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A transition by which the energy of at least one photon is completely transferred to a material.

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What is the meaning of a Fourier Transform in an electric field $E(\omega,t)$?

There is this electric field in one dimension: $$ E(\omega,t) = E_0 \cos(\omega t) $$ It is reaching the surface of a semiconductor. The number of photons reaching the surface per unit of area is ...
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12 views

How linearly additive are the x-ray mass attenuation coefficients for molecules?

Having a look at https://www.nist.gov/pml/x-ray-mass-attenuation-coefficients, the introduction states: For compounds and mixtures, values for $μ/ρ$ can be obtained by simple additivity, i.e., ...
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how to calculate the absorption spectrum for a given element?

I made a spectrometer that gives the absorption spectrum, by comparing the before and after readings. There are lots of information on the emission spectrum of elements, but I need the absorption ...
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29 views

from a spectrometer, how to determine unknown substance in water?

I created a spectrometer that produces nice clean wavelengths, I calibrated it using a fluorescent bulb. from that I can create a graph from the data. after which, I use the known position to of ...
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1answer
29 views

How does silver affect transmission of energy in the visible and infrared part of the spectrum?

A common method to prevent radio frequency and microwave energy from going through windows is to apply a microscopic layer of silver to the surface of the glass, either by attaching a film coated with ...
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1answer
17 views

Cause and description of 'secondary' probability peaks in Above Threshold Ionization

While reading about above-threshold ionization, I found this graph on the wikipedia page about ATI: The $x$ axis represents the kinetic energy of the electron and the $y$ axis shows the ...
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42 views

given an AC field, how many photons are there?

Say you are applying a time varying potential across double quantum dots in the form of $V_{ac}$cos($2\pi f t$). We know that each photon has an energy $E_{photon}= hf$. Is it correct to say that ...
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2answers
54 views

White hotter than black

Black color substance is assumed to absorb all the light/radiation that falls on it. White color substance on the other hand, reflects all the radiation that falls on it. Since all the momentum of ...
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12 views

Solving the Radiative Transfer Equation for Different Materials (in the Visible Light Regime)

Using the radiative transfer equation $(\vec{w}\cdot\nabla)L(\vec{x},\vec{\omega}) = -(\sigma_{a}+\sigma_{s})L(\vec{x},\vec{\omega})+Q(\vec{x},\vec{\omega})+\sigma_{s} \int_{\Omega}L(\vec{x},\vec{\...
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65 views

Do objects reflect light of their own color based off constructive wave interference?

Note: Why objects reflect light of their color is already answered here: Physics of color: why do visible colors absorb all colors except the color itself? My question is whether my following theory ...
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0answers
26 views

What are some mechanisms that can lead to unexpected/anomalous spectral lines

I am studying fluorescent spectroscopy (laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy specifically). In a particular atomic spectrum, there are some unexpected lines not associated with any known ...
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8 views

Is there some literature where diffusing molecules have to encounter a reflecting boundary which is absorbing at some places?

I am familiar with the concept of diffusion with reflecting and absorbing boundary in 1D. My question is, is there a way by which we can write Green's equation for a boundary, in 2D, that is primarily ...
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2answers
48 views

Does photon absorption annihilate the associated EM wave instantly?

My Understanding A single photon has an associated electromagnetic wave. The wave is spread out in space, but the photon is considered a point particle. If the photon is absorbed, the entire wave ...
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0answers
31 views

Absorbing only a fraction of photon energy

Atoms have energy levels for its electrons. When there is a match between those and light photon energy, an electronic transition ocurrs. Question Why atoms can't absorb just part of a photon ...
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1answer
38 views

How do you calculate the recession velocity?

$$ \begin{alignat}{7} && \frac{\Delta \lambda}{\lambda} & = \frac{v}{c} \\[2.5px] &\therefore & v & \approx \frac{\Delta \lambda}{\lambda}c \end{alignat} $$ If you want to find ...
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47 views

What band of radio frequency is reflected or absorbed by human body?

