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Questions tagged [accelerator-physics]

is appropriate for questions dealing with the physics of beams in accelerators (synchrotrons, cyclotrons, linacs, betatrons and other types of accelerators); the ways in which beams are generated; the accelerating, bending and focusing equipment; and the intrinsic limits that arise in trying to manipulate beams. DO NOT USE THIS TAG for questions that concern the use of the particle beams once they arrive in the experimental hall.

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The basics of neutrino telescopes

I'm trying to understand the basic operation of the ANTARES neutrino telescope. Here is what I've gathered: The detection of neutrinos relies upon the detection of muons. Cosmic rays and neutrinos ...
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2answers
132 views

How are pulsed neutron sources created and when are they used in particle accelerators?

Are pulsed neutron sources beams of neutrons that are not created continuously? If so what is the benefit of having a discontinuous beam of neutrons rather than a continuous one? Under what conditions ...
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Lead catalyzed fusion

Consider the following setup: A beam of deuterons is accelerated towards a lead target. With sufficient acceleration (in the MeV range, nothing fancy...), I would expect some of the deuterons to fuse ...
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1answer
35 views

Collider Luminosity basics

In a collider experiment, the Luminosity is defined as the proportionality factor between the interaction rate and the interaction cross section $dN/dt = L\times\sigma$, with units of $cm^{-2}s^{-1}$. ...
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1answer
40 views

Description of particles using co-moving frame in accelerator

I am learning particle accelerators and there is a basic concept as to description of particle beams in accelerators which confused me a lot. Moving orthogonal, right-handed coordinate system (x, y, ...
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1answer
47 views

How 'tightly' can accelerator pipes turn?

I am designing a particle accelerator for a class. I want to know how tight of a turn an accelerator pipe can make; is there a defined maximum? Is there a calculation that needs to be made ...
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1answer
57 views

Annihilation of matter and antimatter of different kind

What happens when antimatter of an atom interacts with matter of another atom? For example, if I collide antihydrogen and helium. I always heard that collision or interaction of antimatter and matter ...
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2answers
53 views

Relativistic speed Ion engine

I'm a newbie so this might be obvious to others but....if the specific impulse of an ion engine is limited by it's fuel load then why not accelerate singular fuel (krypton) ions to relativistic speeds ...
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1answer
42 views

Why is it easier to observe B-meson oscillations than D-meson ones?

B-meson oscillations were observed several years ago by the CDF experiment B-oscillations, but D-meson could not be observed until very recently by the LHCb experiment. I'm wondering why is it more ...
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1answer
47 views

Invisible energy in hadronic calorimeters

Hadronic calorimeters are more difficult to be built than electromagnetic ones because the cascade containment is much larger for former. There is also some "invisible" energy that is not contained in ...
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2answers
57 views

Alternative way of bending electrons trajectory in synchrotron

I read that in synchrotron, the X-ray is produced whenever the electrons undergo acceleration, in particular at the bending magnet, the wiggler or undulator. Since these three devices all employ ...
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1answer
145 views

Does an electron accelerated in a linear accelerator lose any energy?

In a circular one, it would lose energy due to bremsstrahlung (synchrotron emission), but if it is accelerated from rest to ~GeV energies, does it lose any energy in this acceleration process?
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1answer
349 views

Spallation Neutron Source design

The Spallation Neutron Source (all details taken from this link) is described as firing a 1 GeV proton beam into a mercury target. As this makes the proton beam relativistic, a cyclotron cannot be ...
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1answer
53 views

What is the energy dissipation of an ideal launch loop?

