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In reading an article about theories as to how the slow retrograde rotation of Venus may have come into being, the article Why Venus Spins the Wrong Way (Franzen, 2001) stated that

it is bound to settle into one of four stable rotation states, two in either direction.

The 'direction', referring to the direction of rotation (retrograde or 'normal').

What are these four rotation states and what physical principles govern them?

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    $\begingroup$ The original article was nontrivial to find, since the summary you linked misspelled one of the author's names. $\endgroup$ – user10851 Dec 21 '13 at 18:27
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    $\begingroup$ ... and that original article is extraordinarily terse and dense - it looks like it will require at least half a dozen references just to figure out what their symbols mean. $\endgroup$ – user10851 Dec 21 '13 at 18:39
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    $\begingroup$ The original article is behind a paywall, but there are two follow-up papers that are freely available: this one and this one. There is also a website. $\endgroup$ – Pulsar Dec 21 '13 at 23:30

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