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Boson particles have been predicted by some to have been able to form stars known as Boson Stars. I am curious as to how these stars could have formed given that Boson particles are not truly affected by gravity.

Also, given that Boson particles that have the same energy level can occupy the same space and move freely within other Boson particles, then how would the stars have been able to form from a structural perspective? If the Boson particles had an intrinsic gravitational pull, would it not be likely that the particles would simply all settle down to the same energy level and condense to occupy the volume of only one Boson particle?

To explain that better, it looks like that if the particles had gravity they would just form together in a very dense core. Bosons also have mass, so if enough of these particles would come together in a space the size of a Boson particle, would this not pass critical mass very quickly and form a black hole?

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    $\begingroup$ "boson particles are not truly affected by gravity" -- this is not true; everything gravitates. Experimental evidence of bosonic particles being affected by gravity includes gravitational lensing, where photon trajectories are bent in a gravitational field. $\endgroup$
    – Andrew
    Oct 26, 2022 at 16:48
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    $\begingroup$ Another example: Helium-4 (when fully ionized it is just alpha particles) is a boson.. and it feels gravity (you can liquefy it and see that it stays at the bottom of the container like any liquid). $\endgroup$
    – Quillo
    Oct 27, 2022 at 0:14
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    $\begingroup$ Boson particles are not truly affected by gravity. What did you read or watch that made you think this? $\endgroup$
    – Ghoster
    Oct 27, 2022 at 4:42
  • $\begingroup$ Bosons also have mass.. this isn't an accurate generalization since photons and gluons, both bosons, do not have mass. $\endgroup$
    – Triatticus
    Oct 27, 2022 at 6:35

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how these stars could have formed given that Boson particles are not truly affected by gravity.

In cosmology one has to use the algebra of four vectors, and every thing has a four vector that interacts with the general relativity gravitation.

Also, given that Boson particles that have the same energy level can occupy the same space and move freely within other Boson particles, then how would the stars have been able to form from a structural perspective? If the Boson particles had an intrinsic gravitational pull, would it not be likely that the particles would simply all settle down to the same energy level and condense to occupy the volume of only one Boson particle?

You are forgetting the quantum numbers tied up to any particle at the quantum level: from lepton number to baryon number to charge and more esoteric ones. Otherwise as suggested in the comments, Helium atoms would be falling on each other and there would be no Helium gas..

Bosons also have mass, so if enough of these particles would come together in a space the size of a Boson particle, would this not pass critical mass very quickly and form a black hole?

Given the conservation laws of quantum numbers this is an improbable scenario

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