We know that radio's or antennas doesn't transmit well when they are covered by a human body.I would like to know the specific frequencies human body blocks.
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403 views

Why walls are blocking infrared waves? If bricks absorbs only certain infrared frequency as shown in the infrared absorption spectroscopy graph below

link to the pdf I am told that infrared is reflected(blocked) by wall. my argument is,how can they reflect a photon if they don't absorb it.as you know infrared is absorbed by molecule which has same ...
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38 views

Optical conductivity: Does higher real part mean higher losses/absorption?

My question is with regards to the relationship between optical conductivity and optical permittivity. Since the imaginary part of optical permittivity signifies losses/absorption, the real part of ...
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1answer
39 views

The Attenuation of Light

I have this question: Show that the attenuation of light as it travels through the interstellar medium follows an exponential law My initial thoughts were to demonstrate the absorption of ...
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6answers
325 views

Hypothetically, if there was a substance that could absorb all visible light and reflected none, how would it appear to the human eye?

Would said substance just be perceived as a "hole" in our vision, if it was capable of absorbing 100% of all light? Also on a side note, would the absorption of all light instead of only visible ...
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0answers
55 views

Complex part of second-order susceptibility in nonlinear optics

In optics, the absorption of photons by a material can be described by considering the material's susceptibility. For linear absorption (involving a single photon), we think about the imaginary part ...
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1answer
21 views

Where can one find information about damping coefficients for electronic transitions in atoms?

I understand that the index of refraction for a given atomic species with number density $N$ near a single electronic transition associated with frequency $\omega_0$ given by $$ n(N,\omega)=1+\frac{...
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19 views

Two-photon absorption fluorescence of air

I'm wondering if there are any major constituents of air which are capable of undergoing two-photon absorption and ultimately fluorescing in the visible spectrum. The original wavelengths of the ...
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22 views

Is there an advantage in stacking scanning beams in the opposite directions in tomography?

For example in this hypothetical tomography chamber (beams on other planes in this chamber ommited in drawing). On the left emitters are only on one side and receivers on the opposite side. On the ...
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30 views

Average distance travelled before absorbtion 253 nm photon in air

At first I wanted to use term "Mean free path" in title but I know it means other kinds of interactions too,not just absorbtion.What I really mean is mean free path but only for absorbtion. For ...
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1answer
35 views

How to calculate photon absorbtion in gas

Imagine 1 cubic centimeter of ozone at atmosferic pressure,UV laser beam with 255 nm wavelenght,1 Watt power and square beam shape strikes the ozone cube,how much energy gets absorbed into ozone? ...
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36 views

Dielectric constants from refractive index and absorption spectra

I would like to calculate the dispersion relation (dielectric constants $\varepsilon'$ and $\varepsilon''$) from two spectra: refractive index $n$ and absorption (in %). I tried to use the relation $$\...
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2answers
76 views

Cosmic ray shielding for electronics on Earth

There are plenty of topics discussing cosmic ray shielding, but they all put emphasis on spacecraft shielding, where things like radiation and mass are a big problem. So I decided to ask a question ...
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1answer
96 views

Is infrared radiation more easily absorbed than visible light?

Some background: I am curious if infrared lamps used in hatcheries and bathroom fixtures offer any advantage over ordinary incandescent bulbs. A 40 watt bulb produces the same amount of energy, ...
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0answers
44 views

Photon Absorption and Emission of Fluorescein (calculate)

For the beta-carotene one can see that there are 22 free electrons and we can model its absorption and emission dua to the infinite potential well (particle in a box). Due to the pauli principle, we ...
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1answer
25 views

Measuring the heat absorbed by objects close to a radiator

I have a digital piano 12"/30cm to the side of a radiator (not in front of it). Radiator is 60°C as measured on an infrared (IR) thermometer, air temperature around the piano is 16-17C with the ...
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2answers
54 views

Why are some materials dull rather than shiny (cloth, coal, matte paint etc.)?

The converse of this question is perhaps "why are metals shiny". From what I understand, metals are covered by a sea of free electrons that oscillate in response to incident light/EM wave, and the ...
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47 views

Emission and Absorption in color

This may be a really simple question: If electrons only absorb specific wavelengths of light and then emit them and that’s how we see color, but what happens to the other wavelengths? Without them ...
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1answer
43 views

What happens when we supply heat to a collection of atoms?

