Let me try to explain from another point of view.
If you look at a system as a whole, all the (outer) forces acting on that system will add to zero, otherwise the system will accelerate.
Now the tension on the rope is something internal to the ceiling/rope/mass system. To talk about such internal forces, we can (virtually) cut our system into two pieces at some convenient place. In our "tension" example, that could be somewhere along the rope, e.g. at point A.
At this cut, each part will exert some force on the other part. How to deal with that?
- We observed that the lower part does not fall down, it stays in place with zero acceleration. So we can conclude the sum of all forces on that part must be zero. One force is the weight force W of the mass doing downwards, and the only thing that can compensate this is some force at the cut that (probably) the upper part exerts on the lower part. This has to be equal to the weight force W, but directed upwards - otherwise it would accelerate instead of staying in place. So, somehow the molecules of the upper part of the rope pull on those of the lower part, with this force. (If they wouldn't, the weight force would win, and the mass would fall down.)
- As "actio = reactio", if some body X exerts a force F on another body Y, then also Y exerts a force of -F (same value, opposite direction) on X. So, as the upper part pulls on the lower part, then the lower part also pulls on the upper part, with opposite direction, now being a downward force.
Alternatively, we can place two cuts in the rope, and look at the "cutout" piece of rope. As it does not move, the downward-pulling force it receives from the lower end must equal the upward-pulling force from the upper end.
So, at whatever tiny length of rope we look, there are always two forces of equal value and opposite direction, one downward, coming from the lower end, and one upward, coming from the upper end, and that's what we call tension.
Or, we can place a cut directly above the mass and look at the mass. Again, the rope (the partner at our cut) must exert a force on the mass to keep it from falling, and vice versa, the mass exerts a force on the rope.
And in the situation from your image, it's close to impossible to reason about the system without making some specific cut, as most probably the ceiling is part of some building which stands on the earth. So the smallest candidate no-cut system would already include the whole globe, and no longer be useful to our question.
The picture you show us is correct in that it shows both force directions, but it does not make clear which part causes the force and which one receives it.
If I were to draw that image, I'd reverse the four arrows, so they are located at the part that receives the force. Then e.g. below A we'd see an upwards force, one that operates on the lower part at that point short below A.
This concept of placing virtual cuts into a system, and then reasoning about the forces at the cut points, is simple yet extremely powerful.