i'm a bit confused about the origin of the mass of the proton (or other hadrons). It is said that it stems from the renormalization of the current quarks, which have about 1/100 of the mass of the constituent quarks. This means that the naked quarks have a mass of about 3.5 MeV.

Now renormalization is the procedure that makes an infinite mass finite, which is contrary to what happens with the quarks in the proton.

The mass of the proton is about 938 MeV, which means that there is a negative binding energy of 938-1050=-122 MeV.

If the quarks move at a relativistic speed then this will give rise to a significant increase in their mass, and thus an increase in the proton mass.

So, what part of the 350 MeV is caused by a special relativistic effect, and what part is caused by dressing up the naked quarks (coupling of the quarks to virtual gluons), and why should that last result in an increase of the mass, while normally renormalization of mass reduces the mass? Isn't the mass of the current quarks already renormalized? Or is the naked mass not necessarily infinite?

Now, in QFT, the masses of the quarks and leptons are zero, and they gain mass by interacting with the scalar Higgs field. So the small mass of the quarks is due to this interaction. But what does it mean then to renormalize the mass so it doesn"t have an infinite value? Isn't the naked quark mass already a "normal" mass?



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