It is all about the sideways speed of the object.
The ISS and also your baseball is falling towards Earth constantly. If you just let go of the ball up there, then it will fall down and crash on the ground underneath.
Push it a bit sideways while letting go and it still crashes but a bit more to the side.
Push it even more, and it still crashes but this time far to the side.
Now push so hard that it reaches such a great sideways speed that although it still falls, it misses! It misses Earth entirely! It falls past Earth and is now flying away from earth on the other side. Earth's gravity slows it down until it eventually comes back again - and it will due to symmetry miss again, this time from the other side. It will repeat this forever. Your baseball is now tracing out an elliptic orbit.
Give it an even greater sideways speed, and the ellipsis widens. At some specific speed, the ellipsis becomes just as wide as it is tall - you now have circular orbit. The distance to the ground is now constant, the same at any moment.
Adjust your altitude, and you will be able to find a place where the sideways speed necessary for circular orbits perfectly matches the sideways speed of Earth's surface due to its rotation. Meaning, a place where the orbital period is 24 hours. Then you have what is called a geosynchronous orbit.
This might be the most peculiar of all orbits, because now your ball looks stationary when we look at it from the ground. It looks as though it is just hanging there in an invisible thread, just floating weightlessly. This is typically the positioning of satellites that must cover the globe in precise and sowewhat fixed patterns.
But in reality it is still falling. Every satellite and space station and astronaut and baseball in geosynchronous orbit, is still falling. Your rotational speed while standing on Earth's surface just happens to match this motion, so that the relative speed* seems to be zero. Only an object in deep outer space away from any gravitational field can truly be called weightless. Anywhere else it would be constantly falling.
Whenever you see astronauts in orbit free-floating, then they are actually not stationary. They just move (fall) at exactly the same speed* as the cameraman.
* To be precise, it is the rotational or angular relative speed that is zero, since it is the angular speeds of you and of the geosynchonous space object that are equal (you both sweep through the same angle per second, hence both covering 360 degrees per 24 hours). Your linear or translational speeds are still very different, since the space object farther away has a longer orbit to move through during those same 24 hours than you standing on Earth's surface farther down (closer to the circle centre).