Linked Questions

40
votes
5answers
10k views

Noether charge of local symmetries

If our Lagrangian is invariant under a local symmetry, then, by simply restricting our local symmetry to the case in which the transformation is constant over space-time, we obtain a global symmetry, ...
43
votes
3answers
10k views

How are classical optics phenomena explained in QED (Snell's law)?

How is the following classical optics phenomenon explained in quantum electrodynamics? Reflection and Refraction Are they simply due to photons being absorbed and re-emitted? How do we get to Snell'...
21
votes
5answers
5k views

Noether Theorem and Energy conservation in classical mechanics

I have a problem deriving the conservation of energy from time translation invariance. The invariance of the Lagrangian under infinitesimal time displacements $t \rightarrow t' = t + \epsilon$ can be ...
19
votes
2answers
4k views

Is there a kind of Noether's theorem for the Hamiltonian formalism?

The original Noether's theorem assumes a Lagrangian formulation. Is there a kind of Noether's theorem for the Hamiltonian formalism?
17
votes
1answer
3k views

On a trick to derive the Noether current

Suppose, in whatever dimension and theory, the action $S$ is invariant for a global symmetry with a continuous parameter $\epsilon$. The trick to get the Noether current consists in making the ...
14
votes
2answers
3k views

Constraints of relativistic point particle in Hamiltonian mechanics

I try to understand constructing of Hamiltonian mechanics with constraints. I decided to start with the simple case: free relativistic particle. I've constructed hamiltonian with constraint: $$S=-m\...
11
votes
1answer
2k views

Infinitesimal transformations for a relativistic particle

The action of a free relativistic particles can be given by $$S=\frac{1}{2}\int d\tau \left(e^{-1}(\tau)g_{\mu\nu}(X)X^\mu(\tau)X^\nu(\tau)-e(\tau)m^2\right).$$ If we then make an infinitesimal ...
4
votes
1answer
284 views

Constrained Hamiltonian systems: spin 1/2 particle

I am trying to apply the Constrained Hamiltonian Systems theory on relativistic particles. For what concerns the scalar particle there is no issue. Indeed, I have the action \begin{equation} S=-m\int ...
4
votes
1answer
176 views

Principled approach to arrive at geodesic Hamiltonian $H = g^{\mu \nu} p_\mu p_\nu$?

The background: If we have a spacetime path $x^\mu(t)$ parameterized by arbitrary parameter $t$, the proper time along the path between $t_1$ and $t_2$ is $$ \int_{t_1}^{t_2} (g_{\mu \nu} \dot x^\mu \...
5
votes
1answer
217 views

How to derive the Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the area of a minimal surface on a Riemannian manifold?

The action for a string in this background $$G_{IJ}\tag{1}$$ can be written as the Nambu-Goto action $$S_{NG}=\int d\sigma^1d\sigma^2\sqrt{g}\quad\quad\Rightarrow\quad\mathcal{L}=\sqrt{g}\tag{2}$$ ...
0
votes
2answers
149 views

Why is the Hamiltonian of a photon = 0?

I'm studying the motion of light near Schwarzschild black holes, and I was wondering why the Hamiltonian of the Schwarzschild metric $$H = - \left( 1-\frac{2M}{r} \right)^{-1} \frac{p_{t}^2}{2}+\left(...
2
votes
1answer
134 views

What is the reasoning that leads one to postulate this second form for the relativistic particle action?

The action for the free relativistic particle with worldline $\gamma : I\subset \mathbb{R}\to M$ is $$S[\gamma]=-m\int d\lambda\sqrt{-\dot{\gamma}^a(\lambda)\dot{\gamma}_a(\lambda)}\tag{1} $$ Now, ...
0
votes
1answer
171 views

Why Hamiltonian of gravity is zero?

In paper Topological Gravity as the Early Phase of Our Universe there's statement: Hamiltonian of gravity would vanish by time reparameterization invariance. How to derive such result?
1
vote
1answer
93 views

Why does the Hamiltonian of a Lagrangian that consists of only a coupled term become zero?

Let's say our Lagrangian looks something like this: $$L = \int dz\, Q\cdot \dot{A},\tag{1}$$ where $Q$ and $A$ are two generalized coordinates and $\dot{Q}$ and $\dot{A}$ would be the respective ...
4
votes
1answer
93 views

Hamilton-Jacobi-Einstein equation

I have been looking at the Hamiltonian formalism of GR for some time and recently stumbled across the Hamilton-Jacobi-Einstein equation: $$\frac{1}{\sqrt{g}} (\frac{1}{2}g_{pq}g_{rs} - g_{pr}g_{qs}) \...

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