Is any percentage of the regular solar wind charged ions able to penetrate the earth atmosphere? if so, can it be detected or measured on the surface of earth at sea level?
Yes. Some of particles follow the van Allen belts and create these:
I am not 100% sure, but I do not believe that solar wind particles reach the surface of earth, and if they do they are probably indistinguishable from other earth-made particles. In order to really study the solar wind, we had to go into space with our instruments.
Not of solar origin, but cosmic rays do reach the earth's surface, and computer equipment is engineered with this in mind.