As DWin points out in his comment, the angle you look from is crucial. To see any "-bow" (rainbow, fogbow, cloudbow, etc.), you will generally need the sun to be at your back.
The sun (or other significant light source) needs to be at your back because rainbows are caused by sunlight refracting through tiny spherical water droplets, reflecting off the back of the water droplets, and finally returning through the front of the droplets to be received by your eye. Once the light has exited its droplet, different wavelengths will be dispersed at different angles (like what happens when light passes through a prism). As a result, you will see different hues emitted by different portions of the mist because different ranges of the visible spectrum will reach you from droplets at different positions in the mist. Droplets at the same distance from you will produce the same color of light to your eye - that is why rainbows are circular or semicircular. Furthermore, rainbows will move along with you as you move because of the parallax effect of the sun.
This webpage does a pretty good job of explaining it.
So, to answer your question directly: to see a cloudbow, you need to be situated between the sun and the clouds with the clouds at just the right angle (otherwise, the optical phenomena will miss your eyes entirely). Achieving this with rain or fog (or in a plane) is not that difficult since much of your field of view is taken up by the water vapor. Consequently, the relative positions of the sun, the clouds, and you don't need to be very finely tuned to cause you to see a 'bow. Achieving the same result with clouds is much harder because (a) they subtend a smaller solid angle (and therefore require more precise positioning) and (b) they usually do not present themselves as a broad curtain of water vapor (so you will only get bits and pieces of the bow, not the whole arch). Moreover, because of the height that clouds are above the ground, achieving the necessary angle between you and the sun while you are standing on the ground can be very challenging.