I am not a expert on physics, just another high schooler, so sorry if the question is obvious.
This is something I've been wondering about for a while. Why is the charge on a proton equal but opposite to the charge on the electron? A proton is much larger than a electron, and apparently a lot more heavier too. Why, then, is it's charge equal to that on a electron? Just what is charge, and what defines it? What factors decide the charge on a particle?
Also while we're at it, why does the atom in it's default configuration have the same number of protons and electrons? Edit: To expand on this a bit, from what I know the attraction weakens as distance increases. So if theoretically a huge amount of protons were to be somehow brought together despite the repulsions constantly increasing, would a atom with a extremely high atomic number defy the proton = electron rule?
Note: This is not a duplicate. I read through the Phys.SE post Why do electron and proton have the same but opposite electric charge? but I did not find a satisfactory answer (Or even understand many of the professional terms :s)