Questions tagged [accelerator-physics]

is appropriate for questions dealing with the physics of beams in accelerators (synchrotrons, cyclotrons, linacs, betatrons and other types of accelerators); the ways in which beams are generated; the accelerating, bending and focusing equipment; and the intrinsic limits that arise in trying to manipulate beams. DO NOT USE THIS TAG for questions that concern the use of the particle beams once they arrive in the experimental hall.

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11 views

Acceleration closed formula in strong gravitational field [duplicate]

We know that acceleration of a falling body relative to earth is G*M_earth/(R_earth)^2 What would the acceleration formula if the earth's mass is same as sun's mass but with same earth's radius? Is ...
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1answer
43 views

Origin of the energy distribution of synchrotron radiation

Is there an easy explanation why synchrotron radiation from a bending magnet (e.g. in an electron storage ring) has an energy distribution? In other words, given a specific magnet with a defined ...
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Why is the Proton Synchrotron Booster at four levels?

I wonder what the benefits of having a cyclotron at 4 levels are. Why do they split the proton beam into 4 bunches, accelerate them and merge them into one before the next accelerator?
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How is a proton beam separated into bunches in a particle accelerator?

I was wondering how exactly is a proton beam separated into bunches, each at interval of 25ns after the previous?
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1answer
51 views

How did the Intersecting Storage Rings Actually Perform Tests

I am reading the book written in 1982 titled "Quarks, The Stuff of Matter" by Harald Fritzsch. In it he writes about the ISR at Cern, that slammed protons together and in some of those collisions, 2 ...
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1answer
97 views

How much current can be produced by Van de Graaff generators or Pelletrons?

The Van de Graaff generator is a source of high voltage at low current based on the transfer of static electricity, and its higher current successor the Pelletron could deliver more current by ...
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1answer
51 views

What happens with the energy released after a particles collision?

From the website of CERN: "Collisions in the LHC generate temperatures more than 100,000 times hotter than the centre of the Sun.". My question is, what happens to the energy released after the ...
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21 views

What devices are used in a proton accelerator to separate the protons from their electrons and send the protons into the vacuum chamber? [duplicate]

I understand the general idea of how they accelerate the protons once they get them isolated in the chamber, but what's the device they use to isolate them to begin with even called?
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30 views

The basics of neutrino telescopes

I'm trying to understand the basic operation of the ANTARES neutrino telescope. Here is what I've gathered: The detection of neutrinos relies upon the detection of muons. Cosmic rays and neutrinos ...
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2answers
145 views

How are pulsed neutron sources created and when are they used in particle accelerators?

Are pulsed neutron sources beams of neutrons that are not created continuously? If so what is the benefit of having a discontinuous beam of neutrons rather than a continuous one? Under what conditions ...
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2answers
139 views

Lead catalyzed fusion

Consider the following setup: A beam of deuterons is accelerated towards a lead target. With sufficient acceleration (in the MeV range, nothing fancy...), I would expect some of the deuterons to fuse ...
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Collider Luminosity basics

In a collider experiment, the Luminosity is defined as the proportionality factor between the interaction rate and the interaction cross section $dN/dt = L\times\sigma$, with units of $cm^{-2}s^{-1}$. ...
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1answer
51 views

Description of particles using co-moving frame in accelerator

I am learning particle accelerators and there is a basic concept as to description of particle beams in accelerators which confused me a lot. Moving orthogonal, right-handed coordinate system (x, y, ...
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1answer
50 views

How 'tightly' can accelerator pipes turn?

I am designing a particle accelerator for a class. I want to know how tight of a turn an accelerator pipe can make; is there a defined maximum? Is there a calculation that needs to be made ...
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1answer
70 views

Annihilation of matter and antimatter of different kind

What happens when antimatter of an atom interacts with matter of another atom? For example, if I collide antihydrogen and helium. I always heard that collision or interaction of antimatter and matter ...
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2answers
59 views

Relativistic speed Ion engine

I'm a newbie so this might be obvious to others but....if the specific impulse of an ion engine is limited by it's fuel load then why not accelerate singular fuel (krypton) ions to relativistic speeds ...
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1answer
67 views

Why is it easier to observe B-meson oscillations than D-meson ones?

B-meson oscillations were observed several years ago by the CDF experiment B-oscillations, but D-meson could not be observed until very recently by the LHCb experiment. I'm wondering why is it more ...
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1answer
52 views

Invisible energy in hadronic calorimeters

Hadronic calorimeters are more difficult to be built than electromagnetic ones because the cascade containment is much larger for former. There is also some "invisible" energy that is not contained in ...
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2answers
71 views

Alternative way of bending electrons trajectory in synchrotron

I read that in synchrotron, the X-ray is produced whenever the electrons undergo acceleration, in particular at the bending magnet, the wiggler or undulator. Since these three devices all employ ...
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1answer
167 views

Does an electron accelerated in a linear accelerator lose any energy?

In a circular one, it would lose energy due to bremsstrahlung (synchrotron emission), but if it is accelerated from rest to ~GeV energies, does it lose any energy in this acceleration process?
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350 views

Spallation Neutron Source design

The Spallation Neutron Source (all details taken from this link) is described as firing a 1 GeV proton beam into a mercury target. As this makes the proton beam relativistic, a cyclotron cannot be ...
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1answer
53 views

What is the energy dissipation of an ideal launch loop?

Dynamical structures for space access use a stream of electromagnetically accelerated and levitated pellets that moves faster than escape velocity to maintain megascale structures and transmit force ...
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1answer
81 views

Find final velocity of partical traveling at relativistic speeds under constant force over set distance without time

What equation do I need to find the final velocity of a particle traveling at relativistic speeds given some initial velocity (say 0.3C) and exposed to a constant force. The relationship between ...
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1answer
77 views

Maximum energy reached by LHC

I was trying to compute what is the maximum energy reached by the LHC assuming it has a circunference of 27 km length and the magnetic field of the magnets is ~8 T. To do that, I tried comparing the ...
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1answer
45 views

Cyclotron-conservation of energy dilemma

In a cyclotron we increase the K.E. of a particle by allowing the E field to do work on it. But if I take the cyclotron and the particle as my system it's net energy only increases. How will the net ...
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How fast are cyclotrons?

I know this question is kind of vague, but I just want have a handle on how fast a average cyclotron can accelerate particles, and what kind of limits there are...
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1answer
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If I put charged particles in the center of long hollow cylinder shaped electromagnet, in a vacuum, would it accelerate them?

If I put charged particles in the center of long hollow cylinder shaped electromagnet, in a vacuum, would it accelerate them? Is this how particle accelerators work? If so are there formulas I could ...
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24 views

Function of dipoles in particle accelerators

I know now that quadrupoles are used to focus the beam in a particle accelerator, but what about dipoles? Are they used to center or accelerate the beam? The number for the LHC magnets I think it is ...
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1answer
67 views

Quadrupoles in an accelerator

The quadrupole magnets in a particle accelerator are just to center de beam or do they have any other application?
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1answer
81 views

Spallation of Lithium by GeV protons?

If you direct a beam of, say 400 keV protons, against a Lithium target, you induce fusion reactions. This is the well known Cockcroft-Walton experiment. Now I would like to ask if you can induce ...
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1answer
65 views

What is the Shape of the Quadrupole Magnets Used for Beam Focusing?

This question comes from Particle Detectors by Grupen. Quadrupoles are used in accelerators for beam focusing. To achieve focusing effect, the angle at which the quadrupoles bend the particle beam ...
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1answer
65 views

Why motion of a charged particle experences perpendicular motion in a magnetic field? Physical answer please

I understand fleming's left hand rule. But why moving charged particle is deflected? Due to the magnetic field generated by charged particle and resultant direction of that mag. field and applied ...
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1answer
37 views

What is turn-around time of accelerator?

I was looking today through pdg table of collider parameters and I saw that some turn-around time for LHC is $\approx 200$ min. I tried to search on it, but everywhere it is kind of assumed that you ...
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5answers
8k views

Why do we need large particle accelerators?

The LHC is much larger than its predecessors, and proposed successors much larger still. Today, particle accelerators seem to be the main source of new discoveries about the fundamental nature of the ...
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1answer
81 views

What limit the maximum magnetic and electric fields usable for particle acceleration?

Progress in acceleration of particle is quite steady but slow, at least in my opinion. I was wondering what are the fundamental roadblocks to develop larger electric fields gradients (in any material) ...
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1answer
148 views

Why particles are going clockwise in most synchrotrons?

First I'm sorry for my poor choice of words, I'm not into physics so I'm lacking of appropriate words. I'm doing some personal research on synchrotrons, synchrotron radiation and all that stuff. It ...
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Calculating an acceleration from 3 axis MEMS

I installed a MEMD sensor on a motor that I can control the motor speed. I'm recording the information from the sensor (x, y, z) I'm trying to compare if the MEMS sensor reading is ad the same as my ...
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1answer
94 views

Real-world applications of an electron in an external magnetic field

Say we have an electron at rest in a uniform external magnetic field. This is a classic, simple example of a two-state system in quantum mechanics, and the mathematical analysis is pretty simple. Is ...
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Possible safety problems with a low energy particle accelerator [closed]

I am currently working on a low energy particle accelerator. Its main purpose would be to produce low energy (few keV) electrons and metal ions for high precision non radioactive isotope selection. I'...
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1answer
54 views

Vectorial photoelectric effect and accelerator emittance

According the the vectorial photoelectric effect, directing a laser at a photocathode with some special angle will maximize the quantum efficiency of that material. Let's say incident light hits a Cu ...
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1answer
31 views

Comparing the energies needed to reach the same relative velocity

I have a beam of particles being accelerated up to an energy $E$ and hitting a stationary target. I have 2 other beams pointed at each other and each one accelerates their respective particles up to $...
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1answer
49 views

How is a travelling wave used to generate potential difference in a linear particle accelerator?

The Question In a linear particle accelerator, particles travel down a vacuum tube under the influence of a travelling wave which appears at electrode gaps. How does a travelling wave switch the ...
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1answer
401 views

Available energy of a collision and momentum calculations for proton-antiproton collisions

I am currently planning an experiment focusing on the creation of a J/psi meson through proton-antiproton collisions at a range of momenta. The linear accelerator I have access to has a range of ...
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4answers
11k views

Will the Large Hadron Collider “explode” if the power is turned up too high?

The Large Hadron Collider, at low power, accelerates particles such that much of the total energy provided goes towards increasing their kinetic energy and their masses increase to some extent as well,...
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2answers
284 views

Accelerated charges

I was reading about the cyclotron and how it acelerates charges. I just had this really dumb question. What would happen if I'm in the path of the accelerated charge? Say a proton accelerated to very ...
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2answers
502 views

LHC gamma radiation from proton-proton collisions

Online resources on radioactivity and gamma radiation at the LHC are primarily concerned with leaking protons, ones that escape the beam and hit various parts of the accelerator complex. Those protons ...
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1answer
34 views

Strenght of magnetic field of moving charged particles be multiplied by n? [closed]

If two moving charged particles moving in the same direction with constant velocity and zero acceleration in a uniform magnetic field,will the Magnetic strength of the total system be equal to the sum ...
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2answers
608 views

Trajectory of charged particle in a solenoid lens

I was reading about how a Cathode ray tube works, and stumbled upon the term "focusing coil(s)". After a bit of reading I have deduced that this might be a focusing solenoid or solenoid lens. The ...
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1answer
92 views

How to produce antiquarks?

I've read a few books and articles about particle physics, accelerators and colliders, but I still don't understand how the quarks in the protons 'turn' into antiquarks. I know the protons are sent ...
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114 views

Get distribution function equation from single particle equation

Suppose we have a large set of particles, and we know, that some parameter $x$ of each particle satisfies the following equation: $\dfrac{dx_i}{dt}=f(x_i)$. Our set of particles can be described ...