If we consider a thought experiment for determining position of an electron by using photons of light. According to principles of optics, if we use light of wavelength $\lambda$, then the position of electron cannot be located more accurately than + or - $\lambda$. The shorter the wavelength, the greater is the accuracy. Therefore, to observe the position of the electron accurately, light of approximately small wavelength should be used. But the photons of radiations of smaller wavelength will have higher momentum. When even a single photon of this light strikes against it, a large amount of momentum will be transferred to the electron at the time of collision. This will result into greater uncertainty in velocity or momentum.
On the other hand, in order to minimize the change in momentum we have to use light having photons with small values of momentum. This will require radiations of larger wavelengths (low momentum), the velocity or momentum will not change appreciably but we will not be able to measure the position accurately with larger wavelength. Therefore, uncertainty in position will increase. Thus, we cannot simultaneously measure the position and momentum of a small moving object like electron accurately. However, in case of macroscopic objects, the position and velocity of the objects can be determined accurately because in these cases, during the interaction between the object and the measuring device, the changes in position and velocity are negligible.
What I explained above is actually the Heisenberg's Uncertainty principle which states that
it is not possible to measure simultaneously both the position and momentum (or velocity) of a microscopic particle, with absolute accuracy.
According to Bohr, the electrons revolve around the nucleus in certain well defined circular orbits. But the idea of uncertainty in position and velocity is said to overrule the Bohr's idea of uncertainty picture of fixed circular orbits.
We may not be able to design an experiment (until now) to measure simultaneously both the position and momentum for the electron. But we cannot overrule Bohr's idea of fixed orbits because of this reason. Because, we may not know whether electrons are revolving in fixed orbits, if are able to locate electrons without using photons. Thus, this could not be the exact reason for overruling the idea of fixed orbit.
So, is there any reason for overruling the idea of fixed orbit? or is there any thing wrong in my opinion about the concept, if so please explain, so that I would not proceed with that wrong thinking?
- Is uncertainty principle a technical difficulty in measurement? (This is a very good question by gotaquestion, which discusses inability of knowing electron location without disturbing it, this link strengthens my last claim on the opposition of rejecting fixed orbit)