Two Noether's theorems, arXive:physics/9807044 Roughly speaking, given a continuous (or approximately continuous - Taylor series) symmetry, there must be an associated conserved current (property). Given a conserved property, there must be a symmetry.
Homogeneous time - conserved mass-energy;
Homogeneous space - conserved linear momentum;
Isotropic space - conserved angular momentum;
Note that parity is absolutely discontinuous and is therefore outside Noether's grasp.
$U(1)$ gauge transformation - electric charge;
$U(1)$ gauge transformation - lepton generation number;
$U(1)$ gauge transformation - hypercharge;
$U(1)_Y$ gauge transformation - weak hypercharge;
$U(2)$ [not $U(1)\times SU(2)$] - electroweak force;
$SU(2)$ gauge transformation - isospin;
$SU(2)_L$ gauge transformation - weak isospin;
$P\times SU(2)$ - G-parity;
$SU(3)$ "winding number" - baryon number;
$SU(3)$ gauge transformation - quark color;
$SU(3)$ (approximate) - quark flavor;
$SU(2)\times SU(3)$ $\left[U(1)\times SU(2)\times SU(3)\right]$ - Standard Model.
A conserved quantity derives from each symmetry commuting with time, and the reverse. A divergence-free current (conserved property) arises if the Lagrangian or the action is invariant under continuous transformation. To each continuous symmetry of an action there corresponds a conserved quantity because of the Euler-Lagrange equations of the Lagrangian, and the reverse. To each gauge symmetry of an action there corresponds an identity among Euler-Lagrange equations of the Lagrangian, and the reverse.
A physical system with a Lagrangian invariant with respect to the symmetry transformations of a Lie group has, in the case of a group with a finite (or countably infinite) number of independent infinitesimal generators, a conservation law for each such generator, and certain "dependencies" in the case of a larger infinite number of generators (General Relativity and the Bianchi identities). The reverse is true.
A symmetry can be broken explicitly - a term in the action or equations of motion may not be invariant. A symmetry can be broken anomalously - not all classical theory symmetries exist in the corresponding quantum theory. Quantum field theory anomaly spoils renormalizability. Anomaly absence in the Standard Model is crucial. A symmetry can be broken spontaneously if it is an exact symmetry of the equations of motion but not of a particular solution therein. Noether's theorem holds if the symmetry is not broken explicitly. Conservations can be relaxed in subsystems displaying reduced symmetry (Born scattering approximation, Fermi's golden rule, Snell's law).
General Relativity does not have Newtonian conservation laws.