Does glass undergo internal damage in a similar way to wood when struck hard, even if it doesn't visibly break, and is this damage accumulated gradually over time, or does it occur as a binary response, unlike wood.
No, wood and glass fail in completely different ways.
Wood is a composite structure consisting of cellulose fibers held together with lignin glue. In wood, an impact force breaks the lignin loose from the cellulose and the cellulose fibers are then free to slip past one another without taking up any tension load. the tension loads then are felt by the lignin which cannot sustain them, and the piece of wood slowly and gradually comes apart under load.
Glass is a classically brittle substance which possesses no plastic deformation mechanisms at room temperature. An impact load cannot be distributed over a larger area through plastic deformation and is instead concentrated as a near-point load which locally exceeds the tensile strength of the glass, which initiates a series of cracks which then travel through the part at about the speed of sound in the glass, which then explodes into a cloud of jagged fragments.