When we heat a collection of atoms, we supply energy to the electrons of the atoms. When the energy equals the minimum energy required for the first transition of the electron the electron absorbs ...
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1answer
56 views

What happens in the case that the incident light on an atom has photons with insufficient energies to excite an electron?

When an atom of an element is irradiated with a monochromatic light, what will happen in the case that the frequency of the light does not match the frequency needed for any of the several possible ...
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1answer
148 views

Why light cannot pass through wall whereas Sound can? [duplicate]

I have read answers stating that light is not able to be transmitted through a wall whereas sound is easily transmitted due to difference in wavelength. But, why? I am looking for detailed and ...
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1answer
46 views

Are Emission and Absobtion spectrum EXACT photographic negative for Hydrogen Sample?

If both are exact photographic negative, then is it that the way an electron can dexcite (for eg.4$\to$1) in many ways like first 4$\to$3 and then 3$\to$1; absorbtion can too take place in ...
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1answer
105 views

How to convert RF absorption rate (SAR) values to electric field values?

I'm currently reading a bunch of journal articles that describe biological effects of electromagnetic fields. They often refer to the field in terms of specific absorption rate (SAR) values (W/kg). ...
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24 views

Temperature profile of the atmosphere due to absorption by a gas

I want to observe the temperature profile of the atmosphere due to absorption by a gas such as water vapor. I know that optical thickness changes as the density of the gas changes with altitude in the ...
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1answer
18 views

The best range to measure the differences between glass, can and plastic

First of all, i'm Computer science student, so maybe the question is simple for this forum so i'm apologize and hope that i will found help here I working on recycle bin which automatically ...
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1answer
70 views

How can we classically describe the formation of absorption spectra?

When dealing with the problem that femtosecond laser pulses interact with atoms, the semi-classical method is usually used: we describe the atom as quantized and describe the pulse classically. I ...
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0answers
6 views

Are changes in light aborption induced by changes in medium concentration multiplicative with light intensity?

I'm working in the area of near-infrared spectroscopy where we shine light through tissue and measure the attenuation at a detector nearby. The detector is actually placed on the same surface as the ...
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64 views

Reflection, emission and absorption of light

When you shine a light on an object, some of it gets reflected and the rest gets absorbed. $A + r = 1$ Where r is the amount of light reflected per sec in $1m^2$ and A is the amount of light absorbed ...
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2answers
280 views

Can light travel through solid substances such as wood?

Today as I was doing my science, I came across this statement: "In essence, then, the Special Theory of Relativity says that the speed of light is the ultimate speed limit because nothing can ...
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55 views

Over cooking of baking [closed]

Why does a black pan get hotter than a lighter pan in a dark oven? Everything I've read says that it is the visible light that causes the increased absorption of heat.
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1answer
33 views

How do we detect infinitely narrow emission / absorption lines within continuous electromagnetic spectra?

This always bothered me, especially in the case of absorption lines. for instance, if you have a blackbody emitting a continuous spectrum, and then a filter in front that only filters out one very ...
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0answers
36 views

How to calculate absorption coefficient from a tight-binding hamiltonian?

I have been using the empirical tight-binding method based on the Slater-Koster formulation to calculate the band structures for a bunch of materials. Now I want to obtain their absorption ...
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1answer
466 views

Why does the sun/moon appear red when there are fires?

Recently, in the United States, the moon and sun have become very deep red when they are near the horizon. The reason given for this is that there have been extensive wild fires in the Northwest. So, ...
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1answer
194 views

Bethe Bloch Plot

Why is the stopping power in Bethe Bloch-Plot shown against $\beta\gamma$ on the horizontal axis? Respectively what is the meaning of $\beta \gamma$?
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166 views

Electronic transitions in potassium

Potassium atoms in the electronic ground state absorb laser light at 769.9, 766.5, 404.7, 404.4, 344.7 and 344.6 nm. Obviously, these absorption lines exist because an electron is excited from the ...