that the free energy describing a system must be a non-analytic function in order to display a phase transition. An analytic ...
5
votes
3answers
2k views

Renormalization condition: why must be the residue of the propagator be 1

In on-shell (OS) scheme, one of the renormalization conditions is that the propagator, say, a scalar theory $$\frac{1}{p^2+m^2-\Sigma(p^2)-i\epsilon}$$ must have a unit residue at the pole of ...
5
votes
2answers
288 views

Elementary question about endpoint singularities

In George Sterman's book "An Introduction to Quantum Field Theory", on pages 413-414, there is a description of the endpoint singularity. One begins with the function $$ I(w) ~=~ \int_{\zeta_a}^{\...
5
votes
2answers
657 views

Is there a physical motivation to study finite fields?

Clearly finite groups are of immense value in physics and these are also substructures of fields. However I never came across any computations involving finite fields at university and so I never ...
4
votes
2answers
159 views

Is there any “real” use of complex analysis in quantum mechanics? [closed]

After learning some quantum mechanics, I see a lot of applications of complex numbers. However, I have not yet seen any application of complex analysis. The full name for complex analysis is "...
4
votes
2answers
844 views

Lippmann-Schwinger Equation with Outgoing Solutions

I'm reading about Green's functions and how the Lippmann-Schwinger equation eventually leads to the textbook expression for the form of wavefunctions in the far radiation zone after scattering by a ...
4
votes
1answer
349 views

Boundary conditions in holomorphic path integral

Consider the holomorphic representation of the path integral (for a single degree of freedom): $$ U(a^{*}, a, t'', t') = \int e^{\alpha^{*}(t'') \alpha(t'')} \exp\left\{\intop_{t'}^{t''} dt \left( -a^...
4
votes
1answer
232 views

Where are the poles of the one-particle Green's function located in the complex plane?

This post is a followup question to: How to get an imaginary self energy? In the cited post, the two following representations for the one-particle Green's function are shown: $$G(k,\omega) = \...
4
votes
2answers
188 views

Radial ordered commutation relation

In the book Conformal Field Theory of Francesco, Mathieu and Sénéchal, in Sec. 6.1.2, the authors state that the integral $$ \oint_w \mathrm{d}z~ a(z)b(w) ~=~ \oint_{C_1} \mathrm{d}z~ a(z)b(w) - \...
4
votes
1answer
1k views

An integral in Peskin's Quantum Field Theory P. 27

In Peskin's QFT P. 27, there is an integral $$-\frac{i}{2 (2 \pi )^2 r}\int_{-\infty}^{\infty} \mathrm{d}p\frac{p\ e^{ipr}}{\sqrt{p^2+m^2}}.\tag{2.51a}$$ He said that in order to push the contour up ...
4
votes
0answers
97 views

Are there relativistic theories with spacetime modelled on $\mathbb C^4$ rather than real Minkowski space $\mathbb R^4$?

Does anybody know of references to theories where relativity & spacetime is modelled on a (complex/Kähler) manifold which is locally diffeomorphic to $\mathbb C^4$ rather than $\mathbb R^4$, hence ...
3
votes
4answers
265 views

Propagator of a real scalar field does not give an unambiguous result

The propagator of a real scalar field is basically a Green function. Its evaluation requires specifying the contour which seems arbitrary. The integral depends on the choice of the contour. For four ...
3
votes
1answer
2k views

Deriving the Sommerfeld expansion by contour integration (Le Bellac p. 277)

In Le Bellac's statistical physics book he derives the Sommerfeld expansion by a contour integral. The idea is to expand integrals of the type $I(\beta)\equiv \int_{0}^{\infty}d\epsilon\, \frac{\...
3
votes
1answer
229 views

Applying Kramers-Kronig relation to a simple damped oscillator

I just discovered the Kramers-Kronig relation and am trying to apply it to a simple damped oscillator of the form subjected to an impulse at $t=0$, which is a causal system: $$m\ddot x + c\dot x + k ...
3
votes
2answers
454 views

Wick rotations, convergence and Feynman propagators?

It is said (in e.g. Hawking, 1979, Euclidean quantum gravity) that the integral: $$ \int \mathcal{D}\phi \exp(iS[\phi])\tag{1} $$ for real fields in Minkowski space does not converge, but the Wick ...
3
votes
1answer
118 views

Why are worldsheets of strings _holomorphic_?

Disclaimer. I am a mathematician (algebraic geometer) who knows nothing about physics. Even worse, I might have major misconceptions about the objects I'll ask about. The level of the question is pop-...
3
votes
2answers
203 views

Wick rotation: still trouble in getting how it works

I'm preparing my second exam in QFT and I still have trouble in getting the Wick rotation and its analytic continuation. I know that this topic have been discussed a lot in previous threads, but I ...
3
votes
1answer
163 views

Complex integration in Peskin and Schroeder

In Peskin and Schroeder, I have a problem with a claim in equation (2.54), which I will rewrite more concisely here. He claims that we have the following equality : $$ \frac{1}{2E_p}e^{-iE_p(x_0)}-\...
3
votes
2answers
255 views

Using Wick Rotation to calculate Generating Function in Minkowski Space

The question arises when I'm reading over the section "3.3.1 Minkowski Space" in page 16-17 in the following link: https://www-thphys.physics.ox.ac.uk/people/JohnCardy/qft/qftcomplete.pdf It is ...
3
votes
0answers
116 views

Use of Cutkosky rule, the Optical Theorem and Regge trajectories in pp scattering total cross-section calculation

Cutkosky rule states that: $$2Im \big(A_{ab}\big)=(2\pi)^4\sum_c \delta\Big(\sum_c p^{\mu}_{c}-\sum_a p^{\mu}_{a}\Big)|A_{cb}|^2\hspace{0.5cm} (1)$$ putting $a=b=p$ in Cutkosky rule we deduce the ...
3
votes
0answers
208 views

Sommerfeld expansion for temperature dependent spectral function

Consider the integral \begin{align} I(\beta)=\int_{-\infty}^{\infty}\frac{\text{d}\epsilon}{\pi}\frac{\rho(\epsilon,\beta)}{1+e^{\beta \epsilon}} \end{align} where $\rho(\epsilon,\beta)$ is a generic ...
3
votes
0answers
158 views

Non-equivalence between $\omega \to \omega \pm i\varepsilon$ and Cauchy principle value

I am looking to gain a more rigorous and deeper understanding as to how an $i\varepsilon$ prescription actually changes the end result of a divergent integral, specifically in regards to Green's ...
3
votes
0answers
335 views

How exactly analyticity of S-matrix comes from causality principle?

Recently I've read that analyticity of S-matrix ($S(k)$, where $k$ corresponds to momentum, may be analytically extended into complex values of momentum) comes from causality principle. How to prove ...
3
votes
0answers
849 views

$\mathrm{i}\epsilon$ prescription makes a function analytical?

I've seen this everywhere where they say "Analytic continuation is obtained by the usual $\mathrm{i}\epsilon$ prescription..." but how is that? How do you analytically continue (say) $\ln x$ with ...
2
votes
1answer
548 views

$i\epsilon$ in the expression of Feynman Propagator

In Peskin, the Feynman's propagator for a real scalar field is first presented in a form without $i\epsilon$ \begin{equation} D_F(x-y)=\int\frac{dp^3}{(2\pi)^3}\int\frac{dp^0}{2\pi}\frac{ie^{-i(x-y)}}...
2
votes
3answers
700 views

Complex Variable Book Suggestion

What book should I choose to learn complex analysis as a physics Undergrad. I only want to use one book which will contain everything I need.