Your "sizes" sequence as one goes to smaller and smaller particles stops at the elementary particle table of the Standard Model.
The Standard Model of elementary particles, with the three generations of matter, gauge bosons in the fourth column and the Higgs boson in the fifth.
Here is a plot that gives sizes of particles which are composed out of atoms and molecules.
Atomic radii are of the order of nanometers, different for different elements
Proton and neutron radii are of the order of a fermi (10^-15 meters).
And there we stop.
The elementary particles in the table are point particles as far as the theory which describes with great success the data hypothesizes. The experimental limits are continually being pushed, at the moment they are at 10^-^22 meters for the electron, which is the easiest of the elementary particles to experiment with.
The sizes of the non-elementary particles are due to their compositeness, they are made up of other particles. At the present moment, though composite theories for elementary particles have been and are being proposed, no experimental evidence exists for this. The sequence stops with the elementary particles.
So yes, one could make a sequence, but the stepping is erratic dependent on the many different interactions and groupings that are possible within the particles being organized in size.