The Newton's law of universal gravitation is described in terms of a force, which is produced by an action at a distance. It also can be described using the concept of a field, and that would be an equivalent formulation.
Now, classical electrodynamics is formulated in terms of fields in a more complicated way that Newton's gravitation. My question is: Is there an equivalent formulation of classical electrodynamics in terms of action at a distance that is completely equivalent to the formulation in terms of fields (Maxwell's equations)? I would tempted to think that it is not possible, since in Maxwell's equations you may have electromagnetic waves without the presence of charges, and I don't know how to do it only in terms of forces. However, I'm not entirely sure, that's why I'm asking.