In my textbook it is written that : The presence of a conducting loop is not necessary to have an induced electric field. As long as $\vec B$ keeps changing, the electric field is present. If a loop is there, the free electrons start drifting and consequently an induced current results. Does that mean that the induced electric field can be just anywhere ? How is it possibe ? Thank you for reading such a long question, thanks for even reading it.

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    $\begingroup$ see physics.stackexchange.com/questions/778085/… $\endgroup$
    – hyportnex
    Aug 30, 2023 at 11:07
  • $\begingroup$ @hyportnex, can you tell the answer because that question do not cover every question of mine. Please it is a humble request. $\endgroup$
    – user376280
    Aug 30, 2023 at 11:23
  • $\begingroup$ This phys.stack forum prefers one question per post, and you have several. It may or may not help you but answer was directed to one issue: how is the loop integral of the induced field related to flux rate. If that does not answer your questions/doubts then I suggest that you concentrate on one and ask it again by editing this post of yours. $\endgroup$
    – hyportnex
    Aug 30, 2023 at 11:47
  • $\begingroup$ Did that @hyportnex $\endgroup$
    – user376280
    Aug 30, 2023 at 11:50
  • $\begingroup$ Yes the induced field can be anywhere except where an electric field is not allowed to be at all, for example the inside of an ideal conductor having infinite conductivity. But the induced electric field can penetrate the inside of a real metal, think of eddy currents in a transformer. $\endgroup$
    – hyportnex
    Aug 30, 2023 at 12:21