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What I think is : The protons are present at the centre of the atom with rotating electrons around it so when it is rubbed by fur the electrons get passed from the ebonite rod to the fur leaving the rod negatively charged. But in reality the rod is negatively charged Why ?

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When you rub fur with ebonite rod, the chemical bond is formed between some parts of the the two surface. Rod has its electron more tightly bound than fur. So, fur donates electrons to the rod while electrons from rod won't come out. Due to excess of electrons in rod, it becomes negatively charged while the fur with lost electrons, becomes deficient of electrons. Thus, fur becomes positively charged.
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When an ebonite rod is rubbed with fur the rod gets negatively charged because the friction between the fur and the rod makes the ebonite rod to gain electron from the fur. This is because, electrons in fur are less tightly bound than the electrons in the ebonite rod .

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the rod is neutral so it gains electrons from the fur to become negatively charged thus making the fur positively charged. loss of electron =+ve gain of electron= -ve

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    $\begingroup$ This re-states the fact that the OP has acknowledged, but doesn't explain it. $\endgroup$ – dmckee --- ex-moderator kitten Mar 30 '14 at 15:28

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