How exactly did Harrison's chronometer circumvent the impulse problem of time-keeping on a moving ship?

According to folklore, around the time of the exploration of the New World, there was a quandary regarding how to measure time on the open sea. Time keeping then was based on the pendulum clock, which was the same mechanism that the grandfather clock operated on. But if you physically took a grandfather clock onto a ship, the pitch, roll, yaw, and heave of the ship would inject impulses into the pendulum, thereby contaminating the oscillator that is the mechanism of operation of all clocks.

How exactly did Harrison's chronometer circumvent this problem?

Based on this previous answer, it sounds like Harrison's clock worked like an anniversary clock, which operates on torque. But this doesn't sound correct, because anniversary clocks are very bad chronometers.

• Commented Jun 24 at 8:44
• This might be better suited to History of Science and Mathematics Commented Jun 24 at 8:47

Harrison came up with a number of clever designs. In one he made the clock's pendulum mechanism symmetrical about a plane running through its center (i.e., two penduli that were mirror-images of each other) to cancel the effects of perturbations. I believe he also experimented with gimbal mounts to eliminate roll and pitch effects.

In the end, his most successful designs were miniaturized to the point where the perturbation effects could be made relatively small. I do not know if he was the inventor of the spring-driven balance wheel, which essentially killed that problem dead.