Is it possible to measure the spin of a single electron? What papers have been published on answering this question? Would the measurement require a super sensitive SQUID, Superconductive Quantum Interference Device?
The spin of a single electron has been measured since the very first moment when the people understood that every electron possesses a spin. A Stern-Gerlach experiment - a magnetic field - is enough to measure the spin:
First you need to be assured of a source of single electrons. A good one is from spontaneous decay called conversion electrons. Then you set up a Stern Gerlach magnet setup. The problem is that one would need to cancel out the transverse Lorentz force, and this can be done with a transverse uniform electric field to cancel it out. Then use solid state electron detectors to see the deflected electron event counts.
The ion trap experiments by Hans Dehmelt might be of interest. Though the scientific focus was the precision measurement of the g factor, you can't get far with that without first knowing that your trapped electron has spin 1/2 - or if you don't know that, you'll find out pretty quick when theory doesn't match experiment even to first order.
You might find this a good read: Stern-Gerlach experiments: past, present, and future Jean-Francois Van Huele and Jared Stenson - link to PDF is at http://www.physics.byu.edu/Research/theory/paps.aspx
I was browsing old questions and noticed this one. I think I ought to take issue with the idea you can measure the spin of a single electron. Suppose I prepare an electron in a definite spin state and send it into another room; I don't think there is any way someone else can tell what state I prepared the electron in. Putting it through a Stern Gerlach apparatus certainly won't do. Isn't saying that you can measure the spin of an electron the same as saying you can measure its position and momentum simultaneously?
EDIT: I notice DarenW referes to a paper by Stenson, and it turns out I stumbled on a related paper on my own and it made a big impression on me. The paper I found is actually Stenson's master's thesis, which I will find a link to once I finish this post, and I will post it in the comment field of Daren's answer. As for my own analysis of Stenson's paper, it spans a number of blogposts beginning here. The conclusion is fascinating: if you put a beam of silver atoms through a Stern Gerlach apparatus, it doesn't split into two paths: it spreads out into a donut! I've sketched the deposition pattern for a polarized beam here, and you can read the analysis on my blog.