Dynamical structures for space access use a stream of electromagnetically accelerated and levitated pellets that moves faster than escape velocity to maintain megascale structures and transmit force ...
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1answer
59 views

Find final velocity of partical traveling at relativistic speeds under constant force over set distance without time

What equation do I need to find the final velocity of a particle traveling at relativistic speeds given some initial velocity (say 0.3C) and exposed to a constant force. The relationship between ...
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1answer
67 views

Maximum energy reached by LHC

I was trying to compute what is the maximum energy reached by the LHC assuming it has a circunference of 27 km length and the magnetic field of the magnets is ~8 T. To do that, I tried comparing the ...
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1answer
41 views

Cyclotron-conservation of energy dilemma

In a cyclotron we increase the K.E. of a particle by allowing the E field to do work on it. But if I take the cyclotron and the particle as my system it's net energy only increases. How will the net ...
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3answers
1k views

How fast are cyclotrons?

I know this question is kind of vague, but I just want have a handle on how fast a average cyclotron can accelerate particles, and what kind of limits there are...
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1answer
32 views

If I put charged particles in the center of long hollow cylinder shaped electromagnet, in a vacuum, would it accelerate them?

If I put charged particles in the center of long hollow cylinder shaped electromagnet, in a vacuum, would it accelerate them? Is this how particle accelerators work? If so are there formulas I could ...
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1answer
20 views

Function of dipoles in particle accelerators

I know now that quadrupoles are used to focus the beam in a particle accelerator, but what about dipoles? Are they used to center or accelerate the beam? The number for the LHC magnets I think it is ...
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1answer
57 views

Quadrupoles in an accelerator

The quadrupole magnets in a particle accelerator are just to center de beam or do they have any other application?
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0answers
43 views

Spallation of Lithium by GeV protons?

If you direct a beam of, say 400 keV protons, against a Lithium target, you induce fusion reactions. This is the well known Cockcroft-Walton experiment. Now I would like to ask if you can induce ...
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1answer
59 views

What is the Shape of the Quadrupole Magnets Used for Beam Focusing?

This question comes from Particle Detectors by Grupen. Quadrupoles are used in accelerators for beam focusing. To achieve focusing effect, the angle at which the quadrupoles bend the particle beam ...
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1answer
58 views

Why motion of a charged particle experences perpendicular motion in a magnetic field? Physical answer please

I understand fleming's left hand rule. But why moving charged particle is deflected? Due to the magnetic field generated by charged particle and resultant direction of that mag. field and applied ...
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1answer
37 views

What is turn-around time of accelerator?

I was looking today through pdg table of collider parameters and I saw that some turn-around time for LHC is $\approx 200$ min. I tried to search on it, but everywhere it is kind of assumed that you ...
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5answers
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Why do we need large particle accelerators?

The LHC is much larger than its predecessors, and proposed successors much larger still. Today, particle accelerators seem to be the main source of new discoveries about the fundamental nature of the ...
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1answer
72 views

What limit the maximum magnetic and electric fields usable for particle acceleration?

Progress in acceleration of particle is quite steady but slow, at least in my opinion. I was wondering what are the fundamental roadblocks to develop larger electric fields gradients (in any material) ...
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1answer
131 views

Why particles are going clockwise in most synchrotrons?

First I'm sorry for my poor choice of words, I'm not into physics so I'm lacking of appropriate words. I'm doing some personal research on synchrotrons, synchrotron radiation and all that stuff. It ...
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0answers
25 views

Calculating an acceleration from 3 axis MEMS

I installed a MEMD sensor on a motor that I can control the motor speed. I'm recording the information from the sensor (x, y, z) I'm trying to compare if the MEMS sensor reading is ad the same as my ...
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1answer
87 views

Real-world applications of an electron in an external magnetic field

Say we have an electron at rest in a uniform external magnetic field. This is a classic, simple example of a two-state system in quantum mechanics, and the mathematical analysis is pretty simple. Is ...
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0answers
42 views

How to make particle accelerator at home? [duplicate]

I need to make a particle accelerator for some research on particle acceleration explosion and some effect in human body when it's touch or affect to the skin or nervous system
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0answers
68 views

Possible safety problems with a low energy particle accelerator [closed]

I am currently working on a low energy particle accelerator. Its main purpose would be to produce low energy (few keV) electrons and metal ions for high precision non radioactive isotope selection. I'...
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1answer
50 views

Vectorial photoelectric effect and accelerator emittance

According the the vectorial photoelectric effect, directing a laser at a photocathode with some special angle will maximize the quantum efficiency of that material. Let's say incident light hits a Cu ...
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2answers
79 views

Waves and forces

Does any and each wave has a force in the wave's direction? In other words, do there any force act to push the wave in it's default direction? Like what happened to material when it move?
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1answer
27 views

Comparing the energies needed to reach the same relative velocity

I have a beam of particles being accelerated up to an energy $E$ and hitting a stationary target. I have 2 other beams pointed at each other and each one accelerates their respective particles up to $...
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1answer
48 views

How is a travelling wave used to generate potential difference in a linear particle accelerator?

The Question In a linear particle accelerator, particles travel down a vacuum tube under the influence of a travelling wave which appears at electrode gaps. How does a travelling wave switch the ...
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1answer
339 views

Available energy of a collision and momentum calculations for proton-antiproton collisions

I am currently planning an experiment focusing on the creation of a J/psi meson through proton-antiproton collisions at a range of momenta. The linear accelerator I have access to has a range of ...
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4answers
11k views

Will the Large Hadron Collider “explode” if the power is turned up too high?

The Large Hadron Collider, at low power, accelerates particles such that much of the total energy provided goes towards increasing their kinetic energy and their masses increase to some extent as well,...
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2answers
280 views

Accelerated charges

I was reading about the cyclotron and how it acelerates charges. I just had this really dumb question. What would happen if I'm in the path of the accelerated charge? Say a proton accelerated to very ...
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2answers
421 views

LHC gamma radiation from proton-proton collisions

Online resources on radioactivity and gamma radiation at the LHC are primarily concerned with leaking protons, ones that escape the beam and hit various parts of the accelerator complex. Those protons ...
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1answer
34 views

Strenght of magnetic field of moving charged particles be multiplied by n? [closed]

If two moving charged particles moving in the same direction with constant velocity and zero acceleration in a uniform magnetic field,will the Magnetic strength of the total system be equal to the sum ...
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2answers
491 views

Trajectory of charged particle in a solenoid lens

I was reading about how a Cathode ray tube works, and stumbled upon the term "focusing coil(s)". After a bit of reading I have deduced that this might be a focusing solenoid or solenoid lens. The ...
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1answer
77 views

How to produce antiquarks?

I've read a few books and articles about particle physics, accelerators and colliders, but I still don't understand how the quarks in the protons 'turn' into antiquarks. I know the protons are sent ...
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0answers
108 views

Get distribution function equation from single particle equation

Suppose we have a large set of particles, and we know, that some parameter $x$ of each particle satisfies the following equation: $\dfrac{dx_i}{dt}=f(x_i)$. Our set of particles can be described ...
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2answers
257 views

How circular motion applied to Large hadron collider?

$F = mv^2/r$ compared to $F=qBv$ how this two connected to each other
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0answers
68 views

What is the update on the ILC (International Linear Collider)? [closed]

Has the project been cancelled? There have been no further talk on the topic for a while.
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2answers
105 views

How do accelerated ions with remaining electrons in the shell produce synchrotron radiation?

Since ions are charged, they should produce synchrotron radiation in an accelerator. I am interested the characteristics of the emitted radiation when there are still electrons in the ion's shell (not ...
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2answers
147 views

Did people ever thought of accelerating neutrons?

It is shamefully charge-free. But presumably, if we can tune its velocity, a lot of interesting things can be done, right? So, was there any proposal for obtaining high velocity neutrons?
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2answers
251 views

Physical limits to number of particles per collider bunch

Currently, colliders work with around $\sim\!10^{11}$ particles per colliding bunch. Recently LHC has increased this number to $10^{13}$. I would like to know if there are, in principle, physical ...
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1answer
55 views

is there explicit eqution between radiation electromagnetic wave and accelerator a charge that has curve moving path?

i had a basis question i read a rule in electromagnetic when a charge is moving and it has accelerator it will emit electromagnetic wave. now i want to find a explicit equation that describe this rule ...