I've read other answers about how vinyl records reproduce sound, but they don't quite address a main thing I'm curious about.
Play Middle C on a piano or a Clarinet, its the same note that can be played at the same volume because the main note is the same. You can tell the instruments apart because there is a different timbre in the instruments due to the components of the other harmonics present in the sound that differ between the instruments. You can break this down using Fourier Analysis.
Part of the reason for these differences is the natural frequency of the materials involved. Strike metal with a small hammer, you typically get a higher pitched sound than if you strike a similar volume of wood.
A vinyl record has its own natural frequency, yet it can sound just like instruments neither of which sound like each other. Somehow the natural frequency of the vinyl doesn't matter. What's going on there?