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From my understanding, further evidence for the structures of molecules can be obtained from single crystal X-ray crystallography which involved irradiating a crystal with X-rays and looking at the positions and intensities of the diffracted beams. It gives a 3D picture of the molecule with bond lengths and angles. But does X-ray spectroscopy exist and if so how is it different?

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    $\begingroup$ Do a search for “XRF” or “x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy”. Commercial instruments are available. $\endgroup$
    – Ed V
    Nov 14, 2023 at 12:28
  • $\begingroup$ thanks @EdV will do $\endgroup$
    – Don Aborah
    Nov 14, 2023 at 12:32
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    $\begingroup$ The use of incident x-rays, electrons, or other charged particles (primarily protons or alphas in my experience) to induce atoms to emit characteristic x-rays is quite common in materials characterization. $\endgroup$
    – Jon Custer
    Nov 14, 2023 at 13:13

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In x-ray crystallography, the x-ray spectrum is known. The objective is to determine the crystal structure.

A crystal spectrometer for x-rays inverts this: a crystal whose structure is known is used to determine the spectrum. But there are also grating spectrometers for x-rays, and nondispersive spectrometers that measure the energy each photon deposits in a detector rather than dispersing the radiation by wavelength.

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