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From my understanding batteries are used to charge electrons with electric potential which they then use to do work on resistors in a circuit. After doing work the electrons return to the opposite terminal with less potential energy, and the difference between the two potential energies is how batteries create voltage. If resistance is 0,meaning the electrons can't do work on the circuit, thus their potential energy remains the same, the battery wouldn't be able to create voltage. Wouldn't that mean that electrons would be unable to move from one pole to the other?

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No, in fact it would be quite the opposite. The current would be so high that all of the voltage would be dropped over the internal resistance of the battery. Thus the terminals would be at the same voltage even with the large current.

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