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I am just studying thermodynamics for the first time and confused between these three terms Temperature is defined in terms of thermal equilibrium (from zeroth law of thermodynamics) and thermal equilibrium is defined in terms of heat(no net heat flow) and we defined heat in terms of temperature (heat is energy transfer due to temperature difference).Isn't this a circular definition. Can you please give authentic definitions of these three terms THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM ,TEMPERATURE and HEAT that is independent of each other and please mention the source for further reading